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. i 






J, J, McKnight 




The Five-Fool Shelf of Books 


i«:=*w^"- r. 


The Complete Poems 
of John Milton 

^hh \niroduciion and ^oies 
Nolume 4 

P. F, Collier & Son Corporation 


Bv P- F. Cqi-nER it Son 

MAY 27 J95g 



PoEM^ Wb-itten" at School a?^d at Collj-ge, 162^-16^2 

Ok the MoBNrNG of Chrt^t's Nativity ........ 7 

A Pahaphb^^e on Psalm CXIV , , 15 

Psalm CXXXVl 15 

On TEiE De.^th ov a Faik IsTA>^r Dvi\g ov a Cough . . i ^ 
At a Vacation Exercise it* the College, Part Latin^ Part 

English .....>,.,.>., .26 

The Pass]o.\ . . . ^ ^- i w . ^ . , , 23 

On Shakespeaee ................ 25 

On the Umversitv Careier a6 

Another on the Same ,..,.......*.. 2(j 

An Epitaph on the Marcjiioness oj- WiNCHEiTEit . , . . ^ 
On His Being ARHiVip to tiih Ace of Tw'E\TV'Tni4t.E ,,.29 

Poems Written at Hohton, 1631-163B 

L'Alle£!Go 30 

Jl Penseroso - 34 

Sonnet to the KrouTiNCALE 38 

Song on May Muhning .,.,...,,...,. 35 

On Time 39 

At .\ Solemn Music , ,...-,... 40 

Upon tjiz CiRCt^TCiiiON -.-.,---...... 40 

Arcades .-..,- , . - , - 41 

CoMi;5, A ^Iasi;. . ,*.,,..,... 44 

Lycida5 , . . , 72 

Poems Wbittes Durjng the Civil Wah and the PkOTi;cT0R,iTE* 
1642- 1 65S 

When the Ass^lult Was Intended to the Citv ...... 78 

To A Virtuous Young Lady - 78 

To the Lady Marg^met Lev . 7^ 

On the Dethaotion ^vhicii Followed upon my Wbtting 

Certain Treatises , 79 

On the Same 80 

Ok the New Forcers ov Conscience L■^^DEft the Long Par- 
liament Bo 




To Mr- H. Lawes on His Airs , .... Si 

Os THE RtLiGHtJUh Memory ov Mpii. Catheritje Thomson, mv 

Christian Friend, D6(;E.^itD Dec- i6, 1646 ..-,.. Si 

On the Lord General Faipfax at the Siege of Colchester . K2 
To THE Lord Genehal Cromwell* on the Propo^al^ o? Cer- 
tain Ministers at the Commattee tor the pRor-AOATiON of 

THE Gospel ... - Ra 

To Sib Henkv Vane TUE YoLSfjEk -..,.-...- 83 

On the Late Massacre in Fiemont .....-.-.. 85 

On His Blindness 84 

To Mb. Lawrence ,-,...,- S4 

To CvBiACK Skinner ,,...,,,.,.-.,,, K5 

To THE Same . . . . . .,.•*.»;-....■-?. - 3^ 

On His Deceased Wii-e ,..-,..-.-- i - . 86 

Paradise Lc5T, i%3-i(J63 

The FmiT Book . , ' S7 

The Second Book i i . , . 108 

The Third Book 135 

The Fourth Book ........... ^ .. ^ . 354 

The FiFTH Book . . - . . jdo 

The Sixth Book ...,-.. 204. 

The Seventh Book 227 

The Eighth Book .,-.-.,..,...... 243 

The Ninth Book ...... i ........ . 2C0 

The Tenth Book ........ ^ ...... . 290 

The Eleventh Book ............... 319 

The TwELETfi Book .. , - , . , ., , . , . , , . ,341 

Paradise Regained, 1665-1(167 

The First Book 359 

The Second Book 371 

The Thied Book ^ . . 384 

The Fourth Book . . 395 

Milton's Introduction to S^m^on Aconistes . 412 

Samson AcoNJiTESj x667'i:67i ....,,.,. 414 


Amosg English men of ftucrs [here is none whose life and work stanJ 
in more iniimaLe rdaicon wich the history of hi5 times ihan those o£ 
Milton. Not only was he ior a long period immersed in political contro- 
versy and public bu:jines-'>j but there are few of his imporiant works which 
da not become more significant in the light of contemporary events, and 
in turn help [he undcjfsianding of these evcnss themselves. It is evidence 
of ihis intimate relation, that the periods Into which his life naturally 
falk coincide with the periods into which English history in the seven- 
teenth century divides itself^ The first of these extends from Milton's 
birth to his return from Italy, and corresponds with Ehat period in the 
rt^igni of James I and Charles 1 during which the religious and poLtical 
differences which culminated in the Civil War were working up to a 
climax. The second ends with his retirement inco private life, in 1660, 
and coincides with ihe period of the Civil War and the Commonweal ch^ 
The ihird closes with his dea[h in 1674, and falls wiEhin the period of 
the Restoration- 

lohn Milton was born in Bread Street, London^ on the ninth of De- 
cember^ 160K. He was the son of John Milton, a prosperous scrivener 
(i. e.^ attorney and law-stationer), a man of good family and considerable 
culture, especially devoted to music. In the education of the future poet 
the elder Milton was exceptionally generous* From childhood he destined 
him for the Church, and the preparation bc^un at home was continued 
at St- Paul's School and at Cambridge^ We have abundant evidence 
that the boy was from the first a quick and dihgcnt student^ and the 
late study to which he was addicted from childhood was the beginning 
of that injury to his eyes which ended in blindness^ He entered Chrtst^s 
Coflege, Cambridge, in i625> took the degree of B. A, in 1629, and that 
of M* A- in 16^2^ when he left the University after seven years^ residence^ 
But the development of affairs in the English Church had over[Urned his 
plans, and the interference of Laud with freedom of thought and preach- 
ing among the clergy led Milton ^*to prefer a blameless silence before 
the sacred office of speaking bought wtth servitude and foiswearingH'* 
So he retired to his father's house at Horlon in Buckinghamshire, and 
devoted the next six years to quiet study and the composition of a few 

In 3633 Milton set out on a pi^rney to Italy* After some days in Pari?, 
he passed on by way of Nice to Genoaj Leghorn, Pisa, and Florence, in 



which last city ht spent about two months in the society of wits and men 
of letters. After two months more spent in Rome^ he visited Naples, and 
had intended to cross to Sicily and go thence to Greece, when rumors 
of civil war in England led him to turn ht5 face homeward^ "inasmuchj" 
lie saySj '*as I thought it base to be traveling at my ease for intellectual 
culture while my countrymen at home were fighting for liberty," His 
writings produced iibroad were ^11 in Italian or L^cin, and seem Eo have 
brought him considerable distinction among the Italian men of Letters 
whom he met. 

Yet Mikon did not plunge rashly into the political conflict- After he 
returned from the Continent^ the household at Horton w:i5 brok^^n up^ 
and he went lo London to resume his studies, and decide on the form and 
subject of his yreat pc)em- Pan of his lime was occupietl in teaching his 
two nephewSp and afterward he took under his care a small number of 
youlhsj sons of his friends. In 16^3 he married Mary Powellp the daugh- 
ter of an Oxfordshire Roynlist- In about a month she left him and 
remained away for two years^ at (he end of which lime she sought and 
obtained a reconciliation. She died in J653 or 1654^ leaving him three 
liitle dau^luei5. 

The main occupalion of his first years In London was controversy. 
Liberty was Mikon 's deepest passion^ and in liberty wt^ sum up the theme 
of his prose writings. There are ''three species of Hbcny,'* he says, "which 
are essential to [he happiness of social life — relijjious, domestic^ and civil/* 
and for all three he fought. Mis most important prose works mav, indeed, 
be roughly classed under these heads: under leligious, his pamphlets 
against Episcopacy; under domestic^ his worki on Education, Divorce, 
and the Freedom of [he Press; under civil, his controversial writings on 
the overthrow of the monarchv- In all of ihese he strove for freedom and 


toleration; and when England became a Republic, he became officially 
associated with ihe new government as Secretary of Foreign Tongues, in 
whtch capacity he not only conducted its foreign correspondence, but also 
acted as its literary adviser and champion in the controversies by pam- 
phlet that arose in connection with the execution of the King and the 
[heory ol the Commonwealth. It was in the midst of these activiiics that 
a great calamity overtook him- The defence of the laie King had been 
undertaken bv the famous Dutch LatinisE Salmaslus in a "Defensio 
Kegis" and to Mikon fell the task of replying to it. His eyesight, weak- 
ened even in childhoot! by oversiudy, was now failing fast^ an<.3 he was 
warned by physicians that lc would go aUo^iher if he persisted in this 
work- But to Milton the hglit he E^ad entered on was no mere matter of 


professional employment as it was to Kis opponenEp and he <!eli!)erately 
sacrificed whui remained to him o£ light in the service of the cause to 
which he was devoicd. The rt^pty was a most effi^cdve one^ but i: left 
Milton hopelessly blind- With the aid of an assistant, however^ he 
retained his otHcc through ihe Protectorate of CromwcUj until ihc eve of 
the Resiofation. 

Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard succeeded him for a 
short lime, and in 1660 Charles If was resiored lo the throne^ To the 
last Milton fought wiUi tremendous earnestnt^ss against this catastrophe, 
For, to him, it was indeed a catasirophe. The return of the Stuarts meant 
to him not only great personal danger, but, what was j^ar more impor- 
tantj it meant ilxe overthrow of all that he had for twenty years spent 
himself [O uphold. It meant the setting up in government^ in religion^ 
and In society, of ideals and insdtuiions thai he could not but regard 
as the extreme of reaction and national degradation. Almost by a 
miracle he escaped personal violence, but he was of necessity Eorceil into 
obscure retirement; and there, reduced in forlune^ blind, and broken- 
hearted^ he devoted hinr^clt ro die producdon of "Paradise Lost'' and 
^Taradise Regained." The great schemes which in his early manhood 
he had planned and dreamed over had for years been E^id aside; but now 
at last he had a mournful leisurcj and wish magnificent fortitude he 
availed himself of die opportunity^ 

"Paradise Lost'' had been begun even before ihe King's resurn; in 
1665 it was hni^hedi and in i&^y the first edision appeared. "'Paradise 
Regained" and ''Samson Agonistcs" were published in i6ji. 

In 1657 Milton's second wife, CathE^rtne Woodcock, had died. For 
about seven ^ears afteis he livi^d aione whh his three daughtersj whom he 
trained to read to him not merely in English^ but in Latin, Greeks Italian^ 
French, Spanish, and Hebrew, though they did not understand a word 
of what they read, What little we know of their relations to their f:iEhtr 
is not pleasant. They seem to have been rcbelhous and unducifu]^ though 
doubtless there was much provocation. In 1663 Milton took a third wife, 
Elizabeth Minshull, who did much to give case and comfort eo his last 
years^ and who long survived him. 

The retiremoni in which he lived during dus third period^ when public 
affairs seemed lo him to have gone all wrongs was not absolutely solitary. 
The harshness that appears in his controversial writings^ and the some- 
what unsympaihedc austerity that seems to be indicated by his relations 
with his first wife and his children, are to be counterbalanced in our 
minds by the impression of companionableness that we derive from the 


picture of the old blind poet, sought out by many who not merely 
admired hia greatne^Sj bui found pleasure in his society, and counted it a 
privilege to talk with him and read to him. Stern and sad he could 
h^irdlv fail to be, bui his old agt was peaceful and not bitter- He died 
on NovtjTiber S, 1674^ and was buried in the Church of Si. Giles, Cripple- 
jjatc, London* 

In spiEe of Millon^s association with the Puritan party in tho political 
struggles of his timCj the connnon habit of referring to him as "ch*^ 
Punuin Poet'* is seriously misleading* The Puritans ot ihe generation 
of Milton's father were indeed often men of culture and love of the arts, 
bui the Puriians oi the Civil War, the Puritans whom we think of to-day 
in our ordinary use of ihe term^ were, in general^ men who had not 
only no interest in art^ but who regarded beauty itself as a temptation of 
the evil one. Even a slii;ht study of MlUon's works will convince the 
reader that to this class Mikon could never have belonged. Side by side 
with his love of liberty and his enthusiasm for moral purtiy — qualities 
in which even then the Puritans had uo monopoly — Milton was passion- 
ately devoled to beauty; and ihe reason why his work survives to-day 
is not because part of it expresses Lhe Puritan theology, but because of rt5 
ariistic qualities — alxive all because it is at once more fauhlcss and more 
nobly sustained in music than ihat of any other English poet. 





(1G29) - 


THrS is ihe monih, anj ihis the happy mornj 
Whtrcin ihe Son ot Hcavcn^s ctcrniil King, 
Of wedded maid and Virgin Mother born, 
Our great redemption from above did brin^;; 
For so [he holy sages once did sing, 

Thai he our deadly forfeit should release, 
And with his Faiher work us a peipetual peace. 


Tliai glorious Form, that Light unsufferablc, 
And that far-beaming blaze of majesty, 
VVhtrewiih he wont at Heaven's high council-table 
To sii ihe midst of Trinal Unity, 
Ho laid aside, and, here with us to be, 

Forsook the Courts of everlasting Day, 
And chose with us a darksome house of mortal clay. 

Say, Heavenly Muse, shall not thy sacred vein 
Aflord a present to [he Infant God? 
Hasi thou no verse* no hymn, or solemn strain. 
To welcome him to this his new alwde, 
Now while the heaven, by the Sun's team untrod. 
Hath took no print of the approaching light, 
And all the spangled host keep watch in squadrons 




See how from far upon the Eastern road 
The siar-led Wizards hasie wilh odouis sweet! 
Ohi run; prevent them with thy hunihle ode. 
And iay It lowly at his blessed feet; 
Have thou the honour hric :hy Lord to greet, 

And join thy voice unto the Angei Quire, 
From out his secret altar touched wilh hittiowed [ire. 

The Hvmn 


It W31 the winter wild, 
While [he hL?aven-born child 
All meanly wrapt in the rude manger Uesj 
Nature, in awe to him» 
Had doffed her gaudy trim» 
With her great Ma&tci' so to sympathize: 
It was no season then for her 
To wanLon with ihe Sun, her lusty Paramour. 


Only with speeches fair 
She woos the genUe air 
To hide her j-uiity front with innocent siiow^ 
And on her naked shame, 
Pollute with sinful blame. 
The saintly veil of maiden white to throw; 
Confounded, thst her Milker's eyes 
Should look so near upon her foul deforraiiies. 


But he, her fears to cease, 
Sent down the meek-eyed Peace: 
She, crowned with olive green, came softly shding 
Down through the lurning sphere, 
His ready Harbinger, 
With turtle wing the amoious clouds dividing; 
Andj waving wide her myrtle wand. 
She strikes a universal peace through sea and land. 



No war. or bsttafl's sound, 
Was heard ihe world around; 
The iJic i|>car and shield were high uphung; 
The hooked chariot stood, 
Unslaint'd with hostile blood; 
The irumpcE spake not to the armed throng; 
And Kings sat still with awful eye» 
As ii thty suroly knew their sovran Lord was by. 


But peaceful was the night 
Wherein the Prince ot Light 
IBs reign of pe«ice upon the earth began. 
The winds, with wonder whisl, 
SmooUily the waters kissed^ 
Whispering new pys to the m[ld Ocean^ 
Who now hath quite forgot to rave^ 
While birds of calm sit brooding on the charmed wave. 


The stars, with deep amaze, 
Stand fixed in steadfast gaze, 
Bending one way their precious influence, 
And will not take their flight, 
For all (he morning light, 
Or Lucifer ihai often warned them thence; 
But in their glimmering orbs did glow, 
Until their Lord himself hespake, and bid them go. 

And, though the shady gloom 
Had given day her room. 
The Sun himself withheld his wonted speed, 
And hid his head for shame. 
As his inferior flame 
The new-enlightened world no more should need; 
He saw a greater Sun appear 
Than his blight Throne or burning axleiree could bear- 



The Shepherds on chc lawn» 
Or cic Ehe point oi dawn, 
Sat simjily chatting in a ru^iic row; 
Full little thoughE they than 
That thp mighty Pan 
Was kindly come to live with [hem below: 
Perhaps their loves, or else their sheep, 
Was all that did their silly thoughts so bu^y keep. 


When such music sweet 
Their hearts and ears did greet 
As never was by mortal hnger airook. 
Divinely- warbled voice 
Answering the sirinj-M noise, 
As all theii soul? in blisstul rapture took: 
The air, such pleasure loth to lose, 
With thousand echoes still prolongs each heavenly close. 


Nature, that heard such sound 
Beneadi the hollow round 
Of Cynthia's seal ihc airy Ilegion thrilling. 
Now was almost won 
To think her part was done, 
And that her rergn had here its last fulfilling: 
She knew such harmony alone 
Could hold all Heaven and Earth in happier union. 

At last surrounds their sight 

A globe of circular light. 
That with long beams the shamefaced Night 

The helmed Cherubim 

And s worded Seraphim 
Are seen in glittering ranks with wings displayed, 


Hatpjny in loud and aoEcmn quire* 

With unexprc&sive Qot€5, to Heaven's newborn Heir. 


Such music (as 'tis said) 
Before was never made, 
But when oE old the Sons of Morning sung, 
Whik ihe Creator great 
His con^eMatlon? 5et, 
And the wcll-bjianced World on hinges hung. 
And cast ihe dark foundation? deep, 
And bid the uekcring waves their oo:iy channel keep- 


Ring out, ye crystal spheres! 
Once bks$ our human ears. 
It ye have power to touch our $cnsO£ so; 
'And let your silver chime 
Move in melodious rime; 
And let the bass o£ heaven's deep organ blow; 
And with your ninefold harmony 
Make up full consort to the angelic symphony, 


For, if such holy song 
Enwrap our fancy long, 
Time will run back and fetch the Age of Gold; 
And s]>eckled Vanity 
"Will sicken soon and die, 
And leprous Sin will melt from earihlv mould; 
And Hell itself will pass away. 
And leave her dolorous mansions to the peering dav- 

YeSf Truib and Justice then 
Will down return to men, 
The enamelled arras of the rainbow wearing; 
And Mercy set between. 
Throned in celestial sheen, 


With i^diant feet the lissue<l clouds do^vn steering; 
And Heaven, as at some fesiival. 
Will open wide the gates of her high pabcc-hall. 


But wisest Fate says No, 
Thi^ must not yet be so; 
The Babe lies yet in smiling infancy 
Thai oil the bitter cross 
Must redeem our loss. 
So both himself and us to glorify: 
Yet lirsi, to ihose ychaincd in sleep, 
The Avakeful trump of doom must Lhunder through the 


With such a horrid dang 
As on Mount Sinai rang, 
While the red fire and smouldering clouds outbrake: 
The aged Earth, aghast 
With terror of that blast, 
Shnll from the surface to the centre shake. 
When* at the world's la^t session, 
The drcadt'ul Judge in middle air shall spread his throne, 


And then at last our bliss 
Full and perfect is, 
But now begins; for from this happy day 
The Old Dragon under giound, 
In straiter limits bound, 
Not half so far casts his usurped sway, 
And, wroth to see his Kingdom fail, 
Swindges the scaly horror of his folded t^il. 


The Oracles are dumb; 
No voice or hideous hum 
Kuns through the arched roof in words deceiving. 


Apollo from hh shrine 
Can no more divine, 
Willi ho!]o\^' shriek tho steep of Dclphos leaving. 
No nig lid y tr;incCj or brctfllxtd sfx^ll. 
Inspire* iht palc-eycd Priest from tht prophetic clII. 


The lonely mountains o'er* 
And the resounding shore, 
A voice oE weeping heard and loud lamenUi 
From haimted i^pring* iini] dale 
'Edged with poplar pale* 
The partins; Genius is with sighing sent; 
Wi[h llowcr-in woven tresses torn 
The Nymphs in twilight shade of tangled thickets 


!n cohsccraied earth, 
And on the holy hearth* 
The Lars and Lemures moan with midnight plaint; 
In urns, and attars round, 
A drear and dying sound 
Affrights the Flamcns at their service quaint; . 
And the chill marble Stems to sweat, 
While each peculiar power furgoes his wonted seat. 


Peor and Baiilim 
Forsake their temples dim. 
With thai twice-battered god of Palestine; 
And mooned Ashiaroih, 
Heaven's Queen and Mother both. 
Now sits not girt with tapers' holy shine: 
The Libyc Hammon shrinks his horn; 
111 vain the Tyrian maids their wounded Thammoz 


And sullen Moloch, fled, 
Hath left in shadows dread 
His burning idol all of blackest Iiue^ 


Tn vain with cymbals* ring 

They call the grisly king, 
In dismal chnce aboui the furnace blue; 
The brinish gods ot Nik as fasi, 
Isis, and Orus, iind the dog Amibis, haste. 

Nor is Osiris seen 
In Memphian grove or green, 
Trampling the unshowtrcd grass with lowings 
Nor can lie be at rest 
Wiihin his sacred chest; 
Noughi: bui profoiin^lest Hell c^n be bis shroud; 
In vain. v.\ih (imbrekd anthems dark, 
The sablt'Si-oled Sorcerers bear his wofihipcd ark, 


He feels from Juda's land 
The dreaded infant's hand; 
The rays of Bedilchem bhnd his dusky eyn; 
Nor aU the gods beside 
Longer tlare abide, 
NoC Typhon huge ending in snaky twine: 
Our Babe, to show his Godhead true. 
Can in his swaddling bands coniro! the damji^d crew. 

So* when the Sun in bed, 
Curtained iviih cloudy red, 
Pillows his chin upon an orient wave, 
The (locking shadows pale 
Troop lo the infernal jail, 
Each fettered ghost slips to his several grave, 
And [be yellow-skirled Fays 

Fly after the night-steeds, leaving their moon-loved 


But see! the Virgin blest 
Haih laid Iict fSabe 10 r«t. 
Time 15 our tedious 'iong should here have ending: 
Hcitven's youn^esE-ECL'inyd star 
Haih fixed hi?r polished car. 
Her sleeping Lord with handmaid lamp attendinjjji 
And s\\ about ihe courEly stshh 
Bright-harnessed Angets sit in order serviceabk. 



When" the bEest seed of Terah's f:ii[hfu] Son 

Afier long loil ttiE^ir libcriy had u on. 

And passed from Ph^risin fields lo CanLi:in L^nd, 

Led by the sircngth of iho Almighiy's hand, 

Jehovah's wonders were in Israel shown> 

His praise and glory was in Israel known. 

That saw the troubled sea^ and shivering Bed, 

And sought to hide his froth-bee ur!td ht^ad 

Low In the earth; Jordan's clear streams recoil 

As a faini host thai hath received che biL 

The high huge-bellied mountains skip hke ranis 

Amongst theEr ewesp the little hills like lambs. 

Why fled the ocean:" and why skipped the tnouniains? 

Why turned Jordan toward his cryiilal iountalns? 

Shake, Earthj and at the presence be aghasE 

Of Htm ihnt ever was and aye shall last^ 

That glassy floods from rugged rocks can crush, 

And make soft rills from fiery flint-stojies gush. 


Let us with a gladsome mi nd 
Praise the Lord for he is kind; 

For his mercies aye endure, 

Ever faithful ever sure- 


Let us blaze hii Name abroad^ 
For of god^ he is ihc God; 
For his, &:c, 

O leu us his praises lell, 
That doih the wrathful tyrants quell; 
Foi hisj &c- 

That with his miracles doih make 
Ama^^d Heaven and Earlh to shaken 
For his, &c. 

That by his wisdom did create 
Tiie painted heavens so full of state; 
For his, &c. 

That did the solid Earth ordain 
To rise above ihe watery plain; 
For his, &!c. 

That by his all-commanding might, 
Did fill the new-made world with lights 
For his, &c- 

And caused the golden-tiesscd Sun 
All the day long his course to run; 
For his, &c. 

The horned Moon to shine by night 
Amongst her spangled sisters bright; 
For his, kc. 

He, wiih his ih under-clasping hand, 
Smote the first-born o( Egypt land; 
For his, £cc. 

And, in despite of Pharao fell, 
He brought (rotn thence his Israel; 
For hk. &e. 

The luddy waves he cleft in twain 
Of ihe Erythifean main; 
For his, &c. 


The flooifs stood stilT, like walls of glass. 
While the Hebrew Lfands did pass; 
For his, kc. 

But fuU soon ihey did devour 
The tawny King wiih all his power; 
For his, &c. 

His chosen people ho did blcSS 
In the wasteful Wilderness; 
For his, &c. 

In bloody ballail he brought down 
Kings of prowess and renown; 
For liiSi *iC. 

He foiled bold Seon and his host. 
That ruled the Amorrean coast; 
For his^ fiic. 

And large-limbed Og he did subdue. 
With all hts over-hardy crew; 
For his, &c. 

And to his servant Israel 
He gave their land, therein tO dwellj 
For his, &:c. 

He hath, with a piteous eye> 
Beheld us in our misery; 
For his, £tc. 

And freed us from the slavery 
Of the invading enemy; 
For his, &c. 

All living creatures he doth feed. 
And with full hand supplies their need; 
For his, Sic. 

Let us, therefore, warble forth 
His mighty majesty and worth; 
For hisj &c. 


Thai iiis mansion hath on high, 
Above the rt:3ch of mortal eye; 

For hi^ mercies aye mduie, 
Ever faiihfutj evur sure. 




O FAIREST Flower, no sooner blown but blasted, 
Soft silken Primrose fading limelessiy. 
Summer's chief honour, if thou hadst outlasted 
Bleak Wjnier^s force that made thy blossom dry; 
For he, being amorous on th^c lo^■cly dye 

That did thy cheek envermeil. diought to ki^s 
But killed, alas! and then bewailed hi5 fatal bliss. 

For since grim Aquilo, his charioier. 
By boisterous rape the Athenian damsel got, 
He thought it touched his Deiiy full near, 
If likewise he some fair one wedded not, 
Thereliy to wipe away ihe infamous blot 

Of long uncoupled bed and childless eld, 
Which, 'mongsi the wanton gods, a foul reproach 
wa$ held. 


So, mounting up in icy-pearlcd car, 
Throu>^li middle empire of the freezing air 
He wandered long, till thee he spied from far; 
There ended wa^ his quest, there ceased Ilia care: 
Down he descended from his snow-soft chair. 

But, all un'wares, with his cold-kind embrace, 
Unhouw^d thy virgin soul from her fail biding-place. 

Yet thou art not inglorious in thy fate; 
For so Apollo, with unweeiing hand^ 


Whilom Ju! ^Uy Kii Jciirly-loviid mnie^ 
Youiig Hj\ii:ini.h, born on Hurotas' sirand, 
Youug Hyfiiilnth, [ht pride of Sp^irian land; 

Bui [hen uaii-^formed him to a purpk flower; 
Alack^ that so Lo change thee Winter had no power! 


y^T can 1 not persuade me thou art dead. 

Or ihat ihy corse irorrupis in carih^s dark womb. 

Or that ihy beauties lie in wormy bed 

Hid from [he world in a low-delved tomb; 

Could Heaven^ for pity, ihtc so siriclly doomP 

Oh no! for someihinjj in thy lace did shine 
Ahovc mortality, that showed ihou wast di^j^e. 


Resolve me^ then, O Soul most surely bleSE 
(It sti be It that thou these plaints dost hear) 
Tell me, bri^^ht Spiric^ wliefeer thou ho^erest, 
Whether above that h[yh lirst-mo^in^ sphere. 
Or in (he Elysian fields {if sui^h there were), 
Ohn 5ay me true if ihou vvert morial wij;hi, 
And why from us so quickiy thou didst lake Uiy Bight- 

Wert ihou some Siar, which from the ruined roof 
Of shaked Olympus by mischancre didst fall" 
Which carejiul Jove in nature's [rue behoof 
Took up, and in fit place did reinstall r 
Or did of lace Earth's sons besiege the wall 

Of sheeny Heaven, and thou some Goddess fled 
Amonj;st us here bdow to hide thy ncctared head? 

Or wcrt thou ihat ju:H Maid who once before 
Forsook the hated earthy oh! tell me sooth, 
And earnest agatn Eo visit us once more? 
Or welt thou [Mercy]^ that sweet smiTing Yourh? 
Or that crowned jMairon^ sage white-robtxl Truth? 


Or any other ol ihat heavenly brood 
Let down in cloudy throne to do the world some gooc? 

Or were ihou of the go! den- winged host. 
Who, havm^j clad thyself in human weed, 
To earth from thy prefixed ^eat didsi post, 
And after short abode Ely back with speed, 
As if to iU^w what creatures Heaven doih breed; 

Thereby to set the hearts of men on fire 
To scorn the sordid world, and unio Hea^cti aspire? 


But oh^ why didst thou not stay here below 
To bless us with thy heaven-loved innocence, 
To ibke hi? wrath whom sin hath made our foe. 
To tuin swift-rushing black perdition hence. 
Or drive away the slaughtering pestilence, 

To suind 'twixt us and onr deserved smart? 
But thou canst best perform ihat office where thou art. 


Then thou, the mother of so sweet a child. 
Her false-imagined loss cease to lament, 
And wisely learn to curb thy sorrows wild; 
Think what a present thou to God hast sent, 
And render him whh patience what he lent: 

This if thou do, he will an offspring; give 
ThaE till tlie world's last end shall make thy name Ko 



Tfic Latin speeches ended, ihe English thus began: — 
Hatl, Naiive Language, that by sinews weak. 
Didst move my first-endeavouring tongue to speak, 
And madest imperfect words, with childish trips. 


Half unproDounccd^ slide ihrous^h my infant lipij 

Driving dumb Siknce from ihi; poriol doorj 

Whtrre he had mulely sai iwo years before: 

Here 1 s^ilut^ ihecj and thy pardon ask. 

Thai now T ukc ihcc in my bucr lask: 

Small loss it is ihaE thence can come unto thee, 

! know my longue bui hiile gract^ can do ihee. 

Thou need'st not be ambitious to iK lirsl. 

Believe me, I have thither packed the worst: 

And, if 11 hapiK^n as I did forecast^ 

The ditimie^i Jishes shall be served ii[> lasc^ 

I pray thee then deny me not thy aid. 

For [his same small neglecl ibat 1 have made; 

But haste ihee sEraighi to do me onc*^ a |>ka$tire, 

And from diy wardrobe bring ihy chieftcst treasure; 

Not those new fangled toys, and Irimmtng slight 

Which tabes our Eaie faniastics with deli^jht; 

But ctjH thoie richest robes and gayest auire^ 

Which deepest spirits and choicest wits desire- 

I have some naked ihDugh[5 that rove about, 

And loudly knock to have their passage out^ 

Andj weary of iheir place, do only stay 

Till thou hast decked diem in thy best array; 

That so diey may, without suspect or Cears, 

Fly swifdy to this fair Assembly's ears* 

Yet I had raiher^ if I were to choose, 

Thy service in some graver subject use, 

Such as may make thee search thy coffers rounds 

Before thou clothe my fancy in fit sound: 

Such where the deep trans[>orled mind may soiir 

Above the wheeling poles, and at Heaven's tloor 

Look in, and see each blissful Deity 

How he before [he thunderous throne doih lie, 

Listening to what unshorn Apollo sings 

To the (ouch of golden wires^ while Hebe brtngs 

Immortal nccEar to her kingly Sire; 

Then, passing ihrough the spheres of watchful Hre, 

And misty regions of wide air next under. 

And hills of snow and lofis of piled ihunder, 

May tell at length how green-eyed Neptune raves, 


In heaven's defiance mustering all his waves; 

Then sing of setrei things that came to pn^s 

When beldam Naiure in her cradle was; 

And last of Kin^js and Queens and Heroes old, 

Such as the wise Demodocns once told 

In solemn songs at King Akinoiis' feust, 

While sAd Ulysses' soul and all the rest 

Are held, with hi^ melodious harmony, 

In willing chains and iwcet captivity. 

But He, my wandering Musej how thou dost stray! 

Expectance calls thee now anoiher way. 

Thou know^st it must be now thy only bent 

lo keep in compass of thy Predicamcnl, 

Then quick about thy pur|Xised business con^e. 

That 10 the next I may resign my room. 

T^crs E^^ if TtpTtsetfteJ as Pathif of liic Pnrtliaime'iti, hit /eii So'ir; 
a-haol the itdai !S"^"i /or SL-BST^r^ct ifith /j|>- Canom: ifhkh ^ss. 
shiii spi^k'"^^ cxpliias:— 

Good luck befriend Thee, soni for at thy bitlh 
The faery Ladies danced upon [he hearth. 
The drowsy Nurse hath sworn she did them spy 
Come tripping to tiie room where thou didst lie, 
And, snectly singing round about thy bed, 
Strew all their blessings on thy sleeping hcjd- 
She heard them give thee this, that thou shoukliL still 
From eyes of mortals walk invisible. 
Yet there is something that doth force my foar; 
For once it was my dismal hap to hear 
A Sibyl old, bow-bent with crooked age. 
That far events full wisely could presage. 
And, in Time's long and dark piospcctivc-glass. 
Foresaw what future days should bring to pass, 
"Your Son," said she, '\nox can you it prevent,) 
Shall sub)cci be to many an Accident. 
O'er all his Brethren he shall reign as King; 
Yet every one shall make him underling. 
And tho^e that cannot live from him asunder 
Ungratefully shall strive to keep him under, 
!n worth and e>;ceUencc he shall outgo ihem; 
Yet, being above th^Liv he shall be below them. 


From others he shall stand in need of nothing, 

Yet on liis Brothers shall deptnd for clothing. 

'Zo find a foe it shall not be his hap. 

And |jeace shall hill him in her flowery lap; 

Yet shall he live in strife, and at his door 

Devouring war shall never tease to roar; 

Yea, i^ shall be his natural |iro|ief[y 

To haibour thosi? that are at enmity." 

What power, what force, what mighty spell, if not 

Your Itarncd hand^, can loose this Gorclian knot? 

The next, Quantitv and Qt-ALCTf, spake in prose: then Rjlition' was 

caiied by hss mimc. 

Rivers, aii^: whethei thou be the son 

Of utmost Tweed, or Ouse, or g^liy Dun, 

Or Trenti who, like some earth-born Giant, spreads 

His thirty arms along ihe indented meads. 

Or sullen Mole, that runneth underneath, 

Or Sevren swift, guilty of maiden's death. 

Or rocky Avon, or ot sedgy Lea, 

Or coaly Tyne. or ancient hallowed Dee, 

Or Humber loud, that keeps the Scythian's name, 

Of \icdway smooth, or royal-towcrcd Thame. 

The rest was prose^ 



EftEWHiLE of music, and el herbal mirihj 
Whcre^viiK ih*^ siagc of Air and Earth <]id ring. 
And joyous news of heavenly Infant's birth^ 
My muse with AngeU did divide to singi 
Buc headlong joy is ever on the wing. 

In wintry soUtice Uke the shortened light 
Soun swallowed up in dark and long oudiving night. 


For now to sorrow^ must l tune my iong. 
And set my Harp to notes of saddest woe, 


Which QQ our dearest Lord did seize ere long^ 
Dara^ersj and snares, ami wrongs, and worst: than 5o^ 
Whith he for us did freely undergo; 

Most perfect Hero, tried in heaviest plight 
0£ labours huge and hard, too hard for human wight! 


He, sovran Priest, siooping Ki^ regal head, 
Thjt dropt with odoroui oil down his fair eyes. 
Poor fleshly Tabernacle entered, 
His «arry front low-roofed btm^afh tht: skies: 
Ohj what a mask was ihere^ what a disguise! 

Yet more: the stroke of de^ith he must abide; 
Then lies him meekly down fast by his Rreihren's 

These latest scenes confine my roving verse; 
To this horizon is my Phccbus bound. 
Hia godhke acts, and his temptations fierce^ 
And former sufferings, otherwhere ar^ found; 
Loud o'er the rest Cremona's trump doth sound: 

Me soUer airs befits and softer stritigs 
Of luie^ or viol stilly more apt for mourniul dungs* 

Befriend me^ Night, Iwst Patroness of grief! 

Over the pole thy thit:kest manck throw, 

And wark my flattered fyncy to belief 

That Hca^■cn and Earth are coloured wilh my woe; 

My sorrows are loo dark for day to know: 

The leaves should all be black whereon I write, 
And letters^ where my tears have washed, a wannish 


See^ sec the chariotp and those rushing wheels^ 
That whirled [l^e prophet up at Chebar flood; 
My spirit some transporting Cherub feels 


To bear me where the Towers of Salem stood. 
Once glorious towtrs, now sunk in guiltless bLood, 

There Joth my soul in holy vision sir» 
In pcnsi^'G trance, and anguish, and ecsuiLic fit. 


Mine eye hath found that sad sepulchral rock 
Thai was the casket of Heaven's richest store, 
And heri;, though grief my feeble hands up-lock^ 
Yet on ihc softened quiirry ^vould I score 
My plaining verse as lively as before; 

For sure so well instructed are ray tears 
That ihcy would fidy fall in ordered characters. 


Or, should I thence, hurried on viewless wing, 
Take up a weeping on the mountains wild, 
The gentle neighbourhood of grove and spring 
Would soon unbosom all their Echoes mild; 
And I (for grief is easily beguiled) 

Might think the infection of my sorr<^^vs loud 
Had got a race of mourners on some pregnant cloud. 

T/iit Suhjfc! the AiifhoT fiiding to be afioiv the yews hr had ifhfis he 
wrote U, and nolhhsa surisjicd ivith whal fi'Ui liegtm, ieji ii i-nfiniihed. 


What needs my Shakespeare, for his honoured bones. 

The labour of an age in pil^d stones? 

Or that his hollowed relics should be liid 

Under a star-y pointing pyramid? 

Dear son of Memory, gresc heir of Fame, 

Whac need'st thou such weak witness ot thy name? 

Thou* in our wonder and astonishment, 

Hast built thyself a livelong monument. 

For whilst, to the shame of slow-endeavouring art, 

Thy easy numbers flow, and that each heart 

Hath, from the leaves of thy unvalued book, 


Those Dtlphic lines with deep impre^^ion took; 
Then thou, our fancy of itself bereaving, 
Dosl mako us marble p with loo much conceiving; 
And, so sepulchred^ in such pomp dost lie. 
That kings tor such a lomb would wi^h lo die* 



Here lies old Hob^on, Death hath broki^ hi:* girt, 

And here, aljsl hath laid him in the din- 

Or else, thi^ ways bting foul, twenty lo one 

He's here stuck in a slough, and overthrown. 

T was such a shit'ier that, if truth were known, 

Death was half glad when he had got him down; 

For he had any ume ihis ten years full 

Dodged with him bct^vixc Cambridge and T/;f BiiH. 

And surely Death could never have prevailed. 

Had not his \veckty course of carriage tailed; 

But laitly, Ending him so loni; at home, 

And thinking now his )Oi]rncy'6 end was come, 

And [hat he had ta'en up his latest Inn, 

In the kind oflicc of a Chiiml>erliii 

Showed him his ruom where he must lodge that night. 

Pulled olJ his bootSj and took away the light. 

If any ask for him, it shall lie said, 

*'Hob5on has supped, and 's newly gone to bed." 


Here lieih one who did inost truly prove 

"['hat he could never tlie while he could mavc; 

So hung his destiny, never to roi 

While he might still )Og on and keep his trot; 

Made of sphcre-meiat, never to decay 

Until his revolution was at stay. 

Time numbers Motion, yet (without a crime 

"Gainst old truth) Motion numbered out his time; 

And, like an engine moved with wheel and weight, 


His principles being ceased, he ended straifiht* 
Rciij thai ^ivcs iill men life^ gave him his death. 
And [00 much bre^ithing put him oui ot breath; 
Not were ii coiuradicrion to afftim 
Too lonjT vacation haslened on his tcrm, 
Merciy lo drive the time away he sickontd^ 
FainEed, and died, nor would with aU bt quickened* 
'^Nay/* quoth hcp on hi^ swooning bed outsiretched^ 
"If I may n't carry, sure Til ne'er he fetched, 
Tkit vow, lhou;;h ihe cro5^ Dociors all stood iiuarers, 
For one carrier put down lo niake six bearers.' 
Ease was his chJLi disease; and, lo jud^tj rltrhi. 
He died for heavjneiss thai his cart went light* 
His leisure told him that his time was come^ 
And lack of load made his Site burdensome. 
That even 10 his last br^^aih (there be that say \)^ 
As he were pressed lo death, he cried, ''More weight!" 
Butj had his doings last^^d as they were, 
He had been an icnmorial Carrier. 
Obedienr to the moon he spent his date 
In course reciprocal, and had his tale 
Linked lo [he mutual (lowing of ihe seas- 
Yet (iiiiinge to think) his wain was his increase- 
His letters are delivered all and gone; 
Onlv remains chis superscription, 


This rich marble doih mier 

The honoured wife of Winchesterj 

A viscount's daughter^ an earl's heir. 

Besides what her virtues fair 

Added to her noble birth. 

More than she could own from earth. 

Summers three itmes eight save oni; 

She had told; alas! 100 soon. 

After so short time ot breath. 

To house with darkness and with death! 

Yett had ihe number ot her days 

Been as complete as was her praise^ 


Nature and Fate had had no strife 
In giving limit to her life. 
Her hi^h birch and her graces iwcet 
Quickly tound a lover meci; 
The virgin quire for her request 
The god ihiit sits at marri^iiie'feJisi- 
He at iheir invoking came, 
But with 3 scarce wcll-lij-hced fliime; 
And in his garland, as he stood, 
Ye might discern a cypres^-btiJ. 
Once hfld the early Matrons run 
To greet her of a lovely s>n* 
And now with sccojid hope she goes. 
And calls Lucina to htr throes; 
But, whether by mischance or blame, 
Atropos for Lucina came, 
And with remorseless cruelty 
Spoiled at once both fruit and tree. 
The hapless b:ibi: before hi^ bittb 
Had burial, yet not laid in eailh; 
And the languished moibcrs womb 
Was not long a living tomb. 
So have I seen some tender shp, 
Saved with care from Winter's nip, 
Tlic pride of htr cam .ill on train. 
Plucked up by some unhecdy swain, 
Who only thought to crop the Hower 
New shot up from vernal shower; 
But the fair blossom hangs I bo liead 
Sideways, as on a dying bed. 
And those pearls oi dew she wears 
Prove lo be presaging tears 
Wiiicli the sad morn bad let fall 
On her hastening fu nigral. 
Gentle Lady, may thy grave 
Peace and quid ever have! 
After this thy travail soie. 
Sweet rest seize thee evermore. 
That, to give the world encreaso. 
Shortened hast thy own life's lease! 


Here, besides the sorro^ving 

ThaE ihy noble House doiK bring, 

Here be tears oi perfect moan 

Wtept for iKee in Helicon; 

And some flowers and some bays 

Fot thy hearse, to strew the wavs, 

Sent thee from ihe banks of Came, 

Devoicd 10 thy virtuous nzimc; 

Whilst thou, bright Saint, high sitt'st in gloryj 

Next her, much like to thee in sLury, 

That fair Sjrian ShcphertJess, 

Whu, after years of barrenness, 

The highly-fa^ouff^d Joseph bore 

To him that served for her before, 

And SI her ne\t binh, muth like thee. 

Through pangs lied to felicity, 

Far within the bosom bright 

Or bhi;^ing Majesty and Light: 

There with thee, new-\\'ekome SniiiE, 

Like fortunes may her soul acqu-unt, 

With thee there ckd in radijnt sheen, 

No Marchioness, but now a Queen. 


How soon haih Time, the subtle thief of youih, 
Stolen on his wing my three and twentiL'th year! 
My b;islifig days fly on whh fuH career, 
But my late spring no bud or blossom shew'th. 

Perliaps my semblance might deceive the truth, 
That T to manhood am arrived so near. 
And inward ripeness doth iiiucli less appear. 
That some inore timely-happy spirits indu'tk 

Yet be it less or more, or soon or slow, 
h shall be still in strictest measure even 
To that same lot» however mean or high. 

Toward which Time leads me, and the will of Heaveo^, 
All fs, if [ have grace to use ic 50, 
As ever in my great Task-master's eye. 




HENCE, loathed Mehncholy, 
Of Ctrbems and blackest Midnight bom, 
In Stygian cave forlorn 

'Monjisi liorrid shapes, and shrieks, and sights 
Find ou[ some uncouth cell, 

Whete brooding Darkness spreads his jealous 
wings * 
And the night-raven sings; 

There under ebon shades, and low-broweJ rocks, 
As ragged as thy locks, 

In dark Cimmerian desert ever dweik 
Bur come, thou Goddess fair and tree, 
In lieavcn yclcp^d Euphrosyne, 
And by men, hoart-easing Mirih, 
Whom lovely Venus ai a bitlh 
With two sister Graces more 
To ivy-cro'A lied Bacchus bore; 
Or whether (as some sager sing) 
The frolic Wind that breathes the spring. 
Zephyr with Aurora playing, 
As he met her once a-Maying, 
There on beds of violets blue, 
And fresh-blown roses washed in dew. 
Filled her with thee, a daughter (air, 
So buxom, blithe and debonair. 

Haste thee, Nymph, and bring with thee 
Jesi and youthful Jollity, 
Quips, and Cranks, and wanton Wiles, 



Nods^ ^ind Bcrcksp and wrciiihM Seniles, 
Sudi as hanjj en Hebe's chetk^ 
And love lo live in dimple sleek; 
Sport ih^E wrinkled Care derides^ 
And Laotihier liotdlrt^ both his sides. 
Come, and trip it as ye go^ 
On the lijiht hntasik toe; 
And in thy right hand lead whh theo 
The mouniain Nymph^ sweet Liberty; 
And, if I give thee lionour due, 
Mirih. admii me of thy crew. 
To live with her, and live with thce^ 
In unreproved pleasures free; 
To h^ar the lark h^^ln his flight. 
And singing sEardc the dull nighi, 
From his watch-tower in the skieSp 
Till ihe dappled Dawn dosh rise; 
Then to come, in spite of sorrow- 
And aE my window bid good-mofrow, 
Through the sweet-briar or the vine. 
Or ihe twisted eglantine; 
While the cock with lively din 
Scatters the rear of Darkness thin; 
And to ihe stack, or ihe barn-door, 
Siuudy itrUEs his darrtes before: 
Oft listening how tlie hounds and hoin 
Cheerly rouse the slumbering Morn, 
From the iide of some hoar hill^ 
Through the high wood echoing shrill: 
Sometime walking, not unseen, 
By hedgerow elms^ on hillocks green, 
Kight againH ihe eastern gate* 
Where ihe great Sun l>egtns hi? siate^ 
Robed in flames and amber lights 
The clouds in thousand liveries dight; 
While the ploughcnan, near at hand, 
Whisdes oer ihc furrowed land^ 
And ihe milkmaid singeih blithe^ 
And the ino^ver whets his scythe. 
And every shepherd tells his tale 



Under the hawihorn in (he dale. 
Straight mine eye hath caught new pleasures, 

Whilsr ihe Ian i skip round it measures: 

Rns5et lawns, and fallows gray, 

Where the nibbling flocks do stray; 

Mouiuains on whose barren breaSE 

The hiboUTing clouds do ofien rest; 

Meadows trim with daisies pieU; 

Shallow brookSf and rivers wide. 

Towers and b^Ltlementa it sees 

Bosomed high in tuftetl trees, 

Wfjure |>erhaps some Beanty lies. 

The Cynosure ut neighbouring eyes. 

Hard by, a cotLige chimney smokes 

From betwisc two aged oaks, 

Where Cory don and Thyrsis met 

Arc at their savoury dinner set 

Of hearbs and other country messes, 

Which the ncal'haiided Phillis dresses; 

And then in haste her bower she leaves, 

With The^tylis to bind the sheaves; 

Or, if the earlier season lead. 

To (he fanned haycock in the mead. 
Sometimes wiih secure delight 

The upland hamleis will invite. 
When I he merry bells ring round, 
And the jocond rebecks sound 
To many a youth and many s maid 
Dancing in the chequered shade; 
Anti young and old come forth to pby 
On a sunshine holyday. 
Till the livelong daylight fail: 
Then to the spicy nur-brown ale, 
With stories told of many a feat, 
How fairy Mab the junkets eat: 
She was pinched and pulled* she said; 
And he, by Friar*s lanihorn led. 
Tells how the drudging Goblin sweat 
To earn his cream-bowl duly set. 
When xn one night, ere glimpse of morn, 


His shadowy fljil hath ihreshcd the corn 

That icn day-labourers cou3d not end; 

Then tics him down, ihe lubber fiends 

And^ streicb*;d oul all ilie chimney's length, 

Basks at the fire his hairy strengths 

And crop-full out of doors he flin^j^k 

Ere the first cock hi? matin rings* 

Thus done the (ales, to bed they creep. 

By whispering winds soon lulled asteep- 

Towered cities please U5 then, 

And ihc busy hum of men. 

Where throngs of Knights and Barotii buldj 

In weeds of peace^ high limmphs hold. 

With store of Ladies, whose bright eyes 

Rain influence, and judge th*; prize 

01 wit or arms, while boih contend 

To win her grace whom all commend. 

There let Hyn^en oft appear 

In saffion rcbe. wlih taper dear. 

And pomp, and Eeasi^ and revelry, 

With mask and antique pageaaitry; 

Such sighl$ as youthful Potts dream 

On summer eves by haunted stream* 

Tlieu to t[ie well-trod stage anon^ 

If Jonson's learned sock be on, 

Or sweetest Shakespeare, Fancy's child, 

Warble his native wood-notes wild. 

And ever, against eattng cares. 

Lap me in soft Lydian airs, 

M:irried to immortal verse, 

Such as the meeting soul may pierce. 

In notes widk many a winding btiul 

Of Unked sweetness long drawn out 

With wanton heed and giddy cunnmg. 

The melting voice through maz4.:> running, 

Untwisting all the chains that tie 

The hidden soul of harmony; 

Thai Orpheus' self may heave hii heiid 

From jjoldcn slumber on a bed 

Of heaped Elysian flowers^ and hear 


Such strains as would have won chc car 
Of Pluto 10 have quile stE Irte 
His half-rcgflincci Eurydke, 
These delightii if ihou canst give, 
Mirdi, with thee I mean to live. 


Hft^ce, vain JcluJing Jbys^ 

The brood of Folly without fatlicr brodi 
How little yoii b^^i^t^d^ 

Or till ihc fixed mind with all your lovsT 
Dwdl in some idle brain^ 

And fancies tond wiih gaudy sh:ipcs possess, 
As lluck and numberless 

As [he giiy motes thnt people the st]nbc:rnis, 
Or likcsi hovering dreams^ 

The fickle iiensioners of Morpheus^ train. 
But haiH thou Goddess sage and holyl 
Hailj divincsi Melancholy! 
Whose iaintly vi^a^c h loo brii^ht 
To hit the sense of human sight, 
And therefore to our weaker view 
OeHaid with black, staid Wisdom's huci 
BlaLk, but such :ts in esteem 
Princi^ Mcmnon's sister might beseem., 
Or that itarrcJ Elhiop Quei^n ihar strove 
To set her beauiy's praise above 
The Sea-Nymphs^ jnd iheir powers olTenJed. 
Yet ihou an higher far descended: 
Thee lirijihE-haired Vt:sia long oi yore 
To solitary Saturn bore; 
Hi« daughter she^ in Saturn's reign 
Such mixture was noi held a stain* 
Oft in glimmering bowers and glades 
He met her, and in secret shades 
Of woody Ida s inmost grove. 
Whilst yet there was no fear of Jove, 
ComCj pensive Nun^ devout and pure^ 


Sober, stead ha sr» and dt-tmirc* 

All in a roba oi darkest grain^ 

Flouing wiiK inajciUc [rain, 

And s^iblo stole of cypryss la^vn 

OvtT thy decent sfiouldcrs drawn. 

Clonic; bill: keep thy wonted st;iIl, 

Wiih L'ven sttp, and musinu gaii^ 

And looks commercing wiih [ti^ skies, 

Thy rapt soul siuin^ in thine eyes: 

ThiTt, hdd in holy passion still, 

Forgt'i ihyscif to m^fbk* till 

With a sad li^iufen <fo\\'n^vard cast 

Thou fi\ [hem on the earth as fasl- 

And join with thee cnlm Peace and QuilT* 

Span? Fast, thul ofc with gods doUl dicU 

And ht:ari the Muscii in a rin^ 

Aye round about Jovt's akar sing. 

And add to ihe^ retired Li?isua'H 

Thai in trim gardens l^kes his pleasure; 

But, first and chii^dt'Si, with thee brinij 

Him that yon soars on golden ^ving. 

Guiding the hery-wheelcd throne, 

The Chtrub Co me mpl at ion; 

And the mute Silence hist along, 

'Less Philomel will deij-n a song, 

In her sweeicsc saddest phght, 

Smooihing the rugj-ed brow of Night, 

While Cynthia checks her dragon yoke 

Gentiy o'er the accustomed oak. 

Sweet bird, that shunn^st the noise of folly, 

Most musical, most melancholy! 

Thee, Chauntress, oft the woods artiong 

1 woo, to hear thv cvtii-song: 

And, missing ihee, I v.;i\k unseen 

On the dry smooth-shaven green. 

To behold the wandering Moon, 

Hiding near her highest noon, 

Like one that had been led astray 

Tlifough [he heaven's wide pathless way, 

And oft, as i£ her head she bowed. 


Stooping through a fleecy cloud. 
Oft, on a plat of rising ^round^ 
] hear y\\e far-ofT curfew sound, 
Over some widc-waiered shore. 
Swinging slow with sullen roar; 
Or, if the air will not permit, 
Some siill removed pLice will fit. 
Where glowing cmhcrs ihrougli the room 
Teach light to counterfeit a j^loom, 
Far from all rcsori of mirih, 
Save the cricket on the hearth^ 
Or the Bellman's drowsy charm 
To bless the doors from nightly harm. 
Cr let my lamp, at midnight hour, 
]k 5een in some high lonely tower, 
Wheie I muy ott outwatch the Re^ir, 
With ihrice-great Hermes, or unsphere 
The spirit of Plato, !o unfold 
What worlds or iviiat va?c region^ hold 
The immortal mind ihat hath forsook. 
Her mansion in this fleshly nook; 
And of those Da:mons that aie found 
In fire, atr, flood, or underground, 
Whose power hath a true consent 
With planet or with element. 
Sometime? let gorgeous Tragedy 
In sceptred pail come sweeping hy. 
Presenting Thi]bs, or Pdops' line. 
Or the tale of Troy divine, 
Or what (though rare) of later age 
Ennobled hath the bu^kined stage. 
But, O sad Virginf that thy power 
Might raise Mnsarus from his bower; 
Or bid the soul of Orpheus sing 
Such notes as, warbletf to the string. 
Drew iron tears down Pluto's cheek, 
And made Hell grant what Love did seek; 
Or call vip him that left half-told 
The story of Cambuscan bold. 
Of Camball, and of Algarsife^ 


AnJ who had Canate to wife, 

Tkit owned iht \jriuoTjs ruig anil yla&s, 

A»d of ihc woniirtjus liorsc of brass 

On whkh clie Tjrtar King did Hdc; 

AnJ if aiiglu else great Bards boside 

Tn sage and solemn tunics have sung, 

Of turney?, and of trophits hung. 

Of (ortsis, and inirlnmiincnts drear. 

Whert! rnort is meant than meets ihc car. 

Tlms^ N'i^hi, oft see me in thy paU' caroer. 

Till eivil-sulted Morn apfwar, 

N'ot trickotl and frounceil, as she woni 

Wiih [he Atiic boy 10 hunt. 

lJu[ kerchieft In a comely cloud. 

While rocking winds are piping loud, 

Or ushered wiih a shower still, 

Whun ihe ^ust h.ith bUiwn his fill, 

Finding on [he rusding leaves, 

Wiih minuie tlrops fro[ii oil [he eaves. 

And, when the sun be^in^ to Lling 

His flaring beams, me, Goddess, bring 

To arched walks of twilight groves. 

And shadows brown, that Sylvan loves, 

Of pine. Of monumental oak* 

Where [he rude axe U'iih lieaved struk?^ 

Was never heard [he Nymphs lo dauii[> 

Or fright them from their hallowed haimt. 

There, in close covert, by some brook. 

Where no profaner eve mav look. 

Hide me from Djiy> garish eye, 

While ihe bee with honeyed thigh. 

That at her flowery work doih smg. 

And the waters murmuring, 

Wi[h such consort as thev keep. 

Entice the dewy-fealhered Sleep. 

And let some sErange mysterious dream, 

Wave at his wings in airy stream, 

Ol lively portraiture displayed, 

Sofdy on my eyelids laid. 

And as I «'ake, sweet music breathe 


Abovt% abouE, or unJcrneaih^ 

Stcii by some Spiril to mortals good. 

Or tbe unseen Genius of the wood. 

But let my due feet never fail 

To uafk. [be studious doisicf's pale^ 

And love the high embowed roof^ 

WllK anEJck pillars massy proofs 

And storied windows richly di^ht, 

Cjiiing a dim religious ligbt. 

Ihere let the pealing organ blow, 

To ihe full voiced Quire below, 

In service high and amheins trlear^ 

As msiy with iweelnes^^ ihrough mine esir, 

Dissolve me into ecstasies^ 

And bring all Heaven before mtne eyes. 

And may at Usr my \ve*iry aj^e 

Find out ihe peaceful hermitage^ 

The hairy gown and mossy cell, 

Where [ may sit and rightly 5|>cl[, 

Of ev^^ry svaf [bai I-le3Ven doih shew, 

And every hearb that sips the dew; 

Till old experience do attain 

To someihing like prophetic strain^ 

These pieasurcs^ Melancholy^ g^ve^ 

And 1 with ihee wUI choose lo liven 



O Nightingale that on yon blooming spray 
Warblest at eve^ when ah ihe woods yie siill. 
Thou with fresh hopes the Lover's heart dosi till^ 
While ihe joily Houxi lead on propitious May. 
Thy liquid notes that cloie the eye of Day, 
First heard before the shallow cuckoo's billj 
Portend success in love- O if Jove's will 
Have linked that amorous power to thy soft lay. 
Now timely sing^ ere ihe rude bird of hate 
Foretell my hopeless doom^ in some grove nitrh; 
As thou from year to year hast sung too Uie 
For my refief, yet had'st no reason why. 


WTiothi:r the Mtisc or Love call thee his mate. 
Boih ihcm 1 serve, and oi their train am I. 


Now Llif bright morning'Star, Day's harbinger. 
Comes dancing from the East, and lund^ wiih h<?r 
The Uowery May» who trom her green lap throws 
The yellow cowslip and the pale primrose^ 
Hail, bountE^ous May, [hat doll inspire 
Mifih. and youth, and Vr-arm desire! 
Woods and groves are oi ihy drt'sainjj; 
Hill and dale cloth boast thy hlessing. 
Thus we salute ihee witfi our early song, 
And welcome thee, and wish thee long. 


Fly, envious Time^ lill chou run out thy race: 
Call on the lazy leadcn-steppinij Hours, 
Whose speed is but the heavy plummet's pace; 
And glut ihyieir with what thy womb devours, 
Which is no more than what is false and vain, 
And merely mortal dross; 
So hide is our loss, 
So litlle is thy gain! 

For, whenas each thing bad thou ha'>t entombed^ 
And, last of all, thy greedy Selt consumed. 
Then lori^ eternity shall greet our btiss 
With an individual kiss,, 
And joy shall overtake us as a flood: 
When everything that is sincerelv good 
And perfectly divine. 

With Tmili, and Peace, and Love, shall ever shfne 
About the supreme Throne 
Of Him. 10 whose happy-making sight alone 
When once our heavenly-guided soul shall climb, 
TheUj all this earthly grossness quit, 
Attired with sLirs we shall forever sit, 
Triumphing over Death, and Chance, and thee, 
O Time! 



Ble^t paif of Sirens, pledges oE Heaven's joy, 

Splicrt-born harmonious Sisters^ Voice and Verse, 

Wed your divine sounds, and mixed power employ. 

Dead things with inbreathed sense able 10 pierce; 

And 10 our high-raided phaniasy present 

Thai undisturbed Song of pure conscm. 

Aye sung before the sapphire<olourcd Throne 

To Him (hat sins ihereonj 

With saintly shout and solemn jubily; 

Where the bright Seraphim in burning row 

Their loud uplifted angel trumpets blow, 

And die Chf?rubic host in thousand quires 

Touch their immortal harpi; of ^^olden wires, 

Wiih those just Spirits that wear victorious palmsj 

Hymns devout and holy psaSms 

Singing everlastingiy; 

That we on Earthy with undi^cording voice^ 

May rightly answer that melodious noise; 

As once we did, till disproportloned Sin 

Jarre^d against Nature's thimej and with harsh din 

Brok.e the fair music that all creatures made 

To their great Lord^ whose love their motions swayed 

In perfect dtapason^ whilst they stood 

Jn first obediencfij and their state of good. 

O, may we soon again renew that song, 

And keep in tune with Heaven, till God ere long 

To his celesiiat consort us unite. 

To live with Mim^ and sing in endless morn ot light! 



Ye flaming Powers, and winged Warriors bright, 
That erst with muiic^ and rriumphant song, 
First heard by happy watcJttul Shepherds' ear. 
So sweetly sung your joy the clouds along, 
Through I he soft silence of the hstening nighty — 


Now mourn; and if sad share with us 10 bcjr 

Your fiery essence can di^iil no [car. 

Burn in your siy^s, and borrow 

St^as wept from our deep sorrow^ 

He who wiih all Heaven^s heraldry whilere 

Entered the worlds now bleeds to give us ease. 

Alas! how soon our sin 

Sofe doih begin 

Hts infancy 10 seizel 

O rnore exceedin;^ Love, or Law more just? 

Just Law indoed, bui more exceeding Love! 

For we, by rightful doom r^mediless^ 

Were lost tn dcalhj [ill He, ihat dwell above 

H\£ih-ihroned in secret bliss, for us frail dust 

Emptied his glory, even to nak<?dne5s; 

And [hat great Covenani which we siill iranEgress 

Iniirely sriiistiod, 

And the full ^^Taih beside 

Of ven;^ful [uscice bore for our excess^ 

And seals obedience first wiih wounding smart 

This day; but oh[ ere long, 

Hui;e pnjiS :inJ strong 

Will pierce more near his heart. 


Fi^yf of an EnitrrAiitimmf py^jc^^^cd So ffi^ C<fUiifcS^ Dowager of Ocrf^y at 

tfijre/i^id ^y j^frr^ -W^/r F^tsq^^ of iicr t'^wiiy, w/ii^ app^ai on r/in? 

T. iONU 

Look, Nymphs and Shepherds, look! 
What sudden bEaze of majesty 
Is chat which we from hence descry, 
Too divine to be mistoolij* 

This^ this is she 
To whom our vows and wishes bend: 
Here our solemn search hath end, 
Famen that her high worth to raise 
Seemed erst so lavish and profuse, 



We may justly now accuse 
Of deiracEion from her praise: 

Less than half we find expressed; 

Envy bid conceal the resi, 

Mark what radiant state she spreads, 
In circle round her shining throne 
Shooling her beams like silver threads: 

ThiSp this is she alone. 

Sitting like a Goddess bright 

In the cenire of her hght* 

Might she the wise Latona bpj 
Or the lowered Cybele, 
Mother o£ a hundred godsp 
Juno dares not give her odds: 

Who had thought this cltme ]iad held 

A Deity so unparalleled? 

As 4Acy raTji^ foru^iird^ /Ac GEN'its Of the Wqop app^ijrr^ and, 

Cat^n Slay, geniEe Swains, for, [houjih in this disguise, 

I see bright honour sparkie through your eyes; 

Of famous Arcady ye are^ and sprung 

Of that renowned flood so often sung, 

Divine Alphcus, who, by secret sluice, 

Stole under seas to meet his Arcthuse^ 

And ye, the breaihlng roses of the wood. 

Fair silvcr-buskind Nymphs, as greaE and good- 

I know this quest of yours and free inlcnr 

Was all in honour and dcvorcon meant 

To the great Mistress of yon princely shrinep 

Whom with low reverence 1 adore as mincj 

And with all helpful service will comply 

To further ihii night's glad solemnity, 

AntI tead ye where yc may more near behold 

What shallow-searching Fame hath left untold; 

Which I full oft, midst these shades alangj 

Have sat io wonder at, and gaze upon. 

For knoWj by lot from Jove, I am the Power 

Of this fair wood, and live in oaken bower, 

To nurse the saphngs taJlj and curl the grove 


Wiih rin^k'E^ qu^ini and uanion winjintrs wove; 

Aritl jII my planii 1 save from nighilv iW 

Ut rioiMjme witids and blasting va|X3urs chilli 

And from ihc boughs brush aif ihc cvj] dew. 

And heal ihc harms of thwarting thunder blue^ 

Or what ihc cross dirc-looking pUaici smitcSj 

Or hurtful worm vviih cankered venom bites* 

When Evening grey doth risc^ I fetch my rounJ 

Over the mourn, :ind atl this hallyweJ ground; 

xAnd early, ere the Chdorous breath of morn 

Awakes tht; slumbering leaves^ or [assdlt^d horn 

Shakes the high thickei, hast& 1 all ;ibouLj 

Nujnbcr mv ranks, and visit every sprout 

Wiih pui-'isani words and murmurs made to bjess^ 

Hut ehe, in deep of nighty when drowsiness 

Hath locked up mortal scnse^ then hstt^^n 1 

To the celestial Scrons' harmony, 

That sit upon the nine enfolded spherc-'S^ 

And sing to those that hold the ^ital shears. 

And turn the adamantine spindle round 

On which the fate of gods and men h wounds 

Such siveec compulsion doih in mu^ic hc^ 

To lull ihe daughters of Necessity^ 

And keep unsteady Nature to her law. 

And the low world in measured motion draw 

After the heavenly tune, which none can hear 

Of human mould with gross unpurgtd ear. 

And yer such music worthiest were to hU/.c 

The peerless height of her immortal praisi^ 

Whose lustre leads us^ and for her rnost ht^ 

If my inferior hand or voice could hit 

Inimitable sounds, Yet^ as we go, 

Whatever the skill of lesser gods can show 

I will assay^ her worth to celebrate, 

And so attend ye toward her glittering state; 

Where ye may all^ that are of noble stem, 

Approach, and kiss her sacred vesture's hem* 

11. ^NG 

O'er the smooth enamelled green, 
Where no print of step hath bcen^ 


Follow me^ as I sing 
And Eouch the warbled string. 
Under ihe shady roof 
Oi branching dm sUr-prooE 

Follow iTie. 
I will bring you where she siiSj 
Dad in splendour as bcliis 

Her deity. 
Such a rural Queen 
All Arcadia haih not scen, 

Itl* EUKG 

Nymphs and Shepherds^ dance no niOTe 

By ^andy Ladon & lilied banks; 
On old Lyca:usj or Cyllene hoar. 

Trip no more in twilight ranks; 
Tiiough Eryrnanth your loss deplore, 
A better soil ihall give ye thanks. 
From the stony Mxnalus 
Bring your Hocks^ and live with us; 
Here ye shall have greater graces 
To serve the Lady of this plaee, 
Throupjh Syrinx your Pan*s mistress were, 
Yyt Syrinx well might wait on her. 
Such a rural Queen 
All Afcadini haih nut seen. 


TsiE Axrr-NDj^s'T S^mrrp afct-rwards in the habiL oE Thvrsis, 

Co^cf^H \vith his Crew. 

Thl l-ADv. First BuOii-tfR, Seco^-d Brotklb. 

SAith^t^-A, [he Nymph. 



The Chirf Pcff>cins whkh presented VtOk: — 
The Lord Brai^K; Mr. Thomas Ecertort, hh Brother; The Lady Alice 


T/jf Attendant Sperit dcse^rrdt or cntcrj. 

Before the starry threshold of Jove*s court 
My mansion is, where those immortal &hai>es 


Of bright atrial Spirits live in^phcrcd 
Jn regions mild of calm and serent air, 
Above lilt smoke and stir of this dim spot 
Which men call Eanii, and, wilh low-tiioughled care, 
Confined and pyiiiE^red in i\\h piniold here. 
Strive to kci:p up a frail and t'e^'eiish beinjj, 
UnniindRil of the crown that Virtue gives, 
After this mortal change, lo her iruc servants 
Amongsi the enthroned gods on sainted seals. 
Yet some there be that by due siep? aspire 
To lay their just hands on Lbat golden key 
That ope^ the Pybce o£ Eitirnity. 
To such my trrand is; and, but for such, 
I would not soil these pure ambrosial weeds 
With the rant vjpour^ of this sin-worn mould. 
But CO my task. Ntiptunc, besides the sway 
Of every salt flood and each ebbing stream, 
Took in, by loc *iwixE high and nether Jove, 
Imperial rule of all the sea-girt Isle? 
That, like 10 rich and various gem?, inlav 
The unadorned bosom of the Deep; 
Which he, to grace his tributary gods. 
By course commits to several government. 
And gives ihem leave Eo wear their sapphire crown? 
And wield their btde tridents. But this Isle, 
The greatest and the best of all the main, 
He quarters to his IJue-fi aired deities; 
And alt this [racE thai ironi? die falUnj;i sun 
A noble Peer of mickle trust and power 
l-fas in his charge, with tempered awe to guide 
An old and haughty Nation, proud in arms: 
Where his fair oUspring, nursed in princely lore, 
Are coming to attend their father's state. 
And new-intrusted sceptre. But their way 
Lies through the perplexed paths of this drear wood. 
The nodding horror of whose shady brows 
Threat*; the forlorn and wandering passenger; 
And here their tender age might suffer peril, 
But that, by quick command from sovran Jove, 
1 was despatched for their defence and guard! 
And hsten why; for I will tell you now 
What never yet was heard in tale or song. 


From old or modern baid^ in hall or bower^ 

G.icchus. [h^I first from out the purple iirape 
Crushed ihe sweet poiiioii of misused wine, 
After ihe Tuscan mnriners transformed^ 
Coasting the Tyrrhene shore» as the winds [isted. 
On Circe's island icIL (Who knows nol Circc^ 
The dauj-hccr oi the Sun, whose charmed cup 
Whoever tasted lojit hi:s upright shape, 
And downward fell into a grovelling swine?) 
This Nymph, thai, ^ar.ed ujion his clustering locks, 
With ivy berries wreathed, and hr^ blithe youih^ 
H^d by hinij ere he parted thence, a Son 
Much hkc his Father, but his Mother more, 
Whom therefore she brought tip, and Comua named; 
Who. ripe and fro!ie of his full-groivn age, 
Roving the Celtic and |ljeri:in fields, 
Al last betakes him to this ominous wood, 
And, in thick shelter of black, shades imbowcied^ 
Excels his Mother at her iniuhiy art; 
Of^i-'ring to every weary traveller 
His orient liquor in a crystal glass, 
To (]uench the drouth of Phttbu^; which as they taste 
(Tor most do taste through fond inLem|>erate thirst), 
Soon as the [jotion works, their human count'nance, 
The express resemblance of ihe gods, is changed 
InEO son^e brutish form of wolf or bear. 
Or ounce or tiger, hog, or bearded goat 
All other parts remaining as they were. 
And they, so perfect is their misery, 
Not once peiceivK their foul disfigurement, 
Hut boast themselves more comely than before, 
And all their friends and native home forget. 
To roll with pleasure in a sensual sEy- 
Therefore. when any favoured of high Jove 
Chances to pass through this adventrou? glade, 
Swift as the sparkle of a glancing star 
1 shoot From heaven, to give him safe convoy, 
As now I do, Bui first 1 must put oiT 
These my sky-robes, spun out of Iris' woof, 
And take the weeds and likeness of a swain 
That to [ht: service of this house belongs, 

COM us ^ 

Who, with his soft pipe and smoolh-ditiicd ^ong. 
Well knows w S[il[ Lht «'ild wind^ when ihey roar, 
And hush [he waving woods; nor of less fjith. 
And in ihis oHicc of his mountain w^itth 
Likeliesi, and noartsf to iKe pre^em aid 
Of ihis occiiiion. But 1 hear [he iroad 
Of hjci-ful stpp^; I niiis[ be viewless now. 

CitiML'i HfyrfTf, wiih a cAarmins-nnf m one hi^nd. his lif-iss in ihi' athet: it-irh 
him a rout of Monslnt. haidcd H/ic sundry ijrtf of it'dd bcuns, hut 
OtktTwae !ii(r men ,i'ii! women, their jppartl ^iiilerin-^. Tftey tome in 
making a riolui'i end uiirrdy noise, mtth torches in their hmiUs. 

Comtif. The star thi^t bids the shf^pherd fold 
Now the top of lieavcn doth hold; 
And the gilded car of E>ay 
His plotting axle dolh allay 
In [he sictp Ailnniic stream: 
And the slope Sun his up^v:ifd beam 
Shoots against thif du^ky poL'* 
Pacing lo^va^4,3 ihe olElcr goal 
Of his chirmbcr in the east. 
Meanwhile, welcome joy and Fts^t, 
Midnight shout and revelry^ 
Tipsy dance and jollity. 
Braid vour locks with roiiy twine, 
Dropping odours, dropping- uine. 
Bigouf noiv is gone to bed: 
And Advice with scrupulous head. 
Strict Age, and sour Severity, 
With their jjrave saws^ in slumber lie. 
We, that are of purer fjrc» 
Imitate the starry Quire, 
Who, in their ni^shily watchful spheres, 
Lead in suifc rouinl the months and years. 
The sounds and scas» wiih all their finny drove. 
Now 10 the Moon in wavering morrice move; 
And on the tawnv sands and shelves 
Trip the pert Fairicrs and iKe dapper Hives, 
By dimpled brook and founiain-briniT 
The Wood-Nymph Sj decked with daisies trim, 
Thefr msrry wakes and pastimes keep: 
Whu haib night to ^o with ^k^pr 


Night haih bcucr sweets to prove; 

V^enus no^^' \rake5, and wakens Lovf 

Comes let us our Hies begin; 

'T is only daylight that makes sin. 

Which these dun shades wiU ne'er report 

Hailj goddess ot nocturnal sport, 

Dark'veiktl Coiytto^ to whom the secret llanic 

Of midnight torches burns! mysterious Damej 

That ne'er art calkd but when the drajjon womb 

Of Slyglan darkness sjiel? her thickest gloom, 

And makes one blot of all the airl 

Stay thy cloudy ebon chair, 

Wherein ihoo ridesi with Hecai\ and befriend 

Us thy vowed priests, tilt utmost end 

Of all thy dues he done, and none lofi out 

Ere the blabbing eastern scout^ 

The nice Morn on the Indian steep, 

From her calcined loop-hole peep, 

And [o [he tell-tale Sun descry 

Our concealed solemnity. 

Come^ knit hanJs^ and beat ihc ground 

In a light famasilc round. 

The Wffljw^f* 

Ureak off, break offi 1 feel the diilcrcnt pace 

Of some chasie footing near about this ground* 

Run to your shrouds within these brakes anti trees; 

Our number may alTrighi, Some virgin sure 

(For so I can distinguish by mine art) 

Benighted in these woods! Now to my charms, 

And Eo my wily trains: I shall ere long 

Be well stocked with as fair a herd as gra^ied 

About my Mother Circe. Thus I hurl 

My dazzling spells into the spongy air^ 

Of power to cheat ihe eye with blear illusion^ 

And give it false presentments, lesE the place 

And my quaint habits breed astonishment. 

And put the Damsel to suspicious flight; 

Which must not be, for that's againsL my course. 

I, under fair pretence of friendly ends^ 

COM us 49 

And well-placed words of glozinf^ courtesy, 
Baited with reasons noi implausible. 
Wind me imo the easy-hearted man. 
And hug him into snares. When once Ixer eye 
Haih met the virtue of this magic dust 
I shall ap|ieaF some harmless villager, 
Whom thrift keeps up ahout his country gear. 
But here she comes; I fairly step aside. 
And hearken, it I may her business hear. 

The Ladk enters 

Lffi/y, This way the noise wai. jf mine ear be true, 
My best guide noiv. Meihought it was tht sound 
Of riot and ill-managed merriment, 
Such as the jocond iluie or gamesome pipe 
Stirs up aniong the loose unlettered hinds, 
When, for Jieir teeming flocks and granges full» 
Jn wanton dance they praise the bounteous Pan, 
And thank the ^jods amiss, I should be loih 
To meet the rudeness and swilled insolence 
Oi such late \^■assailers; yei, oh! where else 
Shall J inform my unacquainted feet 
In the blind mazes of this langled wood? 
Wy brothers, when they saw me wearied out 
With this long way, resolving here to lodge 
Under ihe spreading favour of these pines, 
Stepped, as ihey said, to the nexl ihickct side 
To bring me berries, or such cooling fruit 
As the kind hospitable woods provide. 
They left me then "'hen the j-rey-hooded Even, 
Like a sad Votarist in palmer's weed. 
Rose from the hindmost wheels of Phcebus' wain, 
Bui where they are, and why ilicy came not back. 
Is now the labour of my thoughts, 'T is likeliest 
They had ingaged their wandering steps too far; 
And envious darkness, ere they could return, 
Had stole them from me. Else, O thievish N'ight, 
Why shouldst thou, but for some felonious end, 
Jn thy dark lantern thus close up the stars 
That Nature hun^ in heaven, and filled their lamps 


With everlasting oil, to give due Eight 
To the misled and lonely rravailkr? 
This is the pUce, as well as I may guc^s. 
Whence even now the tumuh of loud mirth 
Was fife, and pcrfct in my listening ear; 
Yd Aought but single darkness do 1 find. 
What might this be? A thousand fancasies 
Begin to throng into my memory* 
Of calling shapes, and beckoning shadows dire* 
And airy tongues that syllable men's names 
On sands and shores and d<:scit wildernc«es. 
These thoughts may startle well, but not astound 
TEie virtuous mind, that ever walks attended 
By a strong siding champion, Conscii^nce. 

welcome, pure-eyed Faith, whitc-h angled Hope, 
Thou hovering angel girt with golden wings, 
And thou unbl<?mishod form of Chastiiyl 

1 see ye visibly, and now believe 

Thai He, the Supreme Gixnl* to whom all things ill 

Alt but as slavish officers of vengeance. 

Would send a glistering guardian, if need were. 

To keep my life and honour unasiailed. . . . 

Was I deceived, or did a sable cloud 

Turn forth her silver lining on the night? 

! did not ern there does a sable cloud 

Turn forth her silver lining on the night. 

And casts a gleam over this tufted grove. 

I cannot hallo to my brothers, hnc 

Such noise as I can make to be heard farthest 

ni venter; for my new-enlivened spirits 

Prompt me, and r.hcy ^>crhaps are not Ear olT. 

Sweet Echo, s^veetest Nymph, that liv'st unseen 
Wiihln ihv airy shell 

By slow Meander's margent green, 
And in the violcMmbroidered vale 

Where the love-lorn Nightingale 
Nightly to thee her sad song mourneih well: 
Canst tiiou not tell me of a gentle pair 

coMus gi 

That likesl ihy Narcissus are? 
O il ihou have 

Hid them in some fiowery csv^^ 
Tell mt but whore, 

Sweet Queen of Parley, Danphtcr of the SphoreT 

So may' St iliou be iransiatod lo iht ikies, 
And give resoundini^ grace to ;ill Heaven's harmoniesi 

Comus. Can any mortal mixiure of earihii iiiouEd 
Breathe such divine iiichiimii])i ravishment^ 
Sure something holy lodges in that breast, 
And ^vilh these raptures moves the vocal air 
To testify hi^ hidden residence. 
How iweedy did thev lloai tipon die iviniis 
Of silence, through ihe cmpiy-vauUed night. 
At every fall smoothing ilic ravi:n diiwii 
Of darkness till it smiled! 1 have oft heard 
My mother Circe with the Sirens three, 
Amidst the flower y-kirtlcd N;tiades, 
Culling their ptitenl hi^atbs and baleful drugs, 
\Vho> as ihcy sung, would take ihe prisoned soul, 
And Jap it in Elysium: Scylla wept, 
And chid her hiiking waves into attention. 
And fell Charybdis murmured iolt applause. 
Yet ihcy in pleasing slumber lulled die sense. 
And in sweoi madness robbed it of itself; 
But such a sacred and home-felt delight. 
Such sober certainty of waking bliss, 
] never heard till now. I'lE speak to her. 
And she shall be my Queen. — Hail, foreign wonderl 
Whom certain ihesc rough shades did never breed, 
Unless the Goddess that in rural shrine 
Dwell'st here with Pan or Sylvan, by blest song 
Forbidding every bleak unkindly fog 
To touch the prosperous growih of this rail wood. 

Lady. Nay, gende shepherd, ill is lost dial praise 
That is Liddressed to unattending ears. 
Not any boast of skill, but extreme shift 
How lo regain my severed company. 
Compelled me to awake the courteous Echo 
To give me answer from her mossy couch. 

Comus. What chance, good Ladv, hath bereft you thus.* 


Lady, Dim darkness and this Icavy labyrinlh- 
Comas. Could tliai ^livide you fcom neir-ushering 

guides ? 
Lj7£^y. They letc me weary on a grassy turf. 
CtJmHJ. By falsehood* or discourtesy* or why? 
Lady. To seek i' the valley some cool friendly spring, 
Comtts. And left your tair side all unguarded. Lady? 
Lady. They were but twain, and purposed quick 


Comiis. Perhaps torestalling night provenied them. 

L/idy. How easy my misfortuiio is to hit! 

Conjus. [mpofCs their fos?, beside the present need ? 

Lady. No le^s than if I should my brothers Joae. 

Comus. Where ihey of manly prime, or youthtul 

Lady. As smooth as Hebe's their unrazored lips. 

CoTiius. Two such I saw, what time rhe laboureJ ox 
In his loose iraces from the furrow came. 
And the swinked hedger at his supper sal- 
1 saw them under a green mantling vine, 
That criuvh along the side of yon small hiU, 
I'lucking ripe clusters from the lender shoots; 
Their port was more than human, as they stood- 
I took it fur s faery vision 
t)f some gay creatures ot the clement, 
That in the colours of the rjlnliow live. 
And play i' the plighied clouds. I was awe-^trook. 
And, as I passed, I worshiped. \i those you seek, 
It were a journey like the path to Heaven 
To help you find them. 

Lady. Gentle viltaper. 

What readiest way would bring me to that place? 

Comus. Due west it rises from this shrubby point. 

Lady. To find out that, good Shepherd. I suppose, 
In such a scant allowance of star-light, 
Would overtask the best land -pilots art, 
Without the sure guess of well -practised feet^ 

Comui. I know each lane, and every alley green, 
Dingle, or bushy dell* of this wild wood, 
And every bosky bourn from side to side, 

COM us 53 

My daily walks and iincienl neighbourhood; 
And^ if your ifray aLicndancc be yet InJ^ed^ 
Of shroud within these limics, I shall know 
Ert morrow wake, or the low-roosEcd lark 
From her Ehaiched pallet rouse. If otherwise, 
1 cim conduct you, Lady, to a [ovr 
Bui loyal cottage, where you may be safe 
TiEl turther quest. 

Lady. Shepherd, I take ihy word, 

And irust thy hone st-offe red courtesy, 
Which ofi is sooner found in lowly shed?, 
V\'uh Bmuky rafters, than in tapestry halls 
And courts of princes, where il first was named. 
And yet is most prctcndtid. In a place 
Less warranted than this, or less secure, 
[ cannot be- that 1 should fear to change It- 
Eye me. blest Providence, and square my trial 
To my proportioni:d strcngthf Shepherd, lead on. . . . 

TAtf Two Brothers 

EU. Bio. Unmuffle, ye faiiiC stars; and thou, fair 
That ^vont'st lo love the travailler's beniion. 
Stoop thy pale visaj^e through an amber cloud. 
And disinherit Chaos, [hat reigns here 
^n double night of darkness and oE shades- 
Or* if your iniluence be quite dammed up 
With black usurping mis[$, some gentle taper, 
Though a rush-candle from the wicker hole 
Oi some clay habitation* visit us 
With thy long kvelled rule of streaming light, 
And thou shall be our star of Arcady, 
Or Tyrian Cynosure. 

Sec. Bro. Or, if our eyes 

Be barred thai happiness, might we but hear 
The folded flocks, penned in their wattled coies, 
Or sound of pastoral reed «'iEh oaten stops. 
Or whistle from the lodge, or village cock 
Count the night-watches to his feathery dames, 
Twouy be some solace yet, some little cheering, 


Jn this dosG dungeon oE innumerous boughs. 
Butj Ohj thai hapless virgin^ our Icsl sister! 
Where may she ^vandt^r now, whither betake her 
From the chill de\\\ amongst rude burrs and thisdes? 
Perhaps &ome cold bank is her bolster now, 
Or 'gainst the rugged bark of some broad eim 
Leans her unpillo\^ed head, fraught with sad fears. 
VVhst if in wild aniazeincnt and alTrighi^ 
Or, while we speak, wiihin the direful grasp 
Of sav;ige hungtjrH or of savage heat! 

Eid. Bro. Peace, brother: bt^ not over-exquisite 
To casi [he fashion of uncertain evils; 
FoTy yrant they be so, while they rest unknown. 
What need a man forestall his dare of K^ief, 
.^nd run to [rtct^I \vhat he wouki musi avoidi* 
Or* if they be bul false alarms of fear. 
How biiier is such self-delusionl 
1 do not ihink my sister so to seek^ 
Or so unprincipled in virtue's book. 
And [he sweet peace that goodness bosoms ever. 
As that ihe single want ot light and noise 
(Not being in danger^ as I trust she is noi) 
Could stir the constant mood of her cahn ihoui;ht5^ 
And put them into niishccoming plight. 
Virtue could see to do what Virtue would 
liy her own radiant lighi^ though sun and moon 
Were in the Hat sea sunk* And Wisdom's self 
Oft seeks to s\veeC retired solitude. 
Where, with her best nurse. Con tempi aii on. 
She plucnes her feathers^ and lets j^row her wings, 
Thai^ in the various bustle of resort. 
Were all to-rufHcd, and sometimes impaired. 
He that has light within his own clear breast 
May sit i' the ctrntre^ and enjoy bright day: 
But he ihat hides a dark soul and foul thoughts 
Renightcd walks under the mid-day sun; 
Himself is his own dungeon* 

Sff^, BrOn Tis most true 

That musing \feditation most affects 
The pensive secrecy of desert ccMj 

coMus 55 

Far from the cheerful haunt o( men and hertls. 
And sits as safe as in a senato-hause; 
For who would rob a Hermit of his weedSp 
His few books^ or his beatls^ or maple dish, 
Or do his grey hairs any violence? 
Hul Beauty, like ihe fair Hesperian Tree 
Laden with bJooiiiing gold, hati need ihe guard 
Of draLjon-waich wiih uninehantc^J eye 
To save her Na^soms, and tlef^ntl her fruUj 
From ihe rash hand of bold Ineontinence. 
You may as well sprcxid oui ihe unsunned heaps 
Of miser fi irt^asure by an outlaw's den^ 
And iel] mc it is safe^ as hid me hope 
Danger will wink on Opj>ortnnityj 
And let a single helpless maiden pass 
Uninjured in this wild surrounding wasEe. 
Of night or lonelint=ss it rcck^ me not; 
I fear the dread evtnts ihai dog ihem both, 
Lesi. some til-greeting touch aitempt the person 
Of our unowned si^ier. 

Eid, Bro. I do not, brother. 

Infer as if I thought my sEsteKs st^ic 
Secure wlihoui all doubt or controversy; 
Yeij where an equal jxiise o! hope and fear 
Does arbitrate the evenly iny nature \s 
7"ha[ ] encline to hope raiher than fear^ 
And gladly banish iquini suspicion, 
NEv sister is not so defenceless leEi 
A^ vou imagine; she has a hidden strength^ 
Which you remember not* 

iVf. Bro, What hidden sirength^ 

Unless the strength of Hea^en^ if you mean ihal? 

Eid. Bro. I mean chat too, but yet a hidden sircngih, 
Which, if Heaven gave \iy may be termed her own; 
'Tis Chasiiiy, mv brother, Cha^ciiy: 
She thai has thai is clad in com^plcte steely 
And, like a quivered nymph with arrows keen, 
May trace huge forests, and unharboured heaths^ 
Tnfamous hills, and sandv perilous wilds; 
Wherc^ dirougli the sacred rays of chastity^ 


No savage fierce^ bandincj or mountaineer, 

Will dare Co soil her virgin purity. 

Yea, there, where very desolaEion dwells^ 

By grois and caverns shagjie<l wiih horrid shades, 

She may pass on with unblcnchcd majesiy^ 

Be it not done in pride^ or in preiumption, 

Son^e say no evil thing that ^^alks by night, 

In fog or fire, by lake or moorish fen. 

Blue meagre hag, or stubborn unlaid ghost. 

Thai breaks his magic chains at curfew lime^ 

No gobhn or swjh faery of the mine, 

HaLh hurtful power o'er true virginity. 

Do ye believe me yet, or shall 1 call 

Antiquity from the old schools of Greece 

To testify the arms of Chastity? 

Hence had the huntress Dian her dread how, 

Fair silver-shafted Queen for ever chaste. 

Wherewith she tamed the brinded honcss 

And spotted mouniain-pard, but set al nought 

The frivolous bolt of Cupt^l; gods and mt^n 

Feared her stern frown^ and she was queen o' the 

What was ihat snaky-headed Gorgon shield 
That wise Minerva wore, unconquered virgin, 
WherewIUi she freezed her foes to con'gealeJ stone, 
Bui rigid looks of chaste austerity, 
And noble grace that dashed brute violence 
With sudden adoration and blank aweP 
So dear to Heaven is saintly chastity 
TJiaC, when a soul is found sincerely so, 
A thousand hveried angels lackey her, 
Driving far off each thing of sin and guilt, 
And in clear dream and solemn vision 
Tell her of things tbEU no gross ear can heari 
Till oft converse with heavenly habitants 
Begin to cast a beam on the ouiward shape, 
The unpolluted temple of ihe mind, 
And turns it by degrees to the soul's essence? 
Till all be made immortal. But, when lust, 
By unchaste looks, loose gestures, and foul talk, 


COM us 57 

But niOiC by kwd and lavish act of ^in, 

Lets in defilement lo the inward p^rls. 

The sDul grows clotted by conUf^ion, 

Jnibudi^'S ^^^ imbrutts^ tiil she quilc [oiG 

The divine projyerty of her firsi being. 

Such art ihose thick ami jiloomy shadows damp 

Of[ seen in charncI'Vauks and sepulchred, 

Linj;L:ring and sitiing by a new-made grave. 

As loth [o [cave the body thai it lo^ed. 

And linked itself by carnal scn^uaky 

To a dej^cnetaii: and degraded state. 

Sir. Bro. How charming is diviiu' Philosophy! 
Not harsh and crabbed, as dull fools suppow. 
But musical as is Apollo's Eute, 
And a perpetual feast of nectari^d s^'eets, 
Where: no crude surfeit reigns. 

Eld. Bro. List! list! 1 hear 

Some far-otf hallo break ihe silent air. 

Sec. Bi-ff. Methought so too; what should it be^ 

El/L B'o. For certain, 

EiEhcr some one, l[ke us. nisbl-fouiidered here^ 
Or else some neighbour ^voodman, or, at worst. 
Some roving robtier calling to his fellows. 

Sec. Bro. Heaven keep my lister! 
Again* a^ain, and near! 
Best draw, and itand upon our guard- 

E/d. Bro. V\\ hallo. 

If he be iViendly. he comes welh if not* 
Defence is a i;ood cause, and Heaven be for us! 

The Attendast Spirit, habited U\c a shepherd. 

That hallo I should know. What are you." speak. 
Come not too near; you fall on iron slakes else. 
5p;V, What voice is thals^ my young Lord? ^peak 

Sec. Bro. O brother* 'tis my father's Shephei<L sure. 
Eld. Bro. Thyrsis! whose artful licrains ha^e oft 

The huddling brook to hear his madrigal, 
And sweetened every musk-rose of the dale. 


How camcsl thou hefCj good awain? Hath any rarr 
SSippcd from the fold^ or young kid lost his dam, 
Or ^'laggliJ^g weLher the pent flock forsook? 
How couldst ihou find this dark seqiiesiercd nook? 

Spir^ O my loved master's heirj and his next joy, 
I came not here on such a [rivial toy 
As a strayed ewe, or to pursue [he stealth 
Of pilftring wolf; not ail the fleecy wealth 
That doth enrich these downs is worth a thought 
To (his my errand^ and ihe care h brought. 
Butp oh! my virgin Lady, where is she? 
How chance she is not in your company? 

Eld, Bro. To le!l thee sadly. Shepherd, wiLhout 
Or our neglectj we lost her as we came. 

Spir. Ay me unhappy! then my fears are iruc. 

Eld. Bro, What fearSp good Thyrsjs? 
Prithte briefly shew. 

Spifn VI] tell ye, 'tis not vain or fabulous 
(Though so esEcemed by shallov^ ignorance) 
What the sage poets, [aught by ihe heavenly Muse, 
Storied of old in high immorial verse 
Of dire Chimeras and mchanted Isles^ 
And rifted rocks whose entrance leads to Hell; 
For such ihere be^ but unbelief is blind* 

Within the navel of this hideous wood, 
Immured in cypress shades, a Sorcerer dwells. 
Of Bacchus and of Circe born, great ComuSj 
Deep skilled in all his molhet's witcheries. 
And here to every thirsty wanderer 
By sly enticement gives his baneful cupj 
Wiih many murmurs mixedj whose pleasing poison 
The visage quite transforms of him that drinks, 
And the inglorious likeness of a beast 
Fixes instead, unmoulding reason's mintage 
Charactered in the face* This have I learnt 
Tending my flocks hard by i* the hilly crofts 
That brow this bottom glade; whence night by nighl 
He and his monstrous rout are heard to howl 
Like stabled wohts^ or tigers at iheir prey, 

COM us 55 

Doing abhorred ritc^ to Hecate 

In ihcir ob^^cured haunts of intnosE bowers. 

Yet have they many baiis and guileful spells 

To ini'ci^jk and invite the unwary sense 

Ot ihcni that pass unweeting by ihe wav- 

This cveninj^ late, by th<?n :he chewing llocks 

Had Ea'en th<;ir supper on the savoury herb 

Ot knotgrass dew-be&prent, and were in fold» 

I sat me down to waich upon a bank 

With ivy canopied, and intcrwovt 

With flaunting honeysuckle, and began. 

Wrapt in a pleasing fit of melancholy ^ 

To mediiate my rural minsircUv, 

Till fancy had hei hlL Bui ere a close 

The wonied roar was up amidst the woods, 

AniJ filled the air with barbarous dissonanci:; 

At which 1 ceased, and listened ihein a while, 

Till an unusual stop of sudden siEcncc 

Gave respite to tht drowsy- Rig hied steeds 

That draw the litter of close-curiained Sleep. 

At last a soft and solemn-breaLhing sound 

Rose like a steam of rich distilkd perlumes. 

And stole U|>on the air» that even Silence 

Was took ere she was ware, and wished she might 

Deny her nature^ and be never more, 

Still to |>e so displaced. } was all ear. 

And took in strains that mijjht create a soul 

Under the ribs of Deaih- But, ohl eri^ long 

Too well I did perceive it was the voice 

Ot my most honoured Lady, your dear sisier. 

Amazed i stood, harrowed with grief iuid fear; 

And "O poor hapless Nightingale/' thought I, 

**How sweet thou sing'st, how near the deadly snare!" 

Then down the lawns I ran with headlong haste. 

Through paths and turnings often trod by day, 

Till» guided by mine ear, J found the place 

Where that damned wisard* hid in sly disguise 

(For 5o by certain signs I knew)» had mel 

Already, ere my best speed could prevent, 

The aidless innocent lady* his wished prey; 


Who gently asked if he had seen such iwo, 
Suppodng him -loiiie neighbour villager. 
Longer I durst not stay, but soon 1 guessed 
Ye were the two she meant; with that i sprung 
Into switt flight, till [ had found you here; 
But furder know J not. 

Sfc. Bro. O night jnd shades, 

How are ye joined with hell in triple knot 
Against the unjinied wtakiiess of one virgin, 
Alone and helpless! Is this the conHJence 
You gave me, brother? 

Eld. Bro. Yes, and keep it still; 

Lean on it safely; not a period 
Shall be unsaid lor me. Against the ihieats 
Of iiiahce or of sorcery, or that power 
Which erring men call Chance, this [ hold firm: 
Virtue may be assailed, but never hurt, 
Surprised by unjust iorce, but not enthralled; 
Yea, even that whiirh Mischief meant mosl harm 
Shall in the happy trial prove most glory. 
But evil on itself i^hall back recoil, 
And mix no more with goodness, when at last, 
Gathered like scum, and setdcd to itself, 
It shall be in tternal restless change 
Sel£-fed and self-eonsumed- If this fail, 
The pillared fiTmamcnt is rottenness* 
And earth's base built on stubble. But come, let's on! 
Against the opposing will and arm of Heaven 
May never this just sword be lifted up; 
But, for that damned magician, let him be girt 
With all the griesly legions that troop 
Under the sooty flag of Acheron, 
Harpies and Hydras, or all the monstrous forms 
Twixt Africa and Ind, I'll find him out. 
And force him to restore his purchase back. 
Of drag him by the curls to a foul death, 
Cursed as his life. 

Spi'r^ Alas! good ventrous youth, 

I love thy courage yei, and bold Emprise; 
But here thy sword can do thee litde slead. 

COMUS 6 1 

Far olher arms and other weapons musi 
Ht: those ihai quell ihe might of helii&h charms- 
Hp wiih his bare wand can unthread thy }oinis, 
AnJ crumble ail ihy sinews. 

Eid. Bio. Why, priihei' Shepherd, 

How dursi thou ihtn ihy^ll ajiproach ^o neur 
As iQ make ihis relation? 

Spir. Care and uimoat shifts 

How [o secure ihc Lady (rom surprisal 
Brought to my mind a ccrEain shepherd lad, 
01^ smdlE regard to see to, yeE well skitlcd 
Tn every virtuous plant and healing hearb 
1 haE spread? her serdant leaf to the morning ray. 
He lovetl iue well, and oft would beg mt sing; 
Whieh ivhcn I did, he on the tender j-rass 
Would sit, arul hearken even to ecstasy, 
And m requital ope his leathern scrip^ 
And shew me simples of a thousand namcs^ 
Tcltin^ their strange and vigorous faculties. 
Amongst the rest a small unsightly root, 
IJut of divine eflect* he culled me out. 
The leat was darkish, and had prickles on it, 
Hu( in another country, as he said, 
iiore a bright golden flower, but not in this soil: 
Unknown* and like esteemed, and the dull swain 
Treads on it daily with his clouted shoon; 
And yet more med'cinal is if than that Moly 
Thai Hermes once lo wise Ulysses gave. 
He called it Harmony, and gave it me, 
And bade me keep it as ot sovran use 
'Gainst all inchaniments, mildew blast, or damp. 
Or ghasdy Puj^ies' apparition. 
J pursed it up, but little reckoning made. 
Till now ihat this extremity compelled. 
But now I find it (rue; for by this means 
I knew the foul inchanter, though disguised, 
Entered the very lime-twigs of his spells, 
And yet came olt. If you have this about you 
{As I will give you when we go) you may 
Boldly assault the necromancer's hall; 


Where if he be, wiih daanilcss hardihood 

And brandished blad<^ rush on him: break his glass, 

And :ihod the Iukiou? hquor on tht ymund: 

Bui seize [jis ^vand. Though ht ^nd his cursc crew 

Fierce sign of bactail mjkf, and menace high. 

Or, like ihe soni of Vulcan, vomit smoke^ 

Yet will they boon retire, it he but shrink. 

Eld. Bio. Thyrsis, lead on apace: I'll follow rhee; 
And some good ;inge] litJir a shield before us! 

The Hcetse cfsmii^fs tv a iSBtdy pt'tate. ift nul it^ifft ttll mannrr of dchaitff^ 
'less: foji I'ltnii-. laNrs spi'did it^irh Mi /iainiicf. Comd!h uppenn it-uh 
ins rabhte. ii"d rhc Lsxi\ set rn an hn^hn'trcd chiir: ra ivhuin he o^e's 
hii giirsj: w/iich ihe puss by. anii Qoer afjout sq rUc. 

CtiniNi. Nay. Laily^ sit. it I but vave this wand, 
Your nerves are nil chained up in alatibsler. 
And you a statue, or as Daphne was, 
Rcioi'bound^ thai fli^d Apollo. 

Lady. Fool* do not boast. 

Thou canst not touch tiie freedom of my mind 
Wiih ^11 ihy ch.imi'i, uUhouE^h this corporal rind 
Thou hast immanaclci] ivhile Heaven sees good. 

Coi)ius. Why are you vexed, Latiy? why do you 
Here dwell no frovviis, nor anger; froni ihcse gates 
Sorrow flics far. See, here be all the plejisures 
That fancy can beget on youthful ihouglits, 
When the fre^h bjytsd j;rt]\vs |i^'ely, and returns 
Brisk as the April buds in jsrimruSLi stjasou. 
And first behold this cordial julep here> 
That flanie? and dances in his crystal bounds, 
With spirits of balm and fragrant syrups mixed. 
Not thai Nepenthes vi'hich the wiEe ot Thone 
In Egypt f;ave to Jovc-born Helena 
Is of such povL'er to stir up joy as this, 
To life so friendly, or so coo! lo ihirsC. 
Why should you be so cruel to yourself, 
And to those dainty limbs^ which Nature lent 
For gende usage and soft delicacy.' 
But you invert the covenants of her trust. 
And harshly deah like ;in ill borrower, 

With that which you received on oiher tetms^ 

Scoroiny the unexempt condition 

By which all morial Irailty musi subsist, 

Rt^freshmeni afier toil^ ease after pain, 

1 "hat have be*;n tired all day without repast. 

And i[mc]y rcEi have wanted* But, (air virjiiiij 

Tliis will r<?sLori: a!] soon- 

Lady, T wiU not, fahe traiior[ 

"T will not restore the truth and honesty 
Tha[ ihou has banished from thy ton^ut vviih lies. 
Was this the tzoiiagc and (he safe ahode 
Thou io]d'$i me ofr What grini aspctrts'' are ihese, 
These oughly-headed tiionsicrs? Mercy ^uard m^l 
HcnL'e with ihv brewed inchanimenis^ foul deceiver! 
Hait Ehou bt^t raved niv credulous innocence 
With vizored falsehood and base forgery? 
And wouldst thou sunk again to trap me here 
With lickerish baits, fii to ensnare a brmc? 
Were it a draught tor Juno when she bantjueis, 
[ would nol [a^ie ihv treasonous ofTi^r, None 
But such as are good men can give good things; 
And [hat which is noi good is not delicious 
To a well-jioverned and wise appeiiie. 

ComMf. O foolishness of men^ thai lend their ears 
To tho^e budj;& doctors of the Stoic fur. 
And feich thetr precepts from the Cynic tub. 
Praising the lean and sallow Absrinence 
Wherefore ^lid Nature pour her bounties forth 
With such a full and imwithdrawing hand^ 
Qjvuring the earth wiih odours^ fruits^ and flocks, 
Thronging the seas with spawn innumerable^ 
But all to please and sate the curious taste? 
And set 10 work millions ol spinning worms, 
That in their green shops weave the smoolh-haired silk. 
To deck her sons; and, ihai no corner mighc 
Be vacant of her plenty^ in her own loins 
She hutche^d the all-worshiped ore and precious gtms, 
To store htr children with. If all the world 
Should in a pet ol temperance, feed on pulse^ 
Drink the clear stream, and noihing wear but frieze, 


The AH-giver would be uinhankedt would be 

Not !ia!f hi5 riches knowOp and yet despised; 
And wc shoutd serve him =is a grudging master. 
As a |}enurious niggard of hts wealth* 
Atid live like Nature's basiards, not her sons^ 
Who would be quite surcharged with her own weighs 
And strangled \vi[h her waste ieriihty: 
The tarth cumbered, and [he winged air dirked wlih 

The herds would over-mukitude thdr lords; 
The sea o'erfraughc would swells and die unsought 

Would so eniblaze the forehead of ihe Deep^ 
And so hestud with stars, thr^t (hey below 
Would grow inured to light, and come at Usi 
To gaze upon the Sun with shameless brows- 
List* Lady; be not coy, and be not co^^ened 
Wiih [hat same vaunled name, Virgimiy* 
Beauty is Naiure^s coin; must not be hoarded, 
But must be current; and th*; ;;aod thereof 
Conscscs in mutual and pan a ken bliss^ 
Unsavoury in the injoyment of itself. 
I£ you lc[ slip time, hko a nej;lected rose 
It wiihers on the sialk with languished head. 
Beamy is Nature** brag, and must be sho^vn 
In courts, at feasts, and high solemnilies^ 
Where most may wonder at the workmanship, 
h is for homely leatures to keep home; 
They had their name thence: coarse complexions 
And cheeks of sorry grain will serve CD plv 
The sampler, and to tease the huswife*s wooL 
What need a vermeil-tine lured lip for ihat^ 
Love-darting eyes, or tresses like the Morn? 
There was another meaning in these gifts; 
Think what, and be advised; you are but young yet. 

Lady, I had not choujjht to have unlocked my lips 
In this unhallov/ed air, but that ihis fuggler 
Would think to charm my judgments as mine eveSj 
Obtruding false rules pranked in reason^s garb. 

COM us 6^ 

J hatt w hen Vice can bok her arguments 

And Viriue has no tongue to check her p(ide» 

Imposioff do noi charge most innoct^nt Nature. 

As if she would her children should be riotous 

With her abundance. She, good Caittes:!* 

Mtans hur provision only to ihe good. 

That hve according to her sober laws. 

And holy diciati^ of spar^ Temperance. 

U every jusi man dut now pint^s with want 

Had but 3 moderate and beseeming share 

Ol that which Itwdly-panipered Luxury 

Now heaps upon soine few with vast e^LCeiSn 

Naiure*s Eull blessings would be well-dispensed 

In unsuperHuous e^en proportion. 

And she nt^ whit encmribercd widi her ^\ozc\ 

And then the Giver uould be better chaLiked, 

His praise due paid: for swinish Gluttony 

Ne'er looks to Heaven aniidst his gorjjeous leastn 

But with besotted ba^e ingratiEude 

Cram^ and blasphemed hi? Fi^eder. Shall I go on? 

Or have I said enow? To him that daroii 

Arm hii profane longue with contemptuoits words 

Against the sun-clad power of Chastitv 

Fain would 1 something say;^ — -yet to what end? 

Thou hast nor ear^ ^^^ souf, to apprehend 

The sublimt no[]on and high mystery 

That must be uttered to uniold the sage 

And serious doctrine of Virginity; 

And thou art \vorihy that thoti shouUJst not kno^v 

More hjppmess than this thy present lot, 

En)oy your dear Wn, and gay Rhetoric:, 

That ha[h so well been taught her dazzling fence; 

Thou art not Rt to hear thyself convinced. 

Yet, should I try, die uncontrolled worth 

Of ihis pure cause would kindle my rapt spirits 

To such a flame of sacred vehemence 

That dumb things would be moved to sympathize. 

And the brute Eardi would lend her nerves, and shake. 

Till all ihy magic structures, reared so high, 

Wert^ sha[tered into heaps o'er thy false head. 


Cotiuf. She fables no(. i feel thai 1 do fear 
Her worJs set off bv sonic superior power; 
And, [hough not moriAl, yei a cold shutidering dew 
Dips me all o'er, as when ih^ wrath of ]ovc 
Speaks ilmnder and [he chains of Erebus 
To some of Saiurn'i crew. I must disstmble^ 
And iry her yet more stmnj-ly. — Come, no more! 
Thi$ is mere moral babble^ and direcr 
Agam^i the canon Saws of our foundation. 
I must not surfer ihi^; yel 't is but the lees 
And ieulings of a melancholy blood, 
but ihi^ wllf cure all straight; one sip of this 
Will bathe the drooping spirits in delight 
iieyond the bliss of dreams. Be wise, and taste . . . 

T^f IIrothiju ri'ffi it ulth sit-orh rimu-i. wrest his ginii our of Mf hand. 

a-.d hrc^Si 1/ aj^aimt she ^ound: hit rout rnj^^ agn of rcs'staiicc. hut 
arc .sti drsr-fn in. The hTTSMQ\^T Spirit comes m- 

Spir. What! have you let the false Enchanter scape? 
O ye mistook; ye should bave snatched his wand. 
And bound him fast. Without his rod reversed, 
.'\nd backward mutters of dissevering power. 
We cannot free the Lady that aits here 
in stonv fetters fixed and motionless. 
Yet stay: be not disturbed; now I bethink me, 
Some other means J have which may be used, 
Which once of Mehbccus ofd I learnr. 
Tile soothest Shepherd that ere piped on plains. 

There is a gentle Nymph not far from hencpn 
That "ith moist curb sways the smcxith Severn stream: 
Sabrina is her name: a virgin pure: 
Whilom she was the daughter of Locrine, 
That had the sceptre from his father Brute. 
She, guiUle&s damsel, flying the mad pursuit 
Of her enraged stepdame, Guendolen, 
Commended her fair innocence to the flood 
That stayed her flight with his cross-flowinR course. 
The \vater-Nymphs, that in the bottom played. 
Held up their pearled wrists, and took her in. 
Bearing her straight to aged Nereus' hall; 
Who, piteous of her woes, reared her lank head. 


And ^ave Kcr to his daughters to imbauhe 

In nccwre<i lavers strewed with asphodiJ, 

And through the porch and inlet of each $cnse 

Drapt in ambrosial oils, till she revived. 

And undefwtni: a quick immorial change. 

Made Goddess of the river- Srill she retains 

Her maidi^n gendeness, and oft ai eve 

Visits the herds along the twilight meadows. 

Helping all urchin blasK^ and ilMuck signs 

TTiat ihe shrewd meddhng Elf delights to make^ 

Which she with pretious vialed hquors heals; 

For which the Shepherds, at their lesEivals^ 

Carol her goodness loud in mstfc Uys^ 

And [hro^v stt'eet garland ^ireach^ into her streanij 

Cf panbics, pinks, and gaudy dalTadils- 

And, as the old Swain said, she can unlock 

Tht; ctasptng charni^ and thaw (he numbinij spetl, 

II she be right invoked in warbled song; 

For maidenhood she loves, and will be swift 

To aid a virgin, such as was her$ell\ 

In h3rd-be$ei[ing need. This will I try. 

And add the power of some adjuring verse, 


Sabrina fair. 

Listen whofc thou art sJttinjt 
Under the glaisy, cool, translucent wave, 

in twisted braids of lilies knotting 
The loose train of thy am b<:r-d topping hairj 

Listen for dear honour's sake. 

Goddess of the silver lake, 
Listen and save! 

Listen, and appear to usp 

In name of great Oceanus, 

By the earih-shaking Neptune^s mace 

And Tethys' grave majestic pace; 

Bv hoary Nereus' wrinkled look. 

And the Carpa[hian wizard's hook; 

By scaly Triton's winding shell. 


And old iontlisayirg Glaucus^ spell; 

By Leucochea's lovely hands, 

And her son [hat ruWs the sirands; 

Bv TheEis' linsel-shppeied fecr* 

And [he son;;s of Sirens sweet; 

By dead ParihcriHfie'? dear tamh. 

And fair Ligea's golden comh, 

Whereuilh she sits on diamond! rocks 

Sleeking her soft alluring locks: 

By all the nymphs th;ii nightly dance 

Upon thy sirenms with wily glunce; 

Rise, rise, and heave thy rosy head 

From ihy coral-pave n bed, 

And bridle in ihy headlong wave, 

Till thou our summons answered have. 

Li^rcn and save! 

SjibPiXA riser, aiiadi'd hy Wnitr-tiymphi, J^./ tings. 

Bv ihe rushy-fringed bank, 

Where grows (he willow and the oiser dank, 

Mv sliding chariot stays» 
Thick set with agate, and (he a^^urn shc^n 
Of lurkis blut\ and emerald grttn, 

That in the thannd strays: 
Whilst from off the ^vatei'i fleet 
Thu* 1 set my prinrless fcei 
O^cr the cowslip's veh'el head, 

That bends not as I tread. 
Gentle swain, at thy request 

I am herel 

Spir. Goddess dear, 
We implore thy powerful hand 
To undo the charmed band 
0/ true virgin here distressed 
Through the force and ihroutjh the wile 
Of unblessed enchanter vile- 

Sahr. Shepherd. 'c is my office best 
To help insnared Chastity, 
Brightest Lady^ look on me. 


Thus I sprinkle on ihy breast 
Drops that from my fountain puie 
I have kepi ot preiious cure; 
Thrice li|x>i ihy finger's [ip^ 
Thrice upon thy rubicJ hp: 
Ne>!t this marble vcnomed scat. 
Smeared with i;ums of glutinous heat, 
1 touch with chaste palms moist 3itJ co!J. 
Now ihe spell hath lost his hold; 
And I musi haste ere muftiin;; hour 
To wait in Amphitrite's bower^ 

S-^SRiNA j/fA'^wt/j, t2Nd fhc LaOV nVfj out of f^^r jferf* 

Spir, Virgin, daughter of Locrintn 
Sprung o[ old Anchises' lincn 
May ihy brin^mcd waves for (his 
Their full [hbutc never miss 
From a thousand petty rillSn 
That tumble down the snowy hills: 
SuEiinier drouth or lilnged air 
Never scorch thy iiesses fair, 
Nor wet October's torrent (lood 
Thy molten crystal fill wiih mud; 
May thy billows roll ashore 
The beryl and the golden ore: 
May thy lofty head be crowned 
With many a tower and terrace round. 
And here and there thy banks upon 
With groves of myrrh and cinnamon. 

Come^ Lady; whfle Heaven lends us grace. 
Let us fly this cursed place^ 
Lest the Sorcerer us entic^^ 
With some other new deviccn 
Not a waste or Jieedlesi sou[id 
Till wt come to holier ground. 
T shall be your faithful ^uide 
Through this gloomy coven wide" 
And not manv furlongs thence 
Is your Fath^r^s residence^ 
Where thh night are met in state 


Many a friend to gram] ace 

His wished presence, and beside 

AH [he Swains that there abide 

With jigs 3nd rural dance reson. 

We shall catch them 31 their iporlj 

And our sudden coming there 

Will double flU their tnirth and cheer. 

Comej let us haste; the siar^ yrow hi^jh, 

But Night sits monarch yet in the mid skj\ 

TAc S^c^^^ t'Atiugi^j, pr^seurivg LtiJhw TobvIh and ;/jr Prr/^^rnr'i iC-7//^ifr 

^ , _ ^ _ _ ^ _ 


5/>iV. Bitck, Shephefds, back! Enouj;!] your play 
Till ne\f sun-shine holiday. 
Here be* wilhout duck or noJ, 
Oihcr [rippin^s lo bt: irod 
Of lighter iocs, and ^nch courl guist 
As Mercury did lirsi devise 
Wuh the mincing Dry.ides 
On the lawn^ .ind on the leas. 

TAis ictcud Song pretenn them so ihcir Pathn- I'^ni Mother, 

Noble Lord and Lady bright, 
r have brought ye new delight. 
Here behold so goodly grown 
Three fair branches of your own. 
Heaven baEh timely tried their youth. 
Their taiih> their patience, and their irudt, 
And sent them here through hard assays 
With a crown of deathless praise^ 
To triumph in victorious dance 
O'er sensual Folly and Iniempeiance. 

The doncci cnded^ 'he Spirit epUognizcs. 

Spir. To the ocean now I fly, 
And those happy climes that lie 
Whore day never shuts his eye» 
Up in ihe broad fields oi liie sky. 
There I suck the h[:iij]d air. 

COM us 71 

Ali amidst [he Gardens fair 

Of Htsperus^ and his daughters [hree 

ThaE sing about the Golden Tree^ 

Along the crispf'd shades and bower'; 

Revels the spruce and jocond Sprinii; 

The Graces and iht rosv-hosomed Hours 

Thither all iheir bounties bring* 

Thure eternal Summer dwells, 

And west winds \^iih musky wing 

About the cedarti alleys fling 

Nard and cassia's balniv smells* 

Tris there wiih humLd bow 

Waters the odorous b^ink^, ibat blow 

Flowers of more mingled hue 

Than her purflcd sc^ri cjin shew^ 

And drenches with Ely^ian dew 

{Use morials, ii your ears be Eruc) 

Bcd^ of Kyadnth and roses. 

Where youn^ Adonis ah reposes. 

Waxing well ot his deep wound 

In slumber soti^ and on the ground 

Sadly sits [he Assyrian queen; 

Rut far above in spangt^d sheen 

Cek^tJal Cupid, her famed son, :iJvanced, 

Holds his dear Psyi:he sweet inirLinced^ 

After her wandriiig labours long. 

Till free consent the gods amonji 

Make her his eternal Bride, 

And from Jier lair unspoiled side 

Tuo blissful twins are to be born, 

Youth and Joy; so Jo^e hath sworn* 

But now my task is smoothly doncj 
I can fly^ or 1 can run 
Quickly to ihe green earth^s end^ 
Where ihe bowed uclkin slow doth bend, 
And from thence can soar as soon 
To the corners of the Moon, 

Mortals, [htit woul<3 follow me. 
Love Viriue, she alone is free; 
She can teach ye how to climb 


Higher than the spheary chime: 
Or» if Virtue feebU were. 
Heaven itself would scoop to her, 


Tn this Af[ino[Jv [ht Authur bewails a learned FritncI, unforhknaiely 
drowniii in hh ^.K•^.^^e Iroin Chesror or ilie Iri^h Seas, Ttj7i and, by 
occ3:^Jon> forcietls iht niin of our coitiipted Clergy, then in iheii heiyhi. 

Yet once more, O yc Laurels, and once more. 
Ye Myrtles brown, with ivy never sere, 
I eome to pluck your berries harsh and crude. 
And with forced fingers rude 
Sh^^tter your leaves before the mellowing yc^r. 
Bitter constraint and sad occasion dear 
Compels me to disturb your season due; 
For Lvcidas is dead, dead ere his prime, 
Young Lycidas, and hath not left his peer. 
Who would not sing for Lycidas? he knew 
Himself to sing, and build ibe lofty thyme. 
He must not floaE upon his watery bier 
L'nwept, and weller to the p:irching wind, 
M'ithouE the meed of some melodious tear. 

Begin, then, Sisters of the sacred well 
Thai from beneath the scat of Jove doth spring; 
Begin, and somewhat loudly sweep the iiLnng, 
Hence with denial vain and coy excuse: 
So may some gcnde Muse 
Wi[h lucky words favour my destined urn^ 
And as he passes turn» 
And bid fair peace be to my sable shroud! 

For we were nursed upon the self-same hill, 
Fed the same flock, by fountain, shade, and rill; 
Together both, ere the high lawns appeared 
Under the opening eyelids of the Morn, 
We drove a-field, and both together heard 
What time the grey-fly winds her sultry horn, 
Battening our flocks with the fresh dews of night, 
Oft till the star that rose at evening bright 


Toii-arJ heaven s descent had sloped his westering 

Meanwhile the rural JiitJes were not mule- 
Tempered to [he oaten flute 

Rotigh Saljis danced, and Fauns with cloven heel 
From the ^lad sound would not he absent Jony; 
And old Damccias loved to hear our son^- 

Bur, ohi ihe heavy change, now thou art gone, 
Now thou art gone and never must return! 
Thee, Shepherd, thee the woods and desen caves, 
Willi wild thyme and the gadding vine o e^g^o^vn, 
And all their echoes, mourn. 
The willows, and the hazel copses green. 
Shall now no more be seen 
Fanning their (oyous leaves to thy soft lays. 
As k[!3[ng as the canker to the rose. 
Or rainl-worm to the weanling herds that graze, 
Or trost to flowers, that their gay wardrobe wear, 
When hrsi the white-thorn blows; 
Such, Lycidas, ihy loss to shepher<rs ear. 

Where were ye. Nymphs, when the remorseless deep 
Closed o'er the head o( vour loved Lycidas? 
For ndiher were ye playing on die steep 
Where your old Bards, the famous Druids, He, 
Nor on the shaggy top of Mona hi^h, 
Nor }et ivhere De^a spreads her wizard stream. 
Ay me! 1 fondly dream 
"Had ye been there," . , - for what could that have 

Whar conld the Muse herself that Orpheus bore, 
The Mu^e herself, for her inchaniing son. 
Whom universal nature did lament. 
When, by the rout that made the hideous roar. 
His gory visage down the stream ivas sent, 
Down the swift Hebrus to the Lesbfan shore? 

Ahi! what boots it wi^h uncessant care 
To tend (he homely, slighted, Shepherd's trade, 
And strictly meditate the thankless Muse? 
Were it not better done, as others use. 
To sport with Amar^lhs in the shade. 


Or with the langles o£ Neara's hair? 

Fame is the spur that the clear spirit cloth raise 

(Thai lnsr mlirmity of noble mind) 

To scofji delijjhts and live laboricju^ days; 

But the fatr gutrdon when we hope to hnj^ 

And think to burst out inio sudden blaze^ 

Comes the blind Fury with the abhorred shears, 

And slits ihe thin-spun hfe, *'But not the priiist/* 

Phcrbus replied^ and touched my trembling ears: 

'Tame is no plant chat grow^ on mofial soil^ 

Nor in the ghstering foil 

Silt ofl to the worlds nor in broad rumour lle^j 

But lives and spreads aloft by those pure eyes 

And pcrfet wiiness of all-judging [ove; 

As he pronounces lasUy on each deed^ 

Of so much fame in hravcn expect thy meed/' 

O fountain Arethuse, and thou honoured floods 
Smooth-sliding Mincius^ crowned with vocal reeds, 
Thar iir.iin 1 heard was of a higher mood. 
But now my oat proceeds. 
And listens to the Herald of the Sea, 
That came in Neptune's plea. 
He asked the waves, and asked the felon winds. 
What hard mishap hath doomed this gentio swain? 
Atnl questioned every gust of rugged wings 
That blows from off each beaked |>romontory. 
They knew not of his story; 
And sage Hippotades their answer brings, 
That not a blasE was from his dungeon strayed^ 
The air was calm, and on ihe level brine 
Sleek Panope with all her sisters played- 
ic was that fatal and periidious bark, 
Buil[ in the eclipse, and rigged wiLh curses darkj 
That sunk so low that sacred head ol thine, 
I Next CamuSj reverend Sire^ went footing e1o^\ 

His maniie hairy, and his bonnet sedge^ 
Inwrought with Rgures dim, and on ihe edge 
Like to that sanguine Eiower inscribed with woe- 
"Ahl who hath reft," quoth he, ''my dearest pledge?' 
Last came, and last did go, 


The pilot of I he Galilean L*fke; 

Two massy keys he bore of me[*ils twain 

(The golcfcn opes, the iroQ shuts atniin). 

Ho shook his mtEfetl focks^^nJ siern bfjspakc^:— 

"Ho\v wtU coiiUI I have spared for thee, young svK^ain, 

Ano^v of such as^ for their bellies^ Stike^ 

Crct^p, and incrudc^ and dimb iuio the folJ! 

Of othtT care ihey hitle reckouing mtike 

1 han how to scramble at ihtr sheart^rs' foasf, 

Aud shove away the worthy biddevi guest- 

13hnd mouihs! that scarce ihemsdves know how to hold 

A shecp-hookt or have learnl aughl eho the len^i 

That lo [he faiihful Herdmaii^s art helongs! 

Whai recks it them? Whai need they? They :ire sj^d; 

Andy when ihey W^i^ their lean and Heshy songs 

Cnne oil ihcir scrannel pipes of wretched straw; 

The hungry sheep look up, and are not fod^ 

Bur, swoln with wind and ihe rank mi^E they Jraw, 

I^ot iiiwardlv, and foul contagion spread; 

Resides what the grim Wolf with prfvy paw 

Daily devours apace, and nothing said. 

But that Iwo-hanclcd engine at the door 

Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more-" 

Return, Alp he us; ihe dread voice is past 
That shrunk thv 5[ream5; return^ Sicilian Muse, 
And calt the vales, and bid them hiiher case 
Their bells and fiowereis of a thousand hues. 
Ye valleys low, where die mild whisf>ers use 
Of shades, and wanton winds, and gushing brooks, 
On whoie fresh Lip the swart star sparely looks. 
Throw hither ali your quaint enamelled eyes, 
That on the green turf suck the honeyed ihowers, 
And purpk all the ground with vernal flowers, 
Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies^ 
The tufted crow-toe, and pafe gessamine. 
The white pink, and the pansy freaked with jet, 
The glowin-r violet, 

The mu5k-rose> and the well-attired woodbine, 
With cowslips wan that hang the pensive head, 
And every flower ihat sad embroidery wears; 


BiJ amaraniKus all his bcauiy shed, 

And dslTadillies fiU their cups with tears, 

To strew the laureate hearse where Ljcid lies. 

For so, to interpose a Httle ease, 

Let our frail thoughts dally with fabe surmise. 

Ay me! whilst thee the shores aiiJ soundini- seas 

Wash far away, where'er thy bones yre hurleil; 

Whether beyond the stormy Hebrides, 

Where thou perhaps under the whelming tide 

Visii'st the bottom of the monstrous world; 

Or whether thou, to our moist vows denied, 

Sfeep'st by the fable of Bellcrus old, 

Where the great Vision of the guarded mount 

Looks toward Namancos ar\d Bayona's hold. 

Look homeward, Angel rioWj and melt wjih ruih: 

And, O ye dolphins, wafc the haptess youtii. 

Weep no more, woeful shepherds, weep no more. 
For Lycidas» your sorrow, is not dead, 
Sunk though he be beneaih the watery floor. 
Sd sinks the day-star in the ocean bed. 
And yet anon repairs his drooping head. 
And tricks his beams, and with new-spangled ore 
Flames in the forehead of the morning sky; 
So Lycidas sunk low, but mounted high, 
Through the dear iiiight of Him th;it xvalked the waves, 
Where, other groves and other streams along, 
With necrar pure his oozy locks he laves, 
And hears the unexpressive nuptial song, 
In the blest kingdoms meek of joy and love. 
There entertain him all the Saints abovCj 
In solemn troops, and sweet societies, 
That sing, and singing in their glory move» 
And wipe the tears for ever from his eyes. 
Now, Lycidas, the Shepherds weep no more; 
Henceforth thou art the Genius of the shore. 
In thy large recompense, and shalt be good 
To all that wander in that perilous flood- 
Thus sang the uncouth Swain to the oaks and rills. 
While the still Morn ivent out with sandals grey: 


He ttJucKed ihe tonder stops of various quiils^ 
Wiih cugcr ihouyht warbting his Doric lay: 
And now the sun had itrcichcd ont all thi: hilk, 
And noiv wji Jropi inm ibt ^^'t'SIern h.iy. 
At [ani: Ke rose, and iwkclii'd his mantle blue; 
To-morrow to fresh woods, and pastures new. 




1 642- 1 658 


(November, 1G42) 

CAPTAlK, or coEoncl, or knight in urms* 
Wliose chance on ihcsc defenceless doors i\iav hoi;^rCj 
U deed of huiumr dlJ ihee *^ver piciistj, 
f puard them, and hint within prottxt from hurm^. 
He can requite ihee^ Eor he knows ihc eh^ums 
That csill tame on such gende acts as these, 
And he can sprc^id i\\y name o^er landi rtnd ^^:as, 
Whatever dime the sun's bright circle warms. 
Lift not thy spe^ir aj^alnst the Muse's bower; 
The great Em.iihian conqueror bid spare 
The bouse of Pindarus, when temple ;ind tower 
Wenf to the ground; and the repeated air 
Of sad E]ectra\ Poet bad the power 
To 5ave the Athenian walls from ruin b^ire. 



Lady! that in ihe prime of earliest youih 

Wisely hast shunned the brti^tl way and ibc isrecn^ 

Ant] Willi thosi? few an eminently 5ccn^ 

That liitiour up the Hill of Heavenly Truth, 

The Ixititr pari with Mary and wiih Ruth 

Chosen thou hasl, and they that overween. 

And at thy growing virtues fret thtir spken, 



No anger find in thee, but piiy and rutVi. 

Thy care is fixed, and zealously attends 

To fill thy odorous Lamp with deeds q( li^h[. 

And Hope that reaps not shame; ihcrelOFe be sure, 

Thou, when the Uride3;rDom with his leasiful friunds 

Passes ID lili^ at t!ie mid hour of ni^lil* 

Ha&l gained thy entrance* Virgin wise and jmrc. 


Dailtcilter to that good Ear], onee President 
Ot England's Council and her Treasury, 
Who lived in both unstained with gold or toe, 
And left ihein both, more in himself content, 

Till the sad breaking of th:i[ Partiaraent 
Broke him, a? dui dishonest victory 
At Chsronea, fatal to Jiberly* 
Killed with report that old man eloquent. 

Though hier horn ihan to have known the day^ 
Wherein >our father flourished, yet bv vou, 
Madam, methinks T set him hving yet; 

So well your words hi^ noble virtues praise 
Thac all both judge you to relate ihcm true 
And to possess them, honoured Mar^^afec. 



A BOOK was writ o£ late called Tstiachoidon, 
And woven close, both matter^ form, and sivle; 
The subject new: it walked the town a while. 
Numbering good intellects; now seldom pored on. 

Cries the siall-reader, "Bless us] what a word on 
A tide-page is this!"; and some in file 
Stand spelling false, while one might walk to Mile- 
End Green. Why, is it harder^ siTS, than Gordon, 

Col^jno, or Matdonnsl. or Gdasp? 
Those rugged names Co our like mouths gro\'' sleek 



That would have made Quiniilian stare and gasp. 
Thy age, like ours, O soul of Sir John Cheek, 
Hflied not teaming worse than load or asp, 
When ihou taught'st Cambridge and King Edward 


I DID but prompt the age to quit their clogs 
By ihe known rules of ancient liberty^ 
When airaight a bjirbarous noise environs me 
Of owls and cuckoos, asses^ apes, 3nd dogs; 

As when ihose hinds that were transformed to frogs 
Railed at Lacona's twin-horn progeny, 
Which after held the Sun 3nd Moon in fee, 
BiU this is got by casting pearl lo hogs^ 

Thai bawl for freedom in their senseless moods 
And still revolt when Truth would set them free- 
Licence ihey mean when they cry Liberty; 

For who loves that mus[ first be wise and good; 
Rut from that mark how f:ir they rove we see, 
For aJl this waste of weahh and loss of blood, 



Because you have thrown off your Prelaie Lord, 
And wtih sEi[7 vows renounced his Liturgy, 
To seize the widowed whore Pluralityj 
From ihem whose sin ye enviodj rot abhorred. 

Dare ye for t\\h adjure the civil sword 
To force our consciences that Christ set free. 
And ride us with a Classic Hierarchyj 
Taught yc by mere A. S* and Rutherford? 

Men whose life, learnings faith, and pure intent. 
Would have been held in high esteem with Paul 
Must now be named and printed heretics 

By shallow Edwards and Scotch What-d'ye<aJl! 


Bui wc do hope to find out aU yaur tricks* 
Your plots and packing* worse lEian those of Ticm, 
That so the Parliament 
May with their wholesome and preventive shears 
Clip your phylacteries* though baulk yyur cars. 

And succour our just fear*, 
When they shall read this clearly in your charge: 
New FiEsbylei- is but old Pries: writ large, 



Hakry, whose tuneful and well-measured song 
First tauiihi our English music how 10 span 
Words with just note and accent* not to scan 
With Midas' ears* committing short and long* 

Thy worth and skill exempts thee from the throng. 
With praise enough for Envy 10 look wan; 
To after age thou shalt be writ the man 
That with smooth air couldst humour best our 

Thou honour'st Verse^ and Verse must lend her wing 
To honour thee, the priest of Phtrbus" quire* 
That tunest their happiest lines in hymn or story. 

Dante shall give Fame leave to wi thee higher 
Than his CaseJla, whom he wooed to sing, 
Met in the milder shades of Purgatory. 



DECEASED DEC, 16, 1646 


When Fa[th and Love, which parted from ihee never. 
Had ripened thy just soul to dwell with God* 
Meekly ihou didii resign this earthly load 
Of death* called life* which us from life dolh sever. 

Thy works* and alms, and all thy good endeavour, 
Stayed not behind, nor in the grave were trod; 
But, 35 Faith pointed with her golden rod* 


Followed thee up to joy and bliss for ever. 
Love led them on; and Faith, who knew them best 

Thy handmaidsj dad ihem o'er with purple beam:; 

And azure wings, that up chcy flew so dresl^ 
And speak the truth of thee on glorious themes 

Before [he Judge: who hencefonh bid theu rest. 

And drink ihy fill of pure immortal streams, 



Faikfax, whose name in arm^ through Europe rin^s, 
Filling each mouih with envy or with praise, 
And aU her jealous monarch^ wiih amaze. 
And rumours loud that Jaunt remotest kings, 

Thy firm unshaken viriuc ever brings 

Victory home, though new rebellions raise 
Their Hydra licads, and the false North displays 
Her broken league to imp their serpenc wings, 

O yet a nobler task awaits thy hand 

(For what can war but endless war still breed?) 
Till truth and right from violence be freed, 

And public faith cleared from ihe sliamcful brand 
Of public fraud. In vain doth Valour bleed, 
While Avarice and Rapine share the [and. 


Cromwell, our chief of men, who through a cloud 
Not of war only, but detractions rudij 
Ciuided hy faith and matchless fortitude, 
To peace and truth thy glorious way hast ploughed. 

And on the neck of crowned Fortune proud 
Hast reared God's trophies, and his work pursued, 
While Darwen stream, with blood of Scots imbrued. 


And Dunbar field, resounds ihy praises loud. 
And Worcester's laureate wreath: yei much remnins 
Tu conquer sEilh Peace haih her victories 
N'o less renowned than War: new foes arisCt 
Threylening to bind our souh with stcnlar ch.iini. 
Help us 10 save free conscience Irom thf paw 
Of hirchnji wolves, whose Gospel is their mnw, 



Vane, young in years^ but in sage counsel oU, 

Than whom ?. he[[er senator ne'er held 

The helm of Ronie^ when gowns^ noi arms, repelled 

Tht^ Bcrct Epirot and the AfrLcan hold, 
Wheiher to seule pcacCj or to unfold 

The drift of hollow stales hard to be sjwllcd^ 

Then to advise how war may besl^ upheld, 

Move by her twa main nerves^ iron and gold, 
In A\ her equipage; besides* to know 

lloih spiritual [wwor and civil, what each mcaitSj 

^^^!lJt severs each^ thou hast karncdj which few have 
Tlie bounds of either sword to thee we owe; 

Therefore on (hy ftrm hand Religion leans 

In peace, and reckons ihee her tjidesi son, 


AvENCE> O Lord, ihy slaughtered SaintSj whose bon^s 

Lie scattered en the Alpine mountains cold; 

liven them who kept ;hy truth so pure of old, 
When all our fathers worshiped stocks and stones, 
Forget not; in thy book, record their groans 

Who were thy sheep, and in their ancient fold 

Slain by ihe bloody Piemontese, that rolled 
\ioiher with infant down the rocks- Their moans 
The vales redoubled to ihe hills, and they 

To heaven. Their martyred blood and ashes sow 


O'er all [he Italian fields^ where still doth sway 
The triple Tyrant; thai from these may grow 
A hundredfold^ who, having learnt thy wsy^ 

Early may fly the Babylonian woe^ 

^ - - 



WtiES 1 consider how my lighi is spent 

Ere half my days in this dark world and wide> 
And thji one Talem whfch is death to hide 
Lodged with me useless, though my sou] nioie bent 

To serve therewith my ^faker, and present 
My ime account, lest He returning chide^ 
"Doth God exnct day-labour» hghi denied?'* 
I fondlv ask. But Patience, lo prevent 

That n^urmurj ioon rephes* "Cod doth not need 
Either man'a work or his own gifts. Who best 
Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best- His state 

Is kingly; thousands at his bidding speed. 
And post o'er land and ocean without rest; 
They also serve who only stand and wait." 


Lawrence, of virtuous father virluous son, 

No^v that the fidds are dank, and ways are mire, 
Where ^hall we sometLmes meet, and hy the hre 
Help waste a sullen day, what may be won 

From the hard season gaining? Time will run 
On smoolher^ till Favonius reinspire 
The frozen earth, and clothe in fresh aturc 
The lily and roi^e, that neither sowed nor spun. 

Wha[ near repast shall feast us, light and choicei 
Of Attic taste, with wine^ whence we may rise 
To hear the luie well touched, or artful voice 

Warble immortal noles and Tuscan air? 

He who of those dcEights can judge, and space 
To inierpose them oft, is not unwise. 



CvRiACK, who^c grandsire on the royal bench 

Of fSriiish Tlicniis^ uiih no nieyn npp];U]&c, 

Pronounced, and in his volumes laughs our lavvs^ 

Which othtrs at ihcir bar so ofteii wrench, 
To-cjay deep ihou^jiits resolvi; wiih me to drtnch 

In mirth thiit attcr no rcpL'nling draws; 

Let Euchd rtst, and ArchimeJe^ piiu:^, 

And what die Swede imend, and nhai the French. 
To measure life learn thou betinies, and know 

To^va^d solid good what lead? the nearest way; 

Por other ihings milJ 1 le^ivcn a time ordains, 
And disapproves that care* though wise in ihow, 

That with superiTuotis burden loads ihe d.Tv^ 

Andj when God sends a cheerful hour^ refrains, 


CvfliACKs this three yeaia' day thy^ e)es, though clear. 

To ouiw^^rd vieWj of blemish or of spot. 

Bereft of lights their set]ing liave for^joi; 

Nor to their idle orb? doth sight appear 
Of suciy or niooai, or siarj throughout [he year, 

Or man, or woman. Yet I argue not 

Against Heaven's hand or will, nor bate a jot 

Of henrt or hope, but atill bear up and Eieer 
Right onward. What supports me, dost thou ask? 

The conscience^ friend, to have lose ihem o\erplied 

In Liboriy's defence, my noble task^ 
Of which all Europe rings from side lo ^ide. 

This thought might lead me through the world's vain 
Content, though blind, had I no better guide* 



Methought I SAW my late espoused saint 
Broiij^ht 10 me like Akesiis from the grave. 
Whom )ove^5 grenl son 10 her glnd husbiind gave, 
Rescued from Denih by force, Uiough pate and faintp 

Mine, as ulioiTi washed from spot ot childbtJ wini 
Purification in the Old Law did save, 
And such as yet once more I tru^l to have 
Full sight of her in Heaven without restraint 

Came vcsied all in whitc^ pure as her mind. 
Her face was veiled; yet to my fancied si^ht 
Love, sweetness^ goodness^ in her person shined 

So clear as in no face with more delight, 
Rutj oh! as to embrace me she Inclined, 
[ wakedj she fledj and day broughi back my night- 

1 658-1 663 


'1 lie nieasuro is Lnglish heroic verse without rimp^ as Uial of Homtr 
i!i Greek, and of VirgiJ in Latin— rime being nu nt:ces6ary adjunct or 
ifue □rrii^muit ol pot-m or gcwd vcisCj in longer works cspeciallv, bni the 
invention of a barbarous age^ to soc off ivrctchi?d matit'r and lame metre; 
graced rndci^J since by the use of sonic famous modern poets^ carried 
away bji custom, but much to their flwn vcjiaiion, hindrance* and con- 
straint to express mnny ihings otherwise, and for the most pan worse, 
than el^e tlicy ^vould liave expressed iheni. Xoi withijul cau^e iherclore 
some both Itahan and Spanish |X)eis ot prime note have refected rime 
both in longi^r and shorter uorks* as have also long sinci: our bust English 
ira;;edie5j as a thing of itself, to all judicitius ears, trivial and of no true 
musical delight; which consists only in apt numbers, lit quantity of 
syLlabks, and die sen^e variously drawn oui from one verse into another* 
noi in the jinghng sound of like endings — a fanlt avoided by the learned 
ancients both in poetry and all yood oratory. This neglect then of rime 
so liulo is to be taken tor a defect* though ic may sclfii so perhaps to 
vulgar renders, that it rather is to be esteemed an exampEe set, the first 
in Enghsh, of ancient liberty recovered to heroic poem from the Lrouble- 
aome and mi>iJern bundagc of riming. 


Tire ABfiUMtyT. — Tlii^ V'wn liuok F>n)|>oscs, fn^c in luici, ihc wbcile Mjbrecr — 
Muna JLM;L«dii:ni:4j, and the: [••.■.^ rl][;rL-U|>i<n of Taradisc^ whLToin Jiy wa& pJatwl; thtn 
li>Tn:Le& the pfunL- t;^ll^^ iti Ifjs i:\\[ — tile Scrpntn or rjilur S.iljn in [lie Scrpcnf; ^hu, 
[■yv-nlTiiJ^ from God. and drawing' lo hi^ %\-if ina[i> Ici^iuns t,t Angels, was, hy [lit 
i^oniniand of God, Jiiven nu[ d llci'n-a. iviih all h'n cf(;iv, imo dir- yrtji Deop. 
Whith aciicjfi jii^cd over, (he Poi-iii habits jnin ihe mvist of [hjngi; pic^entirsg Siian, 
Ni'ith his Aniicis, mi* fallen inTf> [J<jll— dow:ribed hert not in ihu OnTre (fur heaven 
jjiil u^rtli may t* suppoiccE js \i.-c noi madt, ccripinly noF y-K accuezvd], Imi in a 
pljtc cft micr darkncjin fiilir^t called Chjoi, Here Saian, with hii An^eh l^jng on 
ihc burning fiikc, Thundersiruck and ghinniihtd aiicr a certain ^patc rci-iviTs, as from 
.i>nfi],inn; tah:, up him wliii, nc^t in order and dieniiy* Isy by him: ihcy eiinfer of 
ihcir miuirablv fall. £.i[an awaken^ all his legions, wlio l;ii- [ill ihi-p in [he sime 
manner confounded. They ri^c: rlicir numbers; array of baiiiti [lieii thief kadtrs 


named, according to the idols known atccr*ard& in Canun and iKe countries ad-^ 
joining. To the^ S^t^n directs his spotch: tiomEorts thtcn with h^pt y^ t>f r<>- 
t^inuiff Heavcjii bui cells ihtnik lastly, ot a new wnrld and new kind of creature to 
be CfeaLcd, according to an ancienL prophccvn or rcpotti in Htaven^Ior thzit Anpels 
\vtrc lonbt l>cfore this visible i:rca(ion was ih<; oplnjan of many anticnc Pach^rs. To 
find &UC the truth of thks prophecy, and what ta d^rtermine Lhcrenn. lie rcfi^rt to a 
full cQuncIL Wh:H his associate^ tl^enct attempt. Pancfemoniumk the p3la[:e ot S^tann 
riscSj suddenly built out of the Deep: the infornal Pwr5 there sit in enunci!. 

OF MAN'S first disobcdiencCj and the frust 
Of that forbitldei^ tree whose mortJil tSAie 
Brought <]e3ih into the World, ^nd all our \^oe^ 
Witfi loss of EdcHj till one greater Man 
Restore us^ and rcgnin xhe bhssful Seat^ 
Sing, Heavenly Muse, thatj on the secret top 
Of Orcbj or of Sinai, didsi inspire 
Thai Shepherd who first taught the chosen seed 
In the beginning how the heavens and earth 
Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill 
Delight thoe more^ and Siloa's brook that flowed 
Fast by the orade of God, I thence 
Invoke thy aid to my ad^'enirous song* 
Tliat with no middle flight intends to soar 
Above the Aonian mount, while it pursues 
Things unaliempced yet in prose or rhyme- 
And chiefly Thou, O Spirit^ that dost prefer 
Before all temples the upright heart and puie, 
Instruct me^ for Thou know'st; Thou from the first 
Wast present, andj with tnighty wings ouE&pread, 
Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss^ 
And mad'si it pregnant: what in me h dark 
Illumine, what is low raise and support; 
That, to the highth of this great argumenCj 
I may assert Eternal Providence, 
And justify ihe ways of God to men. 

Say first — for Heaven hides nothing from thy ^iew, 
Nor [ho deep tract of Hell— say first whac cause 
Moved our grand ParentSj in that happy state^ 
Favoured of Heaven so highly^ to fall olF 
From their Creator^ and transgress his will 
Foi one restraint, lords of the World besides- 
Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? 



The infernal SprjWnt; he irwas wfiose gUile, 

Stirred up wilK envy jnd rcvenj-e, deceived 

The moihcr oi mankind^ what lime his pride 

Had cjist him out from Htavcn, wiili all hi^ host 

01' rrjbel Aiij-els, by whose aid^ aspirjnjj 

To set him^lf in glory above his peers, 

He ifu^ced to have eqiiyllcd the Most Hii^h, 

If he opposed, and, wiih ambitious aim 

Against ihi^ throne and monarchy of God, 

Raised impious war in Heaven and baulc jiFoud, 

Wiih \a:n aitempi. Him the Almighty f'uwcr 

Hurled headlong Jtaming from the ethereal sky, 

With hideous ruin and combustion, down 

To bottomless perdition, tliere to dwell 

In adamantine chains and penal lire. 

Who durst ilciy the Omnipotent to arms- 
Nine times the space that measures day and night 

To mortal men, he. with his horrid crew, 

Lay vanquished, rowlin^ in the liery gulf. 

Confounded, though immortal. Bui bis doom 

Reserved hint to more wrath; tor now tht thought 

lioth of lost happiness and lasting pain 

Torments him: round he throws his baleful eyes. 

Thill witnessed hu^e aRlictioji and dismay, 

Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast hate. 

At once* as far as Angel's ken, he views 

The dismal situation waste and wild, 

A dungeon horrible, on all sides round. 

As one great furnace flamed; yet from ihose flames 

No light; but rather darkness visible 

Served only to discover sights of woe, 

Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where peace 

And rest can never dwell, hope never comes 

Thai comes to all, but torture without end 

Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed 

With evcr-burning sulphur unconsumcd. 

Such place Eternal Justice had prepared 

For those rebellious; here their prison ordained 

In utter darkness, and their portion set. 

As far removed from God and light of HeavcQ 

go JOHN MILTON eooic i 

As from the centre ihricc to the utmost pole- 
Oh liow unlike the place from whence they fell! 
There iKe compamons of hts fall, overwhelmed 
With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire, 
He soon discerns; and^ weltering by his side. 
One next himself in power, and next in crime^ 
Long *iiier known in Palestine, anJ rii'tmed 
Beelzfdle. To whom the Arch-Enemy, 
And thence in Heaven called Sat^vs", with bold words 
Breaking the horrid silencCj thus hegan: — 

'']f thou beost he^but Oh how falknl how changed 
From him! — who, in the happy realms of Ji^hi, 
Clothed wiih transcendent brightness, didst outshine 
Myriads, though brighi— if he whom mutual league, 
United thoughts and counsels, cqua] hope 
And hazard in the glorious enierprise^ 
Joined wiih me onccj now misery hach joined 
Jn equal ruin^ into what pit thou seesi 
From what highth fallen: so much the slronger proved 
He with his thundi^r; and Till then who knew 
The force of those dire arms? Yet not for those, 
Nor ^A^hat the potent Victor in his rage 
Can else inllict, do I repent, or changes 
Though changed in outward lusLre, that fixed mindj 
And high disdain from sense of injured merit. 
That with the Mightiest raised me to cfmltnd, 
And to the fierce contention brought along 
Innumerable force of Spirits armed, 
That durst dislike his reign, and, me preferring. 
His utmost power ^vith adverse power opposed 
]n dubious batde on the pkins of Heaven, 
And shook his throne- What though the field be lost? 
All is not lost — the unconquerable will, 
And study of revenge, immortal hattv 
And courage never to submit or yield: 
And what is else not to be overcome^ 
That glory never shall his wrath or might 
Extort frum me- To bow and sue for grace 
Wiih suppliant knee^ and deify his power 
Who, from the terror of this arm, so lace 


DoubLed lii.s Fmpirc — thai were low ind^d; 

That were an ij;noni[i]y and shame beneath 

This Jov\-nfal]; since, by fate. Ehc strength ol HoUs, 

Anil i\\[5 empyreal substance, cannot fjf]; 

Since, ihrojj;h t^pericnec of this groat evcni, 

In arms not ^vorse, in foresii^ht much advanced, 

W'^ may with more succcEsful hope resolve 

To wa^i! by force or ^'uile eternal war. 

Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, 

Who now trrumphs', and in the excess of \oy 

Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven." 

So spake thu afTOitate j\ngel. though in pain, 
Vauniing aloud, hut racked wiih deep despair; 
And him thus answered loon hh bold Compeer: — 

■'O Prince, O Chief of many Ehroncd Powers 
Tliat led ih<^ emhattle^l Seraphim to ^^■ar 
Under ihy conduct, and, in dreadful deeds 
Fearless, endan^red Heaven*s perpetual King, 
And put Id proof his high iupremacy, 
Whetiier upheld by strength, or ch.ince, or fate[ 
Too well I see and rue the dire event 
That* with sad overthrow and foul defeat. 
Hath lo^t u^ Heaven, and all this mighty host 
In horrible destruction laid thus low, 
As Far as Gods and Heavenlv Essences 
Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains 
Invincible, and vigour soon returns, 
Though all our glory extinct, and happy state 
Here swallowed up in endless misery. 
Bui what if He our Conqueror (whom I now 
Of force believe Almighty, iince no less 
Than such could have o'erpowcred such force as ours) 
Have left us this our spirit and siieng[h entire, 
Strongly to suffer and support our pains, 
That we may so sufHce hi$ vengeful ire, 
Or do him mightier service as his thralls 
By right of war. whatc'er his bu$ine$* be. 
Here in the heart ot Hell to work in fire, 
Or do errands in the gloomy Deep? 
What can it then avail though yet \se feel 

§3 JOHN MILTON book i 

Sirenglh undiminjslicd, or eternal being 
To undergo eiernal punishmencP" 

W hereto with speedy words the Arch-FicnJ 
replied: — 
''Fallen Cherub, to be ;veak is miserable, 
Doing or siirfering: but of this Iw surt: — 
To do aught good never will be our lask^ 
l^ut over to do ill our sole ddight. 
As being (he contrary to His high will 
Whom we resist. If then His providence 
Out of our evil seek to bring forth goodj 
Our Libour niu^t be lo pt^rvert that end^ 
And out of good still to find means of evil; 
Which «flElrnc5 mav succeed so as perhaps 
Shall grieve him^ \i I fail not^ and dtsttirb 
Hls inmost counsels from their desiined aim^ 
l^ut seel tlie a.i^gry Victor hath recalled 
Ills minislers vt vt^n^eaote and pursuit 
Eack to the gates of Heaven: die Malphurous Iwil, 
Sliol after us In storm, overblown hath laid 
The fiery surge ihat from thi^ precipice 
Of Heaven received us falling;; and ihc ihunder, 
Winged wiih red lightning and impetuous rajjej 
Perhaps hath spenc his shafts, and ceases now 
To bellow through the va$t and boundless Deep. 
Lei us not slip the occasion^ whether scorn 
Or saliate fury yield it from our Foe, 
Sccst thou yon dreary plain^ forlorn and wikl. 
The seal of desolation, void of lighf^ 
Save what rhe glimmering of these livjd flames 
Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us Lend 
IVom off the tossing of these fiery uaves; 
There resc^ if any rest can harbour there; 
And^ re-assembling our afflicled powers, 
Consult how we may henceforth most oiTend 
Our Enemy^ our own loss how rep?iir, 
How overcome thi? dire cabmiry, 
What reinforcemeni we may gain from hope^ 
If not what resolution from despair." 

Thus Satan, talking to his nearest Male, 


Wiih head uplift above the wavp, and eyes 

7'hal sparkling bbzcd; his other par(5 besides 

Pron*^ on ihe Bnod, exicndeci long anti larj^e. 

Lay Hoaiing many a rood, in bulk as huge 

As whom I he trtbUs ii-ime of monsirou^ size^ 

Titanian ot iLarsh-borHj ihsiC waned on Jove, 

Briareos or Typhon, w^hom ihe den 

Ry ancient Tar^ius holJ, or thitt sca-lfea^t 

Leviaihan, which God o£ all his works 

Created hugesE that swim the ocean-stream. 

HtiTi, haply slumhtritij; on the Norway foam, 

The pilot of -"^omc Email nighi-fotindered ^kiffj 

Deeming sonic island^ ollj as seamen tell, 

Wiih liXL-d anelior in his scaly rindj 

MoofS bv his side under the lee, while ni^ht 

Invests the sea, and w[sht]d morn delays^ 

So stretched out ha^e in lenyih rhe Arch-f^cnd lay, 

Chained on lilt burntng lake; nor ever [hence- 

Had risen, or heaved his head, but that the will 

And hi^h [x^rmis^ion of aU-rullnji; Heaven 

Lett him at larj^e to his own 4,iark designs, 

Thttt with reiterated crimes he might 

Heap on htjnselt daninaiion, white he wu^^ht 

Evil lo o[ht?rs, :ind enraged might see 

Hew ;UI his matice served bm to bring [orth 

Infinite goodness, graeCj and merey, shewn 

On \Tan hv him seduced, but un hlnistlt* 

Treble confusion^ wrsnhj and vtnjicance poured, 

Forihwiih upright he rears frotn ofl the jxiol 
His nifghty stature; on ea^rh h^tnd ihe Hames 
Driven backward ilope their pointing spires, and, 

In biHowSj leave i' the midst a horrid vale. 
Then wiih esf^nded wings he steers his flight 
Aloft, incumbent on the dusky air. 
That felt unusual weighl; liU on dry land 
He hghls — if it were land that ever buf/ied 
Wiih solid, as the lake with liquid fire^ 
And ?uch appeareii in hue as when the force 
Of subterranean wind transiporis a hill 


Torn from Pcloms, or ihe ^haltered side 

Of thundering /Kma. whose comhu^tiblc 

And lueJled CD[ra[ls, thence conceiving firo. 

Sublimed with mineral fury, iiid tho wmds^ 

And Itave a ain^d bottom al3 involved 

With stench and smoke. Such resting found the sale 

Ot unlileist feel- Him followed his next \btc: 

BoiJi glorying to have scaped the Stv^jian tlc}od 

As pods^ and by ilieir own recovered strength. 

Not by the sutTcrance of supertiiif power^ 

"Is [his the region, this the soil, the clime/^ 
Said ihen the lost Archangel^ "this the scat 
That we musi change fnr Heaven? — this mnurnful 

For that celestial tight? Be it so, since He 
Who now is sovran can dispose and bul 
Whai shrill be right: fardest from Him is best, 
^V^hom reason hath equalled^ force hatl^ n^ado supreme 
Above his equals- Farcwelh happy fieldii. 
Where joy forever duclls! HaiK horror?^ h^l^^ 
Infernal World! and thou, profonndest Hell, 
deceive thy new poi^se-^sijr — ^^ne \s'ho brinies 
A minci not to be changed by place or time- 
The mind is its own place, and in itself 
Can n^ake a Heaven of Heth a Hel[ ol Heaven- 
What mailer where^ if I be still the SLmiCn 
Add vvliat I should he^ all but less tl^an he 
Whom thunder haih made greater? Here at least 
We ihiill be free; the Almighiy halh not buiU 
Here for his envy, will noi drive us hence: 
Here \vq may reigi^ secure; and^ in my choice^ 
To reign is worlh ambition, ihough in Hell: 
Betler lo reign in Hell than wrvi; in Heaven* 
Bui wherefore let we then our faiihEul friends^ 
TJie associates and co-partners of our loss^ 
Lie thus astonished on ihe uhltvious pool. 
And call them not to share wcih us their part 
In this unhappy mansion, or once more 
^^■'ilh rallied arms to try what may be yet 
Resiained in Heaven, or what more lost in Hell ^" 

Eooa I 

Pjvkadise lost 95 

So SutUTi spnko; and him Beelzebub 
Thus answered: — "Leader of Ehoscr armies bright 
Whicb, Inn (be Ommpmcni. none could bave foiled! 
If once they hear thai voict\ ibeir livdicsi pledge 
Of hope in fears and dangers — heard so ofi 
In worst exrrem(:s, and on ibe periloxi? edge 
Of banlCt when ii raged^ in all assaults 
Tlietr snresi signal — tht^ will soon resume 
New courage and revive* ibouijb now [hey lie 
frrovelfuig and prostrate t>n yon hikt^ oi hre^ 
As we ercu hilt, asioundcd and amazed; 
No wonder, fallen suLh a pernicious biybth!'* 

He scarce had erased when U^e superior Fientf 
Was movini; toward ihe shore; his ponderou? shield, 
Elbyrtal temper, massy, large^ and rounds 
JJehind hun Last- Tbo brt^ad tircumferenL-r 
Hung on bis shoulders like the moon^ whose orb 
Through tapdc glass the Tuscan artist views 
Ai cvenin^^ horn the top ot Fcsole, 
Or in Valdarno, lo descry new lands^ 
Rivers^ or mountain^^ in her spotty globe- 
His spear — to tcjual which ihc tallest pine 
Hewn on Norwegian hills, to be the mast 
Of some great Ammtral, were but a want] — 
He walked wiib. to support uneasy steps 
Over the burning marlc* not like those -htops 
On Heaven *s azure; and ihe torrid chme 
Smate on htm sore besides^ vaulted with fire, 
Naihle^s he so endured^ till on ibe beach 
Of that mt lamed sea be sTciod^ and called 
His tegions^AEijiel Forms* who lay entranced 
1 hick as autumnal leaves thai strow tht^ brocks 
In. Vjllornbrosa, whtre ihe Etrurian shatles 
High over-arched jmhower; or scattered sedge 
Afloat, when with fierce winds Orion armed 
Hath vexed the Red-Sea toast, whose waves overthrew 
Busiris and bis Nfen^phian ehivalry. 
While wiLh perfidious hatred ihey pursued 
The sojourners of Goshen, who beheld 
From the 5afe shore their floating carcases 

96 JOHN Minora BOOK I 

And broken chariot- wheels. So thick be^trown. 
Abject and losi, lay [hese^ covering ihe flood, 
Undor amazement of ihcir hideous change. 
He called so loud that all the hoSlow J_cp 
Of Hell resouEidcd: — 'Trinci^s, PotuntateSj 
Warriors^ Uie Flower of Heaven— once yours; now 

If such astonishment as this can sei^e 
Eternal Spififsi Or have ye chosen thii place 
Afier Ehc toll of battle to repose 
Yijur wearied virtue, foi the ease vou find 
To sliunber heri^, as in the vales of Heaven.'' 
Or in this abject [>osiiire have ye sworn 
To adore the Conqueror, who now !x?holds 
Cherub and Seraph rou'linj; in the rit«d 
With scsiuerctl arms anj ensigns, till anon 
His swli^t pursuers from Heaven-gates discern 
Tlic advantage, and, descending tread us down 
Thus tiroopingj or wl^b hnked ihunJeri>oUs 
^Vnnsfix us to the botsom of this gulE? — 
Awakcp arise, or be for ever fallcnP 

They heard, and were al^asbed, and up ihoy sprung 
Uj}on the wing, as when men wonl to watch. 
On duty sleeping found by whom ihcv dread, 
Rousi; arsd besiir ihtniselves ere well auakc- 
Nor did Ehey not perceive the evil plight 
In which [hey were, or the iiercc patni not feel; 
Yet to their General's voice thev soon obevcd 

r J 

Innumerable, As when :he poitrnt rod 
Of Amram's son, in Egypt's evil daVr 
Waved round the coast, up^alled a pit;:hy cloud 
Of locustSt warping on the eastern wind. 
That ocr the realm of impious Pharaoh hung 
Like Nighty and darkened al! the [and of Nile; 
So numberleS"^ were those bad Angels seen 
Hovering on wing under the eope of HelU 
Twixt upper, neiher, and surrounding fires; 
Tilh as a signal givenj the uplifted Epear 
Of their great Sultan waving to direct 
7T\eir course, in even balance down they light 


On the firm brimsionc, and fill al! the plain: 

A inuiiitude iike which the populous North 

Poured never irom her frozen loins to pass 

Rhenc or the Dan-iw, when her barbarous sans 

Came like a deluge on the South, and sptead 

Benealh Gibratlar to the Libyan sands. 

Forihiviiht from every squadron and each band, 

The heads and leaders ihiihcr haste where stood 

Their great CommandL^r — godlike Shapes^ and Forms 

ExceJlirti; humnn; princely Dijinitle^; 

And powers that erst in Heaven sat on thrones^ 

Though ol: their nain^^ in Htavenlv records now 

Be no memorial, blotted out and rast^d 

Bv their rebelhon from the Books of Life* 

Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve 

Got them new names, till, wandering oV ihe earth. 

Through God's high sufferance for the trial of naan^ 

By falsities and lies the greatcsi part 

Of matikind they corrupted to forsake 

God their Creaior, and the invisible 

Glory of Him that made them to transform 

Oil [o [he image of a brute, adorned 

WiTh ^ay religions fuU of pomp and gold, 

And devsl$ to adore for deities: 

Then were they kno^^n to men by various names^ 

And various idols through the heaihen worlds 

Say, Muse, their names then known, who first, ^.vho 
Roused from the clumber on that fiery eoiich. 
At their great Emperor's call^ as next in worili 
Came singly where he stood on the bare sirand^ 
While the promiscuous crowd si^jod yet aloof. 

The chief were those who, from the pit of Hell 
Roaming to seek, their prey on Earih^ durst fiit 
Their seal?* long after, next [he seat of God^ 
Their altars by His altar, gotis adored 
Among the nations round, and dursi abide 
lehovah thundering out of Sion, throned 
Between the Cheruhim; yea, often placed 
Wiihin His sanctuary itself iheir shrines^ 


Abomi nations; and wUh curbed ihingS 

His holy riies and solemn fcasEs profanec^^ 

And with their darkness dursi affront His light. 

First, Moh^fi, horrid Kinj;, besmeared with blood 

Of human sifcrificc, and parents' tears" 

Though^ for the noise of drums and Itmbrels loud, 

Tiieir children's cries unheard that passed through fire 

To his grim idol. Him the Ammonite 

Worshifjed in Rabba and her watery plain^ 

In Argob and in Hasiinj to the stream 

Of utmost Arnon. Nor content with such 

Audacious neighbourhood^ the wisest heart 

Of Solomon he led bv fraud to build 

His tcmp[e right ai];ainsi the temple of God 

On ihai opprobrious hill^ and made his grove 

The pleasant valley of Hinnom, Tophet thenct 

And black Gehenna calkd. ihc type of HelL 

NexE C/wnjGf, the obscene dread of Moab's 5ons, 

Froin Aroar to Nebo and the wild 

Of souihmost At^m; in Heseboo 

And Horonaim, Seon's realm, beyond 

The !!o\\'erry dale of Sibma clad wiLh vine^^ 

And Eleate 10 the AiJphaliick Pool: 

Peor his other name^ when he cnriccd 

Israel in SitEJm^ on [heir march from N'Llo* 

To do him wanton riles, which cosi them woe* 

Yet thence his luitlul orgies he enUr^d 

Even to that hill of scandals by ihe grove 

Of Moloch homicide, lust hard by hate. 

Till good [osiah drove ihem thence to Hell. 

With these came they who, from the bordering flood 

Of old Euphrates to ihc brook that parts 

Eg^pi from Syrian ground, ]iad general najiics 

Of Baaixm and Jtshrarot/i — those male, 

These feminine^ For Spirits, ^vhen they please. 

Can either sex assume, or both; so iofi 

And uncompounded is their essence pure^ 

Not tied or manacled with joint or hmb. 

Nor founded on the brittle strength of bones, 

Like cumbrous flesh; but^ in what shape they choosEj 


Dilated or condensed^ bright or obscure^ 

Can txecure their aery purposes. 

And work5 of love or enmity fulfil. 

Foi (hose (he race of Israel oft for^ok 

Their Living Stren^h^ and unfrequented left 

His righieous altar^ bowing lowly down 

To b^5tjal gods; for which their hcjids, as law 

Bowed down in baiile, sunk before the spear 

Of despicable foes, Wi[h ihese in troop 

Came Ai^oref/t, whom the Phcenlcians called 

Astartc^ queen of heaven, v^'\t[\ cresent horns; 

To whose br[ght image nightly by the moon 

Sldonian virgins paid their \ows and songs; 

In Sion also noi unsung, where siood 

Her temple on the offensive mouniain, builr 

By ihar uxorious king whose heart, though largej 

Beguiled by fair idolaireises, fell 

To idols fouL Thammuz came next behind, 

Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured 

The Syrian damsels to lament his fate 

In amorous ditries all a summer's day. 

While smooth Adonis from his native rock 

Ran purple to the sea, $upposed with blood 

OJ: Thammui yearly wounded: the love-iale 

Infected Sion's daughters with like heat^ 

Whose wanton passifln-; in [he sacred porch 

Ezekiel saw, when, by the vision led^ 

Hi^ eye surveyed the dark idolatries 

Of alienated Judah. Ne?!l came one 

Who mourned in earnesi, when the captive Ark 

Maimed his brute imagc^ head and hand^ lopt oEf, 

In his o\^'n templej on the grunsel-edge. 

Where he fell flat and shamed his worshipers; 

D&gon his name^ sea-monster, upward man 

And downward fish; yet bad his temple high 

Reared in Azotus^ dreaded through ihe coast 

Of Palestine, in Oath and Ascalon^ 

And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds- 

Hlm followed Rimmon, whose delightful seat 

M^as fair Damascus, on the fertile banks 


Of Abbana and Pharphar, lucid srreams. 
He also against the hou^e of God was bold: 
A Itper once he lost, and gainetl a king — 
Ahaz, his souish conqueror, whom he drew 
God's ah-ir lo disparage and displace 
For one of Syrian mode, whereon to burn 
His odious ollerings, and adore the gods 
Whom he had vanquished. After theie appeared 
A crew who, under names of old renown — 
Oiiris. isis, Orui, and their train — 
With monstrous shapes and $orceries abu&ed 
FanaEJc Egypt and her priests to seek 
Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms 
Rather than human. Nor did Israel scape 
The infection, when tlieir borrowed gold composed 
The calf in Oreb^ and the rebel king 
Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan» 
Likening hi:» Maker to the grazed ox- 
Jehovah^ who, in one night, when he passed 
From Egypt marching, equalled with one siiote 
lioth her lirai-burn and all her bleating gods. 
Bc-lid came last; than whom a Spirit more lewd 
Fell not from Heaven, or more gross to love, 
Vice for itself. To him no temple stood 
Or altar smoked; yet who more o£i than Jie 
Jn temples and at altars, when the priest 
Turns atheist, as did Eh's sons, who filled 
With lusi and violence the house of God? 
In courts and palaces he al^o reigns, 
And in luxurious cities, where the noise 
Of riot ascends above their loftiest towers. 
And injury and outrage; and, when night 
Darkens the streets, then wander forth the sons 
Of Belial, flown with insolence and wine- 
Witness t!ie streets of Sodom, and ihar night 
In Gibeah, when the hospitable door 
£!{posed a matron, to avoid worse rape. 

These were die prime in order and in mii^hc: 
The resr were long to tell; though far renowned 
The Toman gods — of Ja van's issue held 


Gods, yet confessed loiter tisan Heaven ,ind Ejrih, 
Their boasitd parenis- — Titati, Hcaven*s first'ljarriT 
Willi his tnornious broody and birihfigh: seized 
By younger Saturn: he from mighiicr Jove, 
Hf$ own and Rhea's son Jike measure found; 
So jouv usurping; reigned. These, first in Crtte 
And rda known, thence on the snowy top 
Of cold Olympus ruled ihe middle air, 
Tiietr highest heaven; or on the Delphian difl, 
Or in Dodona, and ihrouj-h a[| the bounds 
Ol Doiic hind; or who wirh Saiurn old 
Fled o\er Adria to ihe Hesperian fields, 
And o'er the Celtic roami^d the utmost Isles. 

All these and more came flocking; but with look? 
Downcast ^nd damp; yet such wherein appeared 
Obscure some glimpse of joy to have found iheir Chief 
Not in despair, to have found themselves not lost 
In lo5!i itself; which on hi$ countenance cast 
Like doubtful hue. But he. his wonted pride 
Soon recollecting, ^vith high words, \\\&x bore 
Semblance ot worthy not suhsi^nce) gently raised 
Their l^inting courage, and dispelled their fears: 
Then straight commands that, at the war-like sound 
Of trumpets loud and clarions, be upreared 
His mighty standard. That proud honour claimed 
Az37el as his right, a Cherub tall: 
Who (orthwLih from the glittering stalT unfurled 
The imperial ensign; which, full high advanced, 
Shon like a meteor streaming lo the wind. 
With Rtms and golden lustre rich imblazed, 
Seraphic arms and trophies- all the while 
Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds: 
At which the universal host up-sent 
A shout that tore Hell's concave, and beyond 
Frighted the reign of Chaos and old Night, 
All in a moment through the gloom were seen 
Ten thousand banners rise into the air. 
With orient colours waving: with ihem rose 
A forest huge of spears; and thronging helms 
Appeared^ and serried shields in thick array 

102 JOHN MILTON book J 

Of depth immeasurable. Anon they move 

In perfect phalanx to the Domn mood 

Ot flutes and suit recorders — such as ratsed 

To highch of noblest temper heroes old 

Arming to battle, and instead of rage 

Dd] berate valour breached, firm, and unmoved 

With dread of death to flight or foul recreaii 

Nor wanting power to mitigate and swag^ 

With solemn touches troubled ihoughts, and chase 

Anguish and doubt and fear and sorrow u.Lid pain 

From morial or immortal miridSn Thus ihcy, 

Breaihmg unued force with fixed thought^ 

Moved on in silence to soft pipes that charmed 

Their painful steps o'er the burnt soiL And now 

Advanced in view ihey stand — a horrid front 

Of dreadful length and dazzling arms^ in guise 

Of warriors old, with ordcrE?d spear and shield, 

Awaiting what command their mighty Chief 

Had to impose- He through the armed tiles 

Darts his experienced eye, and soon traverse 

The whole bat call on views — iheir order due^ 

Their visages and stature as of Gods- 

Their num!)er 3ast he sums. And now his heart 

Distend5 whh pride^ and^ hardening in his strength, 

Glories: for never, since created Man, 

Met such imbodied force as, named with ihesej 

Could merit more than that sma|] infaniry 

Warred on by cranes — ihough all the giant brood 

Of Phlegra with the heroic race were joined 

That fought at Thebes and lliumj on each side 

Mixed with auxiliar gods; and what resounds 

Id fable or romance of Uihefs son, 

Begirt \vith British and Armoric k nights; 

/\nd all who since, baptized or infidel, 

Jousted in Aspramont, or Montalban, 

Damasco, or Marocco^ or Trebisond, 

Or whom Biserta sent from Afric shore 

When Charlemain with all his peerage fell 

By Foniarabbia- Thus far these beyond 

Compare of mortal prowess, yet observed 


Their drt^ad Cominander. He^ above the resE 
In shape and jjcsture proudly eminentj 
Stocid like a lower. His form had yet not lost 
AU her original brighincss^ nor appeared 
Less than Archaii^l ruined^ and ihe excess 
Of glory obscured: as when the sun new-ri$en 
Looks through the horizontal misty air 
Shorn of his beam^^ or^ from behind the moon, 
In dim ecbpsCj disastrous twilight sheds 
On half the rtauons, and with tear of change 
Peiplexcs monarch^. Darkened ^o, yet shon 
Above them alfc the Archangel: but his face 
Deep scars of thunder had iniren^hed^ and care 
Sac on his faded cheek, bul under brows 
Of dauntless courage^ and considerate pride 
Waiting revenge. Cruefc his eye, but cast 
Stgns of remor^o and passion^ to behold 
The fellows of his crime, ihe followers rather 
(Far other once beheld in bliss)^ condemned 
For ever no^v to have ihcir Uk in pain — 
Millions of Spirits for his fault amerced 
Of Heaven J and from eierna! splendours flung 
For his revoll — yet falthtul how they stood. 
Their glory withered; as, when heaven's fire 
Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pines* 
With singtd cop their stately growth, though bare^ 
Slands on rhe blasted heaih- He now prepared 
To speak; whereat their doubled r:inks they bend 
From wing to wing, and half enclose him round 
Wuh all his peers: AitenFion held them mute. 
Thrice he assayed, and ihrice, in apite of scorn, 
Tears, such as Angels weep, bursi forth: at last 
Words interwove with sighs found out their way: — 

"O myriads of immonal Spiriul O Powers 
Matchless^ but with the Almighty! — and that sirife 
Was not inglorious, though the event was dire. 
As ihis place testifies, and this dire change, 
Hateful lo utter* But whar power of mind. 
Foreseeing or presaging^ from the depth 
Of knowledge past or present, could have feared 

104 JOHN MILTON book I 

How such united force of gods, how such 

As snood hke [hese^ could ever know repulse? 

For who can yel believe, though after loss, 

Tiiai ail these puissant legions, whose exile 

Haih emptied Heaven, shall fail to reascend. 

Self-raised, and re-posse^s their native seal? 

For me, be witness all the host of Heaven^ 

If counsels diffeteni, or danger shunned 

By me, have lose our hopes. But he v-ho reigns 

Monarch in Heaven till then as one secure 

Sat on his throne, upheld by old repute, 

Consent or cuslom, and his rcgji state 

Put forth at fulh but still his strength concealed — 

Which tempted our airempt, and wrought our fall. 

Henceforth his might we know, and know our own, 

So as not either to provoke, or dread 

New war provokedi our beiier part remain? 

To woik in close design, by fraud or guile, 

What force effected not; that he no less 

At length from us may find, Who overcomes 

By force haih overcome bur half his foe. 

Space may produce new Worlds; whereof so rife 

There went a fame in Heaven that He ere long 

Intended to create, and Uierein plant 

A generation ^vhom his choice regard 

Should favour equal to the Sons <jf Heaven. 

Thither, if but to pry, shall be perhaps 

Our first eruption— ih it her, or elsewhere; 

For this infernal pit shall never hold 

Cailestia! Spirits in bondage, nor the Abyss 

Long under darkness cover. But ihi^se thoughts 

Full counsel must mature. Peace is despaired; 

For who can think submission? War, then, war 

Open or understood, must be resolved." 

He spake; and, to confirm his wortls^ oui-flew 

Millions of Eaming swords^ drawn from the thighs 

Of mighty Cherubim; the sudden blaze 

Far around illumined Hell. Highly they raged 

Again the Highest and fierce with grasped arms 

Clashed on their sounding shields the din of watj 


Hurting Jefi3nce loward the vauh of Heaven. 
Thofc £[ocx] a hill not far, whose griedy (op 
Bckhed iirc and rowling smoke; ihe rcsi cniirc 
Sbon wiih a glossy scurf — undoubted sign 
Thn[ in his womb was hid mciallic ore, 
The work of sulphur. Thithcrj wingtd with spted, 
A numerous bricjad hasiened: as when bands 
Of pioncrSj wiih spade and pickaxe armcdj 
Forerun the royal camp, to trench a field. 
Or cast a rampart. Marrtrrton led ihem on — 
Martimout the lea^t erected Spirit thai fell 
From Heaven; for even in Heaven his looks and 

Were always downward bent, admiring more 
The nchci of Heaven*^ pavement, trodden gold, 
Than aught divine or holy else enjoyed 
In vision beaiific. IJy him first 
Men aisOp and by suggestion [aught, 
Kansaeked ihc CenirCj and with impious hands 
Killed the bowels of their mother Earth 
For [reasures better hid^ Soon had his crew 
Opened into ihe hill a spaciou? wound. 
And digj^ed out ribs of gold. Let none admire 
ThLii riches grow in Hell; ihat soil may best 
Deserve the pretious bane* And here let ihose 
Who boast in mortal things, and wondering tell 
Of Babel and ihe works of Memphian kings^ 
Learn how their ^ireatest monumenis of fame^ 
And strength, and arij are easily outdone 
By Spirits reprohate^ and in an hour 
What in an age they^ with incessant toil 
And hands innumerable, scarce perform. 
Nigh on ihe plain, in many cells prepared, 
That underneath had veins of liquid fire 
Sluiced from the lake, a second multitude 
With wondrous art founded ihe massy ore^ 
Severing each kind, and scummed the bulhon-dross. 
A third as soon had formed within the ground 
A various mould, and from ihe boiling cells 
Bv strange conveyance filled each hollow nook; 


As in an organ^ from one blast of wititl. 

To many a row of pipes the sonnd-board brealhes. 

Anon out of the earth a fubric huge 

Rose hke an exhalation, wiih the sound 

Of dnlctt symphonies and voices sweet — - 

Built like a Eeniple^ where pilasters round 

Were sec^ and Doric pillars overlaid 

Wiih golden arciiitrave; nor did there ^vant 

Cornice or frieze, with bossy sculptures graven; 

The roof was fretted gold. Not Babilon 

Nor greal Alcairo such magnificence 

Equalled in all their jjlories, to inshrine 

Belus or Serapis ihe[r gods, or seat 

Their kings^ when j^gypt with Assyria strove 

In wealth and luxury^ The ascending pile 

SLood fixed her stately highth; and straight the doors 

Opening their brazen folds^ dis*:over, widc^ 

Within, her ample spaces o'er the Sdiooih 

And level pavemenE: from the arched roof^ 

Pendent by subtle magic^ many a row 

Of siarry lamps and blazing creissetSj fed 

Wiih naphtha and a^phaliuSt yielded li^ht 

As from a sky. The hasiy multitude 

Admiring entered; and the work some praise^ 

And some the Architect* His hand was knt>u'n 

In Heaven by many a towered structure hit^h, 

Whtre sceptred Angels held their residence. 

And sat as Princes, whom the supreme Kiny 

Ejralted to such power, and j^nve to rule, 

Each in his hierarchy, the Orders bright, 

Nor was his name unheard or unadored 

In ancient Greece; and in Ausonian land 

Men called him Mulciber; and how he tell 

From Heaven they fabled^ thrown by angry Jove 

Sheer o'er [he crystal battlements: from morn 

To noon he felf^ fro]^ noon to dewy eve, 

A summer^s day^ and with the setting sun 

Dropt (rom the i^enkh, like a laHlngstar, 

On Lcmnos> the /Ega:an isle. Thus they rclatej 

Erriny; for he with this rebellious roue 


Fell long before; nor aught availed him now 

To havy builc in Heaven high towcra; nor did be scape 

By all his engines^ but was headlong scnty 

Wiih his industrious crew, to build in HclL 

Meanwhile ihe wingtd Haralds, by command 
OE so^'Tan power, with awful coremony 
And trumpet's sound, throughout the hoSE proclaim 
A solemn council fortiiwiih To be held 
Al P-indarmtinium, the high aipiial 
Oi Saian and his pt'ers. Their summons cylkd 
Flom e^'cry band and squared rcginienl 
By pljcc or choice the worthiest: they anon 
Wiih hundreds and with thousands iroopinjj; came 
Auendtd. All access was thronged; the ya^es 
And porches wide, but chief ihe spadous hall 
(Though like a covered field, where champions bold 
Wont ride in armed, and at the Soldan's chair 
Defied ihc best of Panim chivalry 
To mortal tombac, or career with !ancc), 
Thick swarmed, both on the ground and In die air, 
Brushed with the hiss of rustling wings. As bees 
In spring-tinie» when the Sun with Taurus rides, 
Pour forth their populous youth about the hive 
In clusters; ihey amonsj fresh dews and flowers 
Fly to and Tro, or on the smoothed plank, 
The suburb o£ their straw-built citadel, 
New rubbed with bahn, expatiate* and confer 
Their statc-alTairs: so thick the aerie crowd 
Swarmed and were straitened; till* the signal gJ^en, 
Behold a wonder! They but now who seemed 
In bigness to surpass Earth's giant sons. 
Now less than smallest dwarfs, in narrow room 
Throng numberless — like that pygmean race 
Beyond the Indian, mounc; or faery elves, 
Whose midnight revels^ by a forest-side 
Or fountain, some belated peasant sees, 
Or dreams he sees, while overhead ihe Moon 
Sits arbitress, and nearer to the Earth 
Wheels her pale ctiur^ei they, on iheir mirth and dance 
Intent with jocond music charm his ear; 


At once with jcy and fear his heart rebounds. 
Thus incorporeal Spirits to smallest forms 
Reduced ihoir shapes inimenso. and were at large^ 
Though wJdiouE number still, amidst the hall 
Of tliat internal court. But far within, 
And in their own dimensions like ihuintUes, 
The great Seraphic Lord? and Cherubim 
In close recess and secret conclave sat, 
A thousand demi-gods on goldn^n seats, 
Frequem and full. After short silence then, 
And summons read, die grcin consuU began. 


The AncuMtVT. — The consuliaiion bej^un. S^ran dt:bciTj*5 whcihcf 2nfithcr batrte 
is lo be hazarJi^d for the recovery of Heiiven: some advise j^ tnhtrs dif^uadc^ A 
third [>rofKjiql is j^rttLrft^ln it]LHtion4.d before by Satait — to Marcli the truth of rhat 
prophKy or Er^ition in Heaven concernin,;; another _worlc[, and another kind caf 
cr^nTUn;, cqiiaLt or not rtiuch inferior, tia ihtnistlVtSj abom this time to be created. 
Their doubt who ^hall be sent on rhis difficult ^eamh: Satsnp their c:hiefp undcrt^^Ci^ 
^onc iht vfiyEi^jj^ is hyiiourw! and ^pt^buded. Tht couni;i[ Thus cnd^d> the reit 
bclake thfm several wa^s and to sci'cral imployments, a^ their inchn^tiom le:id ihcm, 
to enLertain the ih'^K lill Satan return. He pa:^*.c.^ vn hij> (OUtncy to Htd-ipiies: firtdi 
thtn^ shut, ond ^v]io sat there to i^uard iht^m: by whom at lenirtli they are o|wnctL and 
d]scovcr to him the ijreat yulE bet^veen ilell and Htivtn- Wish ivhac dit^cuky he 
passes through. Uirci;teEl b>" CIuosh the Po^vcr of that plo^c^ to [he si^ht of ihu new 
World which he sou^'hc. 

High on a throne of royal sraie. which far 

OuLahon the wealth of Ormtis .inJ of Ind. 

Or where the gor^oiis East wiih rtchcii hand 

Showtrs on hor kings barbaric pcsxl and goldj 

Saian exalted sat^ by mtirii raised 

1 o that bad eminence; 3nd, from despair 

Thtis high uphftsd beyond hope, aspires 

Di^yond thus high, insatiate to purst:e 

Vivii war with Hoavcn^ and^ by success tintaught, 

His proud iniajii nations thus displayed: — 

"Powers and Dominion^j Deities of Heaveni — 
For, since no d[?ep within her gulf can hold 
Immortal vijjourt though oppressed and fallen* 
I give not Heaven far lost: from ihis descent 
Celestial Virtues rising will appear 
More gloriotjs and more dread than from no falL 

■M ^JI^ iSLJJ^'»2^^^.^,iiU./- 



And trust ihemsclves lo fear no seconJ fatt! — 

Me [hough just rights and the fixed laws oL Heaven, 

Did first [:roaTe yoLir kadcr — ncvx, free tlioice, 

W'kh what besides in council ur in fifiht 

Math been achieved o£ meiit — yet this loss, 

Thus far at least recovered, hath much Tiiore 

Estabhslit^d in a safe^ unenvitd throne, 

YitlJed with full consent. The happier stale 

In Heaven, which follow? dignity, might diaw 

En%'y from each inferior; bui who hcrt: 

Will envy whom ihe hi^hif^t p[ace exposes 

Foremnst to siand ajjainst the Thunderer '?^ aim 

Your bulwark, :uid condemns to greatest shari; 

0( endless pain? Where there is, then, nci i^ooJ 

For which to strive, no itiiEe can grow u|> there 

From faction! for none sure will claim in Hel! 

PrecedtLicCi none wliose jjoriion is so small 

Of present pain thai with ambitious mind 

Wilt covet more! With this advantage, llien, 

l"u union, and firm faith, and lirm accord. 

More than can he in Heaven, we now return 

To claim our just inheritance of old, 

Surer lo pro:jper than prosperity 

Could ha^e assured us; and by what best wav, 

Whether oi i^pen war or covert guile. 

We no'v debate. Who can advise may speak." 

He ceased; and next hun Molocb, sceptred king, 
Stood u|i — the stron^^st and the fiercest Spirit 
That fought in Heaven, now fiercer by despair. 
His trust was with the Eternal to be deemed 
Equal in strength, and rather than be less 
Cared nol lo be at all; with that care lost 
Went all his fear: of God, or Hell, or worse, 
He recked not, and (hese words thereafter spake:—- 

"My sentence is for open war. Of wiles, 
More unexpcrt, I boast rot: them let those 
Contrive who need, or when they need; not now. 
For, while they sit contriving, shall ihe rest — 
Millions that stand in arms, and longing wait 
The signal to ascend — sic lingering here. 


no JOHN MILTON= book it 

Ikaven'^ fugiiives, and for their d well ing-pl nee 

^cctpt nhii dariTopprobrJous den of shjine, 

The pnson of His lyranny who reii;:i5 

By our delay? No! Iti us rather choose* 

Armed with Heil-Hame^ and Tury, all at once 

(!)'er Heaven's hl^h towers lo force resistless «'ay, 

Turning our tortures Into horrid arms 

Against the Torturer; when, to meet the noise 

Of his almighty engine, he shall liear 

[ntcrnal thunder, and, for lightning, sec 

Black fire and horror shot whh tqiuJ rage 

Among hii Angels and his throne itself 

Mixed with Tartarean sulphur ami ^trangu: hre, 

His own itivenied torment:*. But perhap? 

The way seems dilHciih. and steep to scale 

With upright wing against a higjier loe! 

Lei sucii bethink them, if the sleepy tlrench 

Of that forgetful lake benumb not still. 

That in our proper motion we ascend 

Up to our native seat; descent iind fall 

To us is adverse. Who but felt of l3te> 

When the fierce foe bung on our broken rear 

In^ultin;?:* and pursued us through the Deep, 

With what compnkion and laborious flight 

We sunk thus low? The ascent is easy, then; 

The event is feared! Should we again provoke 

Our stronger* J>ome worse way his wrath may lint! 

To our destruction^ if there be in Hell 

Fear to be worse destroyed! What can be worse 

Than to dwell here, driven out from bliss, condemned 

In ibis abhorred deep to utter woe; 

Where pain of uncxtinguishable fire 

Must exercise us without hope of end 

The vassals of [lis anger, when the scourge 

Inexorably, and the torturing hour. 

Calls us CO penance.' More destroyed than thus, 

We should be quite abohshed, and expire, fear we tJien? what doubt we to incense 

His utmost ire? which, to the highth enraged. 

Will either quite consume us. and reduce 


To noiKinj- ihis essential— happier far 
Than miicrable lo liave eternal beintj! — 
Or, if our substance be indeed Divine, 
And cannot ct'a$e to be» we are ai worit 
On this iidc nothinji: and by proof we tcel 
Our power sullicient lo disturb his Heaven, 
And with perpetual inroads to alarm, 
Thoujjh inaccessible, his fatal Throne: 
Which, if not victory, is yei revenge." 

He ended frowning, and his look denounced 
Despetare revenge, and baule dangerous 
To less than gods. On the other side up ras^ 
Hdial, in act more graceful and humane. 
^ talTor person lost not Heaven; he seemed 
For dignity composed, and hij;h exploit. 
But all was false and hollow; though his tongue 
Dropt manna, and could make [he wtjrsc appear 
The belter reason, to perplex and dash 
Maiurcst counsels: for hk thoughts wi?re low — 
To vice industrious, but to nobler deeds 
Timorotis and slothful, Yc! he pleased the ear, 
And with persuasive accent thus began:— 

"i should be much for 0|ien war, U L'eers, 
As not behind in hate, if what was urged 
Ma]n reason to persuade immediate war 
Did not dissuade mc most, and seem to cast 
Ominous conjecture on the whole success; 
When he who most excels in fact of arms, 
In what he coun^Is and in what excels 
MistrusUul, grounds his courage on despair 
And utter dissolution, a? the scofie 
Of all his aim, after some dire revenge. 
First, what revenge? The lowers of Heaven are filled 
With armed watch, that render all access 
Impregnahle: oft on the bordering Deep 
Encamp iheir legions, or with obscure wing 
Scout far and wide into the realm of Night, 
Scorning surprise. Or, could wc break our way 
By force, and at our lieels all Hell should rise 
With blackest insurrection to confound 

IT2 JOHN MILTON book ii 

Heaven's purest Jiglit^ yet oui great Enemy, 
All incorniptiblej would on his throne 
Sil unpolluted, and the ethereal mould. 
Incapable of slain, would soon expel 
Her mischief, and purge off ihe baser fire, 
Victorious. Thus repulsed, our final hope 
Is fiat despair: we must exasperate 
The Aimighty Viclor to spend all his rage: 
And that must end us; that must be our cure — 
To be no more. Sad cure! for who would lo5e, 
Though full of pain, this iniolleciual being, 
Those thoughts th;ii wander through eternity. 
To perish rather, swallowed up and lost 
In the wide womb of uncreated Night, 
Devoid of sense and motion? And who knows. 
Let this be good, whether our angry Foe 
Can give it, or will ever? How he can 
U doubtful; that he never will is sure. 
Will He, so ^vi^e, let loo^e at once hts ire. 
Belike through impotence or unaware, 
To give Ills enemies their wish, and end 
Them in his anger whom bis anger saves 
To punish endlessi' "Wherefore cease we, then?' 
Say they who counsel war; \ve are decreeil. 
Reserved, and destined to eternal woe; 
Whatever doing, what can wo sufTer more. 
What can we suffer worse^' Is this, Then, worst- 
Thus sitting, thus consulting, thus in armsP 
What when we tied amain, pursued and strook 
With Heaven's afflicting thunder, and besought 
The Deep lo shelter us.^ This Hell ihen seemed 
A refuge from those wounds. Or when we lay 
Chained on the burning lake? That sure was worse. 
What if the breath that kindled those giim fires. 
Awaked, should bfow them into sevenfold rage. 
And plunge us in the flames; or from above 
Should intermitted vengeance arm again 
His red right hand to plague us? What if all 
Her stores were opened, and ihis firmament 
Of Hell should spout her cataracts oi fire, 


Impcndem horrors, ihrpaEening hideous fall 

One day tipon our licaJs: while wc perhaps^ 

Designing or exhorting glorious war, 

Caughi in a fit:ry icmpest, sliall be hurled. 

Each on his rock iran^li^ed, the sport and prey 

Of racking whirlwinds, or for ever sunk 

Under yon boiling ocean, wrapt in chains. 

There to converse wiih evcrbsiin;; groans, 

L'rtrespited, unpuiett, unrcprieved. 

Ages of hopeless end? This woutJ be worse. 

War, iheri^rore, open or concealed, alike 

My voice dissuades; for whm can force or guile 

With Him, or wlio deceive His mind, whose eye 

Views all things at one view? He from Heaven's 

All ihese our motions vain sees and derides, 
Not more almi'^hty to resist our misjhl 
Than wise to frustrate all our pjois and wiles. 
Shall wc, then, live thus vik — ihc race of Heaven 
Thus trampled, thus expelled, to sufTer here 
CliaJns and these torments? lieiter these than worse 
By my advice; since fate inevisable 
.Subdues us, and omnipoient decree, 
The Victoria will. To sufTer, as \o do. 
Our strength is equal; ntir the hw unjust 
That so ordains. This was at first resolved, 
if we were wise, against so great a foe 
Contending, and so doubtful what might fall. 
I laii^h when chase who at the spear are bold 
And ventrous, if that fait them, shrink, and fear 
What yet [hey know must follow — to endure 
F-:^ile, or ij^nominy, or bonds, or pain. 
The sentence of their conqueror. This is now 
Our doom; which if we can sustain and bear. 
Our Supreme Foe in lime may such remit 
His anger, and perhaps, thus far removed, 
Not mind us not offending, satisfied 
With what is punished; whence these raging fires 
Will slacken, if his breath stir not their flames. 
Our purer essence then will overcome 

114 JOHN MILTON book II 

Their noxious vapour- or, inureJ, not Ecel; 

Or, changed at length, and no ihe place conformed 

In temper and in nature, will receive 

Familiar the fierce heati and void ot pin, 

This horror will grow mild, this darkness light; 

Besides what hope rhe never-ending flight 

Of future days may bring, what chance, ivhat ctiange 

Worth wailing — since our present lot apjH^jrs 

For happy though but ill, for iU noi worst, 

Jf we procure noi to ourselves more woe." 

^ Thus BelialrwrEir words clotrted in reason's garb. 
Counselled ignoble ea^e and peaceful ,s]oih. 
Not peace: and after him thus Mammon ^[i^kc^— 

"Either to disinthrone the King otTleaven 
We war, if war be be^i, or to regain 
Our own right lost. Him to ;inihrone we then 
May hopt, when everlasting Fate shall yield 
To fickle Chance, and Chaos judge ;he sirife. 
The former^ vain to hope, argues as vain 
The latier; for what place can be lor us 
Within Heaven's bound, unless Heaven's Lord 

We overpower? Suppose he shoLild relent, 
And publish grace to all, on promise made 
Of new subjection; with w-hal eyes could \ve 
Sland ill his presence humble, and receive 
Strict laws imposed, to celebrate hi^ throne 
With warbled hymns, and to his Godhead sing 
Forc es,! Hallcluiahsj^ while he lordly sits 

'~Uur envied sovran, and his altar breathes 
Ambrosij] odours and ambrosial flowers, 
Our servile offerings? This must be our task 
In Heaven, this our delight- How wei>risome 
Eternity so spent in ^vorship paid 
To whom we haiel Let us not then pursue, 
By force impossible, by leave obtained 
Unacceptdble, though in Heaven, our state 
Of splendid vassalage; but rather seek 
Our own good from ourselves, and from our own 
Live to ourselves, though in this vast recess, 


FfLC .ind 10 nono aci:outxtable, preferring 

Hard liberry before ihc easy yoke 

Oi seivilc pomp. Our greatnoss will appejir 

Then most conspicuous when great tilings of small, 

Useful of Inirtiul* prosperous of adverse, 

We can cre;iic, and in what place soe'er 

Tlirivc under evil, and work ease out of pain 

Through [abour and in^lurancc. This deep world 

Ol darkness do wc dread? How oft amidsC 

Thitk clouds and dark doih Heaven's all-ruling Sire 

Choose la reside^ his glory unobscured, 

And "ith ihc majesty of darkness round 

Covers his throne, from whence deep thunders roar, 

Musierini; their rage, and Heaven resembles Hdil 

As He our darkness, cannoE we His light 

Imitate when we please? This dcsart soil 

Wants not her hidden lustre, gems and gold; 

Nor want we skill or an from whence lo raise 

Magnificence; and what can Heaven shew more? 

Our torments also may, i n length of tiin e> 

Becom e our elements, th ese piercing fires 

As soft as now severe, our temper changed 

Into iheir lemper; which must needs remove 

The sensible of pain. All things invite 

To pciceful counsels, and the settled state 

Of order, how in safety best we may 

Compose oar present evils, with regard 

Of what we are and where, dismissing quite 

All thoughts of war. Ye have what I advise/' 

He scarce had finished, when such murmur hlled 
The assembly as when hollow rocks retain 
The sound of blustering winds, which all night long 
Had roused the sea, now with hoarse cadence lull 
Stafaring men o'eiwaCched, whose bark by chance. 
Or prnnace, anchors in a craggy bay 
After the tempest. Such applause was heard 
As Mammon ended, and his sentence pleased. 
Advising peace: for such annther field 
They dreaded worse than Hell; so much the fear 
Of thunder and the sword of Michael 


Wrought 5til! within ihem; and no less desire 
To found this neiher empire, which might risEj 
By policy and long process' oi time. 
In emubiLon opposite to Heaven. 
Which wiien Betl^ebub perceived— than whom> 
Sataii eKct^pr, none'Mgher sar — with grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seemed 
A pjllar of stale. Deep on his front engraven 
DeHbeiation sat, and pubhc care; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shon. 
Majestic, though in ruin. Sage he stood. 
With Atlantean shoulders, fit to bear 
The weight of mightiest monarchies; his look 
Drew audience and attention still as night 
Of summer's noontide air, while thus he spiket— 
"Thrones and Imperial Powers, OlTspring of 
Ethereal Virlues! or these titles now 
Must we renounce, and, changing style, be called 
Princes of Hell? for so the popular vote 
Inchnes — here to continue, antl build up here 
A growing empire; doubtless! while we drearri, 
And know not that tJie King of Heaven hath doomed 
This place our dungeon — no[ our safe retreat 
Beyond his patent arm, to live e?^empt 
From Heaven's high jurisdiction, in new league 
Banded against his throne, but to remain 
In strictest bondage, though thus far removed, 
Under the inevitable curb, reserved 
His captive multitude. For He, be sure. 
In Iiighth or depth, still lirst and last will reign 
Sole king, and of his kingdom lose no parr 
By our revolt, but over Hell extend 
His empire, and with iron sceptre rule 
Us here, as with his golden those in Heaven. 
What £it we then projecting peace and war? 
War hath determined us and foiled with loss 
Irreparable; terms of peace yet none 
Voutsafed or sought; for what peace will be given 
To us enslavedj but custody severe, 


And siripes and arbitrary punishinent 
InHicted? and what peace can we recurn^ 
BuCj to our power, hos[iliiy snd h^Ce, 
Univ^intd reluctance, and revenge, ihough slow^ 
Yet ever plotting how ihe Conqueror [i?asc 
May reap Ins conquest, and may least rejoice 
In dain^; what we ma^i in sulfering feel? 
Nor weU occasion wanij nor shall we need 
With dangerous expediiion Co invade 
Heaven^ whose hi^h walh fear no assauk or siegc^ 
Or ambush from the Deep. ^Vhatjf^we_iiiid_ 
S oinc easier enterpris e? There is a place 
(If anctent and^i^ophetsc tame in Heaven 
Err nor)^noLher World, the happy seat 
0£ some new race* called Man, about this time 
To be created like to us, though less 
In power and excellence^ but favoured more 
Of Him ^^ho rules above; so was His will 
Pronouiiced among the gods> and by an oath 
That shook Heaven^s whole circumference cunlirmed* 
Thither let us bend all our [hough [s, lo learn 
What creatures there iiihabii, of what mould 
Or Bubstanc^p how endued, and what their power 
And ^^'herc their weakness; how attempted best, 
By force or stsbdeEy^ Though Heavea be shutn 
And Heaven's high Aibitntor sii secure 
In his own strength, ihis place may lie exposed. 
The utmost border of his kingdom, left 
To iheir defence who liold ii: here^ perhaps, 
Some advantageous act may be achieved 
By sudden onset — either with HelUflre 
To ^^astc his whole creation, orpossess 
Ail as our own, and drive, as we are driven. 
The puny ha bitant s^or^ifngt drive. 
Se duce tKem to our pariy^ that their_God 
May prove" their foCj and w_rth_ J gpgnli ng hand 
""A^jtsFTTus^o wn work s. This would surpass 
Commcm revenge^ and interrupt His joy 
In our confusion, and our )oy upraise 
In His disturbance: when his darling sons, 


Hurled headlong to partake with us, shall curse 
Their frail original^ and faded bliss — 
Faded so soonf Advise if this be worth 
Attempung, or to sic m daTKness here 
' Hatching vain empires-" Thus Beelzebub, 
Pleatltd his devilish counsel — first devised 
By Saian, and in part projxfsed: for whence, 
But from the author of all ill, could spring 
So deep a malice, to confound the race 
Of mankind in one root, and Earth with Hell 
To mingle and involve, done all to spire 
The great Creator? But ihcir spite still serves 
His glory to ani^ment^ The bold design 
Pleased highly those Infernal States^ and ]oy 
Sparkled in all their eyes: with full assent 
They vole: whereat his speech he thus rcnt^ws: — 
"Well have ye judged, well ended lonij debate. 
Synod of Gods, and, like ro whac ye are. 
Great tilings resolved, v/hich from die lowest deep 
Will once more lift ub up, in spite of Fate, 
Nearer our ancient Seat — perhaps in view 
Of iho&e bright confines, whence, wiih neighbouring 

And opportune excursion, we may chance 
Re-enter Heaven; or ebe in some mild zone 
Dwell* not unvisitcd of Heaven's fair lighE, 
Secure, and at the brightening orient beam 
Purge off [his gloom; the soft delicious air. 
To heal the scar of these corrosive fires, 
Shall breathe her balm. But, first, whom shall ^ve 

In search of this new World? whom shall we find 
Sufficient^ who shall tempt with wandering feet 
The dark, unbottomcd, infinite Abyss, 
And through the palpable obscure find out 
His uncouth way. or spread his aerie flight. 
Upborne with indefatigable wings 
Over the vast Abrupt, ere he arrive 
The happy Isle? What strength, what art, can then 
Suffice, or what evasion bear him safe 


Through the sirict senieries and stations thick 
Of Angels watching roundi* Here he had need 
All drcumspeciion: and we now no less 
Choice in our sJ^Tragc; for on whom we send 
The ^rtighl of nW^ ^md our last hope, relics " 

This said, he sar; and cxpeciaiion held 
His lotjk suspcn^Cp awjiiting who appeared 
To second* or oppose, or undertake 
The pcrrilous attempt. But all sjit mute, 
Pondering the danger wtih deep thoughts; and pach 
In oiher's counienance read his own dismay, 
Astonished. None among the choice and prime 
Of those Heaven-warring champions could be found 
So hardy a^ to prolier or accept^ 
Alone^ the dreadful voyage; til], at last^ 
SaEan^ whom now trarisci?ndeni glory raised 
Above his fellows^ with monarchal pride 
Conscious of highest worthy unmoved thus spike;— 

*'U Progeny ot Heaven' Enipyrtial Throi^esl 
AVith reason hath deep silence and demur 
Suited us, though undismayed* Long is ihe way 
And hard, that out of Hell leads up 10 Light. 
Our prison strongs this hui^c con^'cx of lire, 
Outrageous to devour, immures us round 
Ninefold; and gaies of burning adamant. 
Barred over us^ prohibit all egress. 
These passed, if any pass, the void profound 
Of une^senria! Night receives him nextj 
Wide-jjaping, and wi[h utter [o^s of bein^i 
Threatens him, plunged in that abortive yuU\ 
If thence he scape, into whatever world, 
Ot unknown region, what remains him li:ss 
Than unknown dangers^ and as hard esca|>eP 
But 1 should ill become this throne, O Peers, 
And [his imperial sovranty^ adorned 
With splcndouFj armed with power, if aught proposed 
And judged of public moment in the shape 
Of difficulty or danger, could deter 
Me from attempting. Wherefore do I assume 
These royalties^ and not refuse to reign, 

120 JpHN MILTON book ii 

Refusing to accept 35 great a s hare 

Qf jiazird aa ot honourT^Sue alike 

To him who reigns, and so much to him due 

OiJia^arcTmore^s Rg ab~qvc'(Hc rest 

Highjionouredsitsf' Go, therefore, mighty Powers, 

Terror ofTIeavcn, though fallen; intend at home, 

While here shall be our home, what best may ease 

The present mise ry^ and rende r Hell 

^Q£e_tQlfiiabk;.iXlh.^f^ ]l^ cure or charm 
To respi lc._oi_ deceive^ or slack the pain 

Of this ill mansion: intermIE no watch" 

Against a wakeful Foe, while 1 abroad 

Through all the coasts of dark destruction seek 

■ Deliverance forus all. This enterpiiae 

None ^iafl partake with me" Thus saying, rose 

The Monarch, and prevented all leply; 

Prudent lest, from his resolution raised. 

Others among the chief might offer now. 

Certain to be refused, what erst they feared, 

And» so refused, might in opinion stand 

His rivals, winning cheap the high repuie 

Which he through hazard huge must earn. But they 

Dreaded not more the adventure than his voice 

Forbidding; and at once with hrm they rose- 

Their rising all at once was as the sound 

Of thunder heard remote. Towards him ihey bend 

With awful reverence prone, and as a God 

Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven. 

Nor failed they to express how much they praised 

Tl\at for the general safety he despised 

His own: for neither do the Spirits damned 

Lose all their virtue; le« bad men should boast 

Their specious deeds on earth, which glory excites. 

Or close arnbition varnished o'er with 2eaL 

Thus they their doubtful consuhaiions dark 

Ended, rejoicing in their matchless Chief: 

Asi when from mountain-tops the dusky clouds 

Ascending, while the North-wind sleeps, overspread 

Heaven's cheerful face, the louring element 

Scowls o*er the darkened lantskip snow or shower, 


If chance the radiant sun, with farewell sweer, 
Exceiid his evening beam, the fields revive, 
The birds iheir note^ renew* and blcaling herds 
Attest their joy, that hill and valley rlngs- 
O shame to men! Devil with devi! damned 
Firm concord holds; men only disagree 
Ot creatures rationd, though under hope 
Of heavenlv grace, ynd, God proclaiminL?; peace, 
Yet live in hatred, enmity, and strife 
Among themselves, and levy cruel vvars 
Wajiting the earth, each other to destroy: 
As if {which might induce us to accord) 
Man had not hellish foes enow besides, 
That day and night for his destruction wait! 

The Stygian council thus dissolved; and forth 
In order came the grand Infernal Peers: 
Midst came their mighty Paramount* and seemed 
Alone the Antagonist of Heaven, nor less 
Than Hell's dread Emperotj with pomp supreme. 
And god'like imitated state: him round 
A globe of fiery Seraphim inclosed 
With bright imblazonry, and horrent arms. 
Then of their session ended they bid cry 
With trumpet's tejjal sound the great result: 
Toward the four winds four speedy Cherubim 
Put to their mouths the sounding alchymy, 
By liarald's voice explained; the hollow Abyss 
Heard far and wide^ and all the host of Heli 
With deafening shout returned them loud acclaim. 
Thence more at ease their minds* and somewhat raised 
By false presumptuous hope, the rangeti Powers 
Disband; and, wandering, each his several way 
Pursues, as inclination or sad choice, 
Leads him perplexed, where he may likeliest find 
Truce to his restless thoughts, and entertain 
The irksome hours, till his great Chief return. 
Part on the plain, or in the air sublime. 
Upon the wing or in swift race contend. 
As at the Olympian games or Pythian fields; 
Part curb their fieiy steeds, or shua the goal 


With rapid vvhetls^ or fronted brigades form: 

As wl^^ny IP warn proud cities, war appears 

Waged in the troubled sky^ and armies msix 

To batile in the ctoudi; before each van 

Prick foriK ihe a<srie knights^ and cotich their spears, 

Till ihickt^Et iegions dose; with feats oi arms 

From either end of heaven the \^elkin burn^, 

OtfKTs, ^vith vast Typhcean rage, more fell, 

Rend up boih rocks and hills, and ride the nir 

In whirlwind; Ht=ll scarce hotds the wild uproar: — 

As when Alcidcs, from Qicli-dia cro^^ned 

Wtih conquest, fell [he envenomed robe, and tore 

Through pain up by the roots Thessalian pines, 

And Lidhas from the top of Oa ihrew 

InLo the liuboic sea. Others, more mild. 

Retreated in a silent valley^ sing 

With notes angelical to many a harp 

Their own heroic deeds, and h^ple^s fall 

By doom of battle^ and complain that Fate 

Free Virtue shoufd enthrall to Force or ChancL^ 

Their song was partial; bui the harmony 

(What could it less svhen Spirits immortal smg?) 

Suspended Hell, and took with ravishment 

The thronging audienee. In discourse more sweet 

(For Eloqucnco die SouK Son^ chnrms ihe Sense) 

Other? apart sat on a hill retired^ 

In thoughts more elevate, and reasoned high 

O^ Providence, Foreknowledge, Will^ and Fatp — 

Fixed fate, free will, fcareknowUdjje absolute-^ 

And found no end, in wandering ma^es lost* 

Of good and evil much they argued then, 

Ot happiness and tinal misery^ 

Passion and apathy, and jj^ory and shame; 

Vain wisdom all, and false philosophy! — 

Yetj with a pleasing sorcery^ could charm 

Pain for a white or anguish^ and excite 

Fallacious hope, or arm the obdurM breast 

With stubborn patience as with triple sieel. 

Another part^ in squadrons and gross bands^ 

On bold adventure lo discover wide 


ThacdismaL U^iilLJ^iLlillL*^' imejwrhaps 
Mjghr^ i^_th<?rn easier habitatio n, b end 

FQur^ays^ ihejr flyin g march, ^fong thcjiajiks; 

Of four in f crnair ivgf s, i ha i .disgorg e 

rn"LQ"lhfll?ufai o^ la ^e ji eir b akful^ siriiims — 

AbfiorrLnTSiyx, ihe flood of deadly hate; 

Sad Acheron at sorro^v, hiack and dci-p; 

Cocytus, rumed of lamentation loud 

Heaid on ihe rueful stream; fierce Phlegeton, 

Whoif waves oi lorrenE lire inllanie wiih Tage. 

Tar oil Jiom these, a slow and silent sireani, 

I^lhe. the river of oMivion, rowis 

I ler watery hbyTinth, \vberei»f who drinks 

lonhwiih hi^ former slate and being forgets — 

For^eli both joy and ^rief, pka&ure and pain, 

Muyond this fiood a frozen continent 

Lies dark and wild, beat with ptrpcttial storms 

Of whirlwind and dire baik which on Rrm land 

Thaw,'* not, buE ^-nihers heap, and ruin seems 

Of ancient pile; all else di?ep snow and ice, 

A gulf profound ait ihai Serbonian bog 

lieiwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old. 

Where armies v, bole bav^r sunk: the parching air 

iSurns frore, and cold performs the el^ect of lire. 

Thiiher, by harpy-iooted Furies baled, 

Ai certain revolutions all the damned 

Are brought; and feel by turns the bitter change 

Of fierce c:<trcnies, e^iiremes by change more ficice, 

From be^ls of raging hrc to star^e in ice 

Their soft ethereal warmth, and there to pine 

Immovable, inbxcd. and frozen round 

Periuds of time, — thence hurried back to fire. 

They ^erry over this Lethean ?ound 

Both to and fro, their sorrow to augment, 

And M'ish and siruggle, as they pass, to reach 

The templing stream, witii one small drop to lose 

III sweet forgetfulness all pain and woe. 

All in one moment, and so near the brink: 

But Fate withjitands, and. to oppose the atteniptj 

Medusa wJTh Gorgonian terror guards 

124 JOHN MILTON book ll 

The ford, and o( iiselt the water flies 

All taste of living wight, as once ii fled 

The lip of Tantalus. Thus roving on 

In confu^L'd march forlorn, the advenirous bands, 

Wiih slniJdt:rin>; hurrar pale, and eyes aghast, 

Viewed first their lamcniable lot, and lound 

No rest. Through many a dark and dreary vale 

They passed, and many a region do[orou:i, 

O'er many a iro^i^en, many a fiery Alp, 

Rocks, caves, lakes, fens, bogSj Jens, and shades of 

death' — 
A universe of death, which God by curse 
Created evil, for evil only good; 
Where all Hfc dies, death lives, and Nature breeds, 
Ptrverse, all monstrous, all prodigious things, 
Abominable, inutterable. and worse 
Tlian fables yet have feigned or fear conceived, 
Cjjrgons, and Hydras, and Chimsras dire- 

Meanwhile the Adversary of God and Man* 
Satan, with thoughts inflamed of highest design* 
Puts on iiwifi wings, and toward the gates of Hell 
Explored his solitary [light: sometime* 
He scours the right hand coast, sometimes the left; 
Now shaves with level wing the Deep, then soars 
Up to the (lery concave towering high. 
As when far ofl at sta a fleet descried 
Hangs in the clouds, by ^equinoctial winds 
Close sailing from Bengala, or the isles 
Of Ternate and Tidore, whence merchants bring 
Their spicy dru^s; they on the trading flood, 
Through the wide Ethiopian to The Cape, 
Ply stemming nighdy toward the pole: io seemed 
Far oH the flying Fiend. At last appear 
Hell-hounds, high reaching to the horrid roof. 
And thrice threefold the gale*; three folds were bra^s, 
Three iron, three of adamantine rock, 
Impenetrable^ impaled with circling fire. 
Yet unconsLimed- Before the gates there sat 
On either side a formidable Shape. 
The one seemed a woman to the waist, and fair. 


Bui ended foul in maiiy 3 scaly told, 
Vofuininous .md vjs[ — i serpent armed 
Will] morTu] sling. About hi?r rnldJIc round 
A cry of Hdl-hound? never-ceasing tkTrked 
U'[ih wide Cerbcreyn mouths full loud, and rung 
A hideous; yci, when iht7 \hi, would creep, 
If yuj"lu disiurlictl Lht;ir noise, into her womb. 
And kennel [here; yet there still barked and howled 
WiUiin unseen- Far less abhorred than tht^e 
Vexed Sc>lJa, haihing in ihe sea that parts 
Calabria irom the hoarse Trinacrlan shore; 
N'or uglier folfow the niyhi-hag, when, c.illed 
In secrei, riding through the air abe comc$* 
Luied wjd] the smdf of infanE blood, lo dance 
With Lapland wiicbes, while the labouriog moon 
Eclipses at [heir eharms. The other Shape — 
If shape k niight be caWed ibal ^bape had none 
Disiinguisbablc in mtmbcr. joint, or limb; 
Or subs[ance might be called that shadow seemed^ 
For each seemed either — black it itood as Nighit 
Fierce as ten Furies, rerrible as Hell, 
And sbook a dreadful dart: what seenied hi? head 
The likeness of a kinglv crown had on. 
Saian was now at hand^ and from his seat 
The monster movinir nmvard came as fast 
With horrid strides: Hell trembled as he strode- 
1 he u ndaunt ed Fieiid.whai ihis niit^hi bc,ad_mired — 
-■^dmjrciL^n oi^fca r ed (G od and hi s Son excep t, 
Cre3t^-jhim;_aai]j; hc valu e J^Kc^or shunnetl), 
An d with di^da mfuljogl^iju^^^^^l^an :— 

"Whence and what art thou, execrable Shape, 
Thai dar*st ihoujjh j-rim and terrible, advance 
Thy miscreated front athwart my way 
To yonder gates? Through them T mean to pas?, 
That be assured, without leave asked of thee. 
Retire; or taste thy folly, and learn by proof, 
Hdl'born, not (o contend with Snirits of Heaven." 

To whom the Goblin, full of wrauth, replied: — 
"An ihou that Traitor-Angel* art thou he. 
Who first broke peace in Heaven and faith, till then 


Unbroken, and in proud rebellious arm^ 

Drew attct him the ihird pan of Heaven's sons, 

Conjured against the Highest — for whith both thou 

And tliey, <>utci^sl from God, are here condtrniaed 

To waste eternal days in woe and pain? 

And reckon '&l Lhou ihyself with Spirits of Heaven. 

Hel]-doomed, and breath'st defiance here and acornn 

Where I reiyn kini;, and, to enra^^e ihee more. 

Thy king and lord? Back to thy puLiishmt:nu 

False fugitive; and to thy speed :idti \vin^Sj 

Lest with a vL^hlp of smrplon^ I pursue 

Thy lingering^ cr with one stroke of this dan 

Strange horror seize thee^ and paai^s untslE before." 

So spake the griesly Terror, and in shape. 
So speaking and so threatening^ grew tenfold 
More dreadful and deform- On the oiher side^ 
[ncensed with indignation, Satan stood 
Unterriiied, and hke a comet bu^ned^ 
That lires the length of Ophmchus huge 
In thi; arcick sky, and from his horrid hair 
Shakes pe^Llence and war. £ach at the head 
Levelled his deadly aim; th<?Er fatal hands 
No second sLroke micnd: acuTsuL-Ii a frotvci 
Each caif 3C The oihe'fas when Iwli bfack clouds, 
With Heaven's artillery fraught, come ratthuL; on 
Over the Caspian, — then stand front to front 
Hmering a space, lill winds the signaf blow 
To join their dark encounter in mid-a;r. 
So frowned ihe mi^hiy conibatanis that Hell 
Grew darker at their frown; so maiched they stomi; 
For never but once more was either like 
To mei^i so great a foe. And now great deeds 
HaJ been achieved, \\'hereof all Hell had mngj 
Had not the snaky Sorceress, that sat 
Fast by Hell-gato and kept the fatal key^ 
Kisen^ and wilh hideou-s otiicry rushed between. 

"O father, what intends thy hand " ^he cried- 
*' Against thv only son: What fury, O son, 
Possesses thee to bend thai mortal tiart 
Against ihy falher'i head? And know'st for whom? 


For Him who siii above, and laughs (he while 
Ac [heci, ordained his drudge 10 execiiic 
Whateer his wrainh, which He chills jusiice, liids — 
His wrjmh, which one day will tieitroy vo hoih!" 

She spake, and ac her ^\'ord5 the hellish Pest 
Porboie: ihen ihosf to her Satan rcLurnedt — 

"So strange ihy outcry^ ami ^hy words so sirangu 
Thou inttrf>o!]es|, ih-it my sudden hand, 
Prevented* spares to [ell ihee yel by deeds 
\V] li imends, ill] Hrs[ I know of ihce 
Whai thing thou ^rt, thus douhle-formeJ, and why 
In this inHimal vale first met, thou call'st 
Mc father, and rhjt [antasm call'st my sun. 
I know thee nut, nor ever saw till now 
Sight more dctestahle ihan him and thee." 

To whom thus ihe Egttress qiHcll-i;ilte repSicd: — 
"Hast rhou forgoi nie. then; and do I seem 
Now in thine eye so I'otilr — once deemed so lair 
In Htaven, when at ihc assembly, and in sight 
Ol all the Seraphim wiih ih^e combined 
in hold conspiracy aj^ainsi Heaven's King, 
All on a snddt'n miserable pain 
Surprised thee, dim thine eyes, and dizzy swum 
in darkness, whilo thy head flames thick and fast 
1 hrcu' fonh, till on the left side opening wide, 
Likest to thee in sha^se and countenance bright. 
Tiien shining heavenly fair* a goJdess armed, 
Out^of thy head i spruns;, Ama^^ement seized 
All the host oTHeavenn^ack they recoiled afraid 
At iirsi, and called nie5j>j, and for a sign 
Portentous Tiel3^e; but, ^miliar grown, 
I pleased, an^l with attractive graces won 
l"he mos^ai^cr^c— thee chiefly, who* full oft 
THyscIf in me thy perfect image viewing, 
Secam'st enamoured' and such joy ihou took'st 
With me in secret that my womb conceived 
-\ s^rotting burden. Meamvhile war arose. 
And fields were fought in Heaven: wherein remained 
(For whar could else:) to our Almighty Foe 
Clear victury; to our part loss and rout 


Through all the Empyrean. DoHii ihey fell^ 
Driven headlong from the pitch of Heaven^ down 
Into this Deep; and in ihe gcnoral isM 
I abo: at which time this powerful K,ey 
Into my hands \vas given, with charge to keep 
These gales for ever shut, which none can pass 
Wilhout tny opening- Pensile heri; I sat 
Alone; buL long I sat hoIt till my womb. 
Pregnant by thee^ and now excesiive grown, 
Prodijjtovjs motion fek and ruetii] throes, 
Ai last thi? odious olTthpring whom ihou seest* 
Thine own begotten^ break-ing violent way. 
Tore through my entrails^ diat, widi fear and pain 
Disioried, all my nether shape thui giew 
Transformed: but he my inbred enemy 
Fonh issued, brandishing his fatal dart. 
Made [o de^EroVn [ fled, and cried out Deaih! 
He[l ircmblcd as the hitieouTTiamG, and slgKcd 
From all licr cjvgs, and back resounded Deal/}! 
I fled; but he pur^ut:d (iliough marc, ic seems, 
Inflamed with lust vhitn rage), and, swifter far, 
Me overtook, his mother, ^W dismayed^ 
And, in embraces t'ordblc and loul 
Engendering with me, of that rape begot 
These yelling monscers, thai with ceaseless cry 
Surround me, as thou saw'st — hourly conceived 
And hourly born, with sorrow inJinice 
To met for, when tliey list, into the \^'onib 
That bred them they rcU]rnH and howl, and gnaw 
My boweU, their repast; then, bursting tWih 
Afresh, with conscious terrors vex me round, 
That rest or intermission none I find. 
Before mine eves in opposition sits , 

Grim Death, my son and foe, who sets iKem on, 
And me. his parent, would full soon devour 
For want of other prev, but that he knows 
His end with mine involved, and knows that I 
Sliould prove a bitter morsel, and hii IjJne, 
Whenever that shall be: so Fate pronounced. 
But thou. O Father, I fore^vurn ihee, shun 


£00K IE 


Hi? deadly nrroiv; ncitKcr vainly hope 
To bu invulnerable in those bright arms, 
Though tempered heavenly; for iha: mortal dint» 
Sj\c He \^'hij reigns above, none can resist.'* 

She Rnished; and the subde Fiend his lore 
Soon learned, now milder, am! thus answered 
smooth : — - 

"Dear daughter — since ihou cbim'st me for thy sire. 
And my fair son here show'st mtt tlie ilear ple(.lgc 
Of dalhance had with ihet' in Heaven, and joys 
Then sweety now sad to mention, through dire change 
Hefnillen us unforeseen^ unihought-ol- — know, 
1 come no enemy, but to set free 
From out this dark and dismal house of pain 
Huth him and ihee, and all the Heavenly host 
Of Spirits that, in our just pretences armed. 
Fell with us from on high. From them I go 
Tills uncouth errand sole, and one for all 
^f>self e:ipose, with lonely steps to tread 
The unfounded Deep, and through the void immense 
To searcii, with wandering quest, a place foretold 
Should be — and, by concurring signs, ere now 
Created vast and round — a place of bliss 
In the pourlieues of Heaven; and therein placed 
A race of upstart creatures, to supply 
Perhaps our vacant room, though rnore remced^ 
Lest Heaven, surcharged with potent multitude, 
Might hap to move new broils. Be this, or aught 
Thau this more secret, now designed, I haste 
To know; and this once known^ ^hall soon return 
And bring ye to the place where thou and Death 
Shall dwell at ease> and up and down unseen 
Wing silently the buxom air, imha[med 
With odours. There ye shall be fed and filled 
Immeasurably; all things shall be your prey/' 

He ceased; for both seemed highly pleased, and 
Death " " 

Grinned horrible a ghastly smile, to hear 
His famine should be filled, and blessed his maw 
Destined to that good hour. No less rejoiced 

J 30 JOHN MILTON book r 

His moiliLT bad» and thus bc'spakc her Sift: — 

"The kty ot this inkriial Pic» by due 
And by comiiiantl of Heaven's all-powcrtul King, 
[ keep, by Him torbiddtn to unlock 
These adamiintine gates; agdinst all lorce 
Dt^ath rt'ady Mafuis to interpose his dart. 
Fearless lo be o'ermalched by living might. 
But what U""c T n> His commands above. 
Who hate^ me, and halh biiher [hrusi me ilowii 
Into this gloom of Tariaiu^ profound, 
To ill in hn[i?lul oflice here confmed, 
Inhabitant of Heaven and heavenly-born — 
Here in perpetual agony and pain, 
Wiih terrors imd with clamours compas&ed round 
Of mine own brootl, [hat on my bowels feed? 
Thou art niy father, [hou my author, thou 
My Ih^ing gav'si me; whom should I olwy 
15ut thee? whom follow,' Thou wilt bring me soon 
To that new world of light and bliss, among 
The gixis who live at ease, where I shall reii'i* 
Ai thy right hand voluptuous, as beseems 
Thy daughter and thy darling, without end.^' 

Thu*i saying, from her side the fatal hey, 
Sad instrument oi^ all our woe, she took; 
And, toward the gate fowling her bestial train, 
Forthwith the huge portcullis high u|>-drcw. 
Which, but herself, not all the Stygian Powers 
Could once have moved; lhi:n in thi: keyhole turns 
The intricate wards, and evi?ry bok and bar 
Of massy iron or solid rock with ease 
Unfastens, On a sudden open lly, 
With impetuous recoil and jarring sound, 
The infernal doors, and on their hinges grate 
Harsh thunder, that the lowest bottom shook 
Of Erebus, She opened; but to shut 
Excelled her power: the gales wide open stood, 
That with extended wings a bannered host. 
Under spread ensigns marching, might pass through 
With horse and chariots ranked in loose array; 
So wide they stood, and like a furnace-mouFh 



Cast forlK rcdouTiJinj; smoke and luJdy flamc- 
BpCorc their eyes in sutldcn view appear 
The ^tcrEjl-^ of the hcKiry Deep — a dork 
IllimiMbtc ocean, wuKcml boucidt 
Widioin di in erosion; where lengthy brejJih, and 

And time, and placCj are [o5t; wLerc cldcsE Ni^hi 
And ChaoSj :>nccsturs of Nature, hold 
EtcrnjI sn^rchy^ aniidsi the noise 
Of endless wars^ and by confusion sinnd. 
For Hotj Cold, Moiit, and Dty^ lour champions 

fierce J 
Strive here for tnaistricj and to baiile bring 
TKeir embryon atom^; they around thn^ Hag 
Of each his faction, in their several danSj 
Light-armed or heavy, sharp, smooth* swiJi, or slow, 
S^varan populous, unnumbi^red as [he sands 
or liarca or Cyronts lorrid soi!* 
Levit^d to aidt; with warrmg winds, and poise 
Thetr hghter wings. To whom these most adhere 
He rules a momeni: Chaos umpire sits^ 
And by di:cision more Imbroils the frs^y 
By which he reigns: next him, higli arbiter. 
Chance governs all- Into this wild Abyss, 
'J hi^ \^ omb of Nature, and perhaps her graxe, 
Oi neither Sea^ nor Shore^ nor Air^ nor Fire^ 
But 3II these in their pregnant causes mixed 
Confusedly, and which dms must ever fight> 
Unless the Almighiy Maker them ordain 
Hi^ dark materials to create more worlds — 
Into this wild Abyss the wary Fiend 
Stood on the brink of Hell and looked a while, 
Pondering hi^ voyage; for no narrow frith 
He had to cross. Nor was his ear less pealed 
With noises loud and ruinous (to compare 
Great things with sm^U) than xxben Bellona storms 
With all her hiniering engines, bent to rase 
Some capital city; or less than if this framiJ 
Of heaven were falling, and these element? 
In mutiny had from her asle lorn 

1^2 JOHN MTLTON book li 

The sie^^dEasi Earth- Ac last his sail-broad vans 

He spreads foi" (light, and, in the surging snioke 

Uplifted^ spurns the ground; thence many a icague^ 

A? in a cloudy chair, ascending rides 

Audacious; but^ that seat soon failing, meets 

A vast vacuity. Ail unawares^ 

Fluttering his pennons vain, plumb-doy n he drops 

Ten thousand fadoni deep) and to this hour 

Down had been failing, had not» by ill chance, 

The strong rebuff of some tumultuous dnud. 

Instinct with fire and nitre, hurried him 

As many miles aloft. That fury stayed — - 

Quenched in *i bo^^y Syrris, neither sea, 

Nor good dry land — nigh foundered, on he fares. 

Treading the crude consistence, half on foot. 

Half flying; behoves him now both oar and sail. 

As when a gryfon through the wilderness 

With wjngid course, o*er hill or moory dale, 

Pursues the Arimpasian, who by stealth 

Had from his wakeful custody purloined 

The jjuarded £old; so eagerly ihe Fiend 

O'er bog or steep, through strait, rougb, dense, or 

With head, hands, wTngs, or feet, pursues his vvay, 
And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flics. 
At length, 3 universal hubbub wild 
Of stunning sounds, and voices all confused, 
Borne ihrough ihe hollow dark, assaults his e^ir 
With loudest vehemence. Thither he plies 
Undaunted, to meet there whatever Power 
Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss 
Might in that noise reside, of whom to a^k 
Which way the nearest coast of darkness lies 
Bordering on light; when straight behold ihe throne 
Of Chaos, and his dark pavilion spread 
Wide on the wasteful Deep^ With him enthroned 
Sat sable-vested Night, eldest of things, 
Tlie consort of his reign; and by them stood 
Orcus and Ades, and the dreaded name 
Of Demogorgon^ Rumour next, and Chance, 


And Tumult, and Confusion, all embroiled, 
And Discord wiih a d^ousaml various momhs. 

To whom SaMn, turning boldly, thus:— 
"Ye Powers 
And Spirits of diis nelhcrfnost Afcyss, 
Chaos and ancient Nighty I conic no spy 
Widi purpose to explore or to disturb 
Tilt; iocrcts of your realm; bni, by constrainr 
Wiindering this darkwme dcsart, as niy way 
Lies through vour spaeious empire up lo li^jhtj 
Alone and wiihout ^uidc, half lose, ! sct:k, 
What readiest path leads where your gloomy bounds 
Confine with Heaven; or, if some other place. 
From your dominion won, th^ Ethereal K,ing 
Possesses lately^ ihither to arrive 
1 travel [his profound. Direct my course; 
Directed, no mean recompense it brings 
To your behoof, if I iliat region lo$t. 
All usurpation [hence expelled^ reduce 
To her original darkness and your sway 
(Which is my present journey), and once more 
Erect die standard there of andenc Night. 
Yours be the advantage all^ mine the revengel" 

Thus Saian; and him thus the Anarch old, 
WiLb faliering speech and visage incomposed, 
An^nered: — *^I know thee^ stranger, who [liou art — 
That mighty leading Angel, who of laie 
Made frcad against Heaven's K,ing, though over- 
1 saw and heard; for such a numerous host 
Fled not in silence throujjh the frighted Deep, 
With min upon ruin, rout on rout, 
Confusion worse confounded; and Heaven-gates 
Poured out by millions her victorious bapdSj 
Pursuing. I upon my frontiers here 
Keep residence; if all T can will serve 
That little which is left so to defend^ 
Encroached on still through our intestine broils 
Weakening the sceptre of old Night: fifsi. Hell, 
Your dungeon^ stretching far and wide beneaihj 

134 JOHN MILTON book li 

Now Utcly Heaven and liarih, another work! 
Hung o'er my realm, linked in a golden c^laill 
To thai side Heaven from whence your legions lell! 
If ihar way he your walk, yiiu lia\i? not far; 
So much the nearer danger. Go, and speed; 
Havoc, and spoil, and ruin, are my gain/' 

He ceased; aad iatan staid noi to rcply^ 
But. glad that now his 5ca shoutd iind a shore. 
With freih alacrity and force renewed 
Springs upward, like a pyramid of fire, 
Into the wild expanse, and through the shock 
Of fighting Eili^menis, on all sides round 
En\ ironed* wins his way; harder beset 
And more endangered than when Argo pasy.d 
Through Bosporus betwixt the )uslljng rocks. 
Or when LUysses on the larboard shunned 
Charybdis, and by the oiher Whirlpool steerLd. 
So he with dit^culty and labour hard 
Moved on. With difficulty and labour ho; 
But, he once passed, soon after, when Man fell, 
Strange alteration! Sin and Death amain, 
Following his [rack (sueh was the will of Heaven) 
Pa^cd after him a broad and beaten way 
Over the dark Abyss, whose boillny; gulf 
Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length. 
From Hell con[inucd, reaching the utmost Orb 
Of this frail World; by which the Spirits perverse 
With easy intercourse pas? to and fto 
To tempt or punish mortals, except whom 
God and good Anj^els guard by special grace. 

But now at last the sacred influence 
Of light ap^iears, and from the walls of Heaven 
Shoots far into the bosom of dim Nij^hi 
A glimmering dawn. Here Nature firsi begins 
Her fardest verge, and Chaos to retire, 
As from her utmost works, a broken foe, 
With tumult less and with less hostile din; 
That Satan with less toil, and now ^vith e^se. 
Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious lighi, 
And, like a iveather-beaten vessel, holds 



Ghidly I he pon, though shrouds and tackle forn; 
Or in ^hc empiicr wasie^ rcscnihhng air, 
Weighs his spread wfn^s, ac leisure to hchok! 
Far ofl ihe empyre^] Hea^'cn, <?\it'ixdeJ wide 
In circuit, undctei mined square ur round, 
With opal towefA and balilcmen[,s adorned 
Oi living sapphire, once his native seal, 
And, fast by. hanging in a. ^oldoi thain. 
This ptndcnt Worfd. in bigness as a star 
Of siiiaU(.'El inagnilude clu^e by the moon. 
Tiiiihcr, full I'raught \vit!i mischievous revenge. 
Accurst, and in a cursed hour, ht hies- 


The Ap^■l■^rp^■T. — <fOtL siiring on Iii5 ihriini?, spes Sjun flying [tuvirdj; thh World, 
ilicn ni'ivly cTtJii-d; ^hi'wi bijii lo ihe Sun, ivho an jii his nyhi hand; for^nrJli iho 
iucct^i of Snjn III tierv.!r[i[iu mgnkinil; clt^iTs bis own ]\iuia: mil Wis-Joni from all 
impuiaiinn, h.nin^ cri-arcd Mm free, and :iblc cnrm^rh i„ ti,ivc wiihstan[ hj$ Tempter; 
yci diid^iss Jli^ piLrposHj uE grjcc finv^irdi him, in regard he foil nn^ ai his own nulicCn 
Ti did Sjian, Imi hy hi:n stt'utwi. The Sun rt£ GoJ rerdcis prniips c^i hu Father for 
ihL- jn.mi^L-^rolLiin n£ hi* srJ<:ioi]& purpoM.- T^ii^nrdi Miin: bus God ^Eain jleclarc-; ihji 
(iiacc cannoc be csiendcJ nivi'un]^ Man wiihom ihc sjcisfjccioa of Divine Jusdce; 
Man haih itlTemJcd the majtsiy of God bv' :t^piring to Godliu^d, ;tnd itjcrt-fnte, wiih 
.d| hfs [iroeeny, devuicd Co dcauli, mu^t ilitn iinksii ntnvn: oni] can be fniind ■^ufficieni 
ui aiiiWLT lor hii ufiiriitti, jnd iinde;^w jij.'s inmiihniL'ni. The Son nE God frccl^' oilers 
liiin^i^ll a r^iii'^HTh foT Man: ihe FatliL-r ^iccntih liiiii. 'rrdjin^ hi^ incainjii^^n, pronoumzt^ 
his es2rt,itL(jn :ibovc al! N,[i]i» in Hcivnn ^irtd r.iirtli: tnnim^inds ali ihe Anycis 10 
jdcice him. Thoy u\xy. iijid, hynijiin^" iq iheir linrps in full quire, cdcbr^Tc the Faihtf 
ind ifio Sun. MejnivhJiL- .Sjian aliifhis ujjiin ilit barn cojiv^v nf ihis VVor!d'& outer- 
inn^i orbi where wandr-rb^ lie fir^r findi a place ^[nar called ihi: Limbo of Vanii>': 
wiiai pEr^oLi^ -iJKi f]iifi>:s (]v up Thiiher: ihence conits to llie ^aiu- nf Heaven, dcsctibcd 
ifsctfldm^ by itjjrs. mid ihe w^neri above [he rirnij]]iertT [hn flow al>otJi ii. Hii. 
j-asijfif [jitncc [o ifie ,>rb of the Sun! hu- find^ ihcrc Uriel, ihe re^-ent of ihai orb 
but Jirti chancres hiniscli inr-P ihe sba|ic nl a nieJdtr An^el, adds preienilinf a zealou^ 
cl'^ to bcbold ihe aew Cri-iinon. .-nd Mim H'lium G^d had pla^^l hece, inquires 
of hjni Jhe jffjce of hij liabiiaJion, ind is dirccied: Alii-hn lif!;! ,>ii Mount Niphalts. 

H.ML, hofy Light, off.^prini- of Heaven firsi-borti! 

Or of the Eternal co^'lernn! beam 

May J express thee unblamtd.' since Gml is lighin 

And never but in unapproached light 

Dwelt from tterniiy- — dwelt then in thee, 

Bright effluence ot bright esstiice increate! 

Or hear'st thou rather pure Ethereal Stream, 

Whose fountain who shall tell? Before the Sun, 

136 JQ^J-7 MILTON BOoj 

Before the Heavens^ thou wert^ and at the voice 

Of Godj as with a maniloj diJst invent 

The rising World oi waters d.irk and dyepj 

Won from the void and formlt^si Infinite! 

Thee I revisit now with bolder wing, 

Escajwd the Scygian Pooi^ though tong deiained 

In thai obscure sojourn^ while in my HighE^ 

Through uiter and through middle Darkness borne^ 

Widi olher note? than 10 the Orphean lyre 

J sung of Chaos and eternal Night, 

Taught by ihe Heavenly Muse to \enture down 

The d.irk descent, and up to re ascend. 

Though hard and rare. Thee J revise safe^ 

And fed thy sovran viraf lamp; but thou 

Kevisit'st not these eyes, ihat rowl in vain 

To iind thy piercing ray, and find no davvn^ 

So thick a drop strene hath quenched their orbs^ 

Or dim suffusion veiled. Yet not the more 

Cease I to wander where the Musei hauiu 

Clear spring, or shady grove, or sunny hill, 

Smit w[th the love of sacred song; but chief 

Thee^ Sion, and the flowery brooks bcnead^, 

Tha[ wash thy halloiAed feet, and warbHng ilow, 

Nightly I visit: nor sometimes forget 

Those other two equalled with mc in fate^ 

(So were [ equalled wlUl them in rcnownl) 

Bhnd Thamyris and blind M[tontdeSp 

And Tiresias and Phineus, prophets old; 

Then feed on thoughi^ ihat voluntary mo^e 

Harmonious numbers; as the wakeful bird 

Sings darkling, and, in shadiest covoil hid, 

Tunes her nocturnal note* Thus widi die year 

Seasons return; but not to me returns 

Day, or the sweet approach of even or morn, 

Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's lose, 

Or flocks, or herds^ or human face divine; 

But cloud instead and ever-during dark 

Surrounds me, from ihe cheerful ways of men 

Cut ofE, andj for the book of knowledge fair, 

Presented with a universal blank 



Of Nature^s works, to me expunged anJ rased, 

And wisdom at oik entrance <]\tn^ shin cut. 

So much ihe rather ihoiij Celestial Liyhl, 

Shine inward^ and ihe mind throuijh all hor powers 

[rr*iLfisne; ihere phnt eyes; all misL from thence 

Purge and disperse, that I may see and tel! 

Of things invisible to morta! si^ht- 

Now had ihe Almighiy Taiher from above, 
From [he pure Empyrean where He sits 
Hi^^h throned nbovc all hiyhth, bent down his eye^ 
His own uofks and iheir works at once 10 view; 
About him all ihe Sanctiiiei oi H^^avcn 
Siood [hick as stars, and from his sight received 
Beaniudt past uaerance; on his right 
The radiani imas^c of h\^ i;lory sat, 
His onlv Son- On Earih he first beheld 
Our iwo lirn parents^ vet the only two 
Of ^mankind, icx ihe H:ippy Garden placed, 
Reapmg immortal fruits cE joy and lovSj 
Uninterrupied joy, unrivalled lovc^ 
In blissful 5oli[ude. He ihen surveyed 
Hell and (he gulf between, n^nd Satnn there 
Coasting the wall of Heaven on this side Night, 
fci iht dun air sublin^er ^nd ready now 
To scoop, wiih wearied winj^s and willing feet, 
On the bare outside 0! this Worldt that seemed 
Firm land imbosomed without firmament, 
UncerTain which^ in ocean or in air. 
Htm God Iwholding from his propped high, 
Wherein pasi^ prereni, iuture, he beholds. 
Thus Eo His only Son foreseeing Jspake: — 

*'Onlv-3>cgouen Son^ seesi ihou what rage 
Transports our Adversary? whom no bounds 
Pre scribed J no bar5 of Hell, nor all the chains 
Heaped on him [here, nor yec ihe main Abyss 
Wide interrupt, can hold; 5o bent he seems 
On desperate revenge, that shall redound 
Upon his nwn rebelhous head. And now. 
Through all re^lrain[ broke loo^, he wings his way 
Not far ofl Heaven, in the precincts o£ light, 


138 JOHN MILTON book nf 

-Krectly LOuards nhe ncw^rcrated Worlds 

And Man there placed, wiih purpose 10 :i5Say 

!f him by force he can deSEroy, or, worse^ 

By some false guile pervert: and shall pervert; 

For Man will hearken to his glcj?-in^ Ues^ 

And easily transgress ihe ^olc command. 

So[e pledge* of his obedience: 50 will fall 

He and his faithless progeny. "Whoso (auk? 

Whose but his osvnr" Ingraie, ht; had of me 

Ail ht^ couSd have; I made him just and right. 

Sufficient to ha^e siood^ though free Co tall* 

Su4:h I created all ihe iiEhcroal Po^vers 

And Spirits, both them who stood and them who 

Frcdy they stood who stood, and {ell who fell. 
Not free, what proof could they have given sincere 
Of true allegiance, constant faiths or love* 
Where ortfy uhat they need^ in use do appeared. 
Not what [hey would? What pratse could they receive^ 
What pleasure I, from such obedience patdn 
When Will and Reason (Reason also is Choice), 
Useless 3nd vain, of freedom boih despoiled^ 
Made pasj^ive Ixjth, had served Nccessiiv, 
Not Me? Thcvj therefore, as to right lK^luny;ed 
So were created, nor tan jti^dy accuse 
Their Maker, or their mukJngH or the:r £aie^ 
As it Predesitnatton overruled 
Their will disposed by absolule decree 
Or high foreknowledge. Thev thcnistlve^ decreed 
Their own revolt^ not L It 1 foreknew^ 
Forc^kntjwledge had no inlluencc on thetr fault, 
Which had no less proved certain unforeknown. 
So wiihoui leait impulse or shadow of fate. 
Or aught by rne immuiably foreseen, 
They trespass, anchors 10 themselves in allj 
Both \vha[ (hey judge and vhal (hey choose; for sc^ 
I formed [hem free, and free they must remain 
Til] they enihrall themselves: I else musi change 
Thcif nature^ and revoke the hi^^h decree 
Unchangeable p etersial, whcch ordained 


Their frtetlom; llicy lliemsdves orJained ihcir falK 
The Rrsi sore by (heir own -suiiResiion fdl, 
St4f-ti;mptec]^ idf-t!cpravcd; Wau l^alls, deceived 
By [he other lirsi; Man^ therolore, sh:i]l find grace; 
The ciher. none* In mercy and lU^iicc bociK 
Through Heaven and Earihp so shall my g^ory excel; 
But niefCVj first -md U^i^ ihall brightest shine." 

Thus whik God spake ambrosial fragrance Jiiied 
AH Hcavon^ and in ihe bk^ssed Spirits elect 
Scn^e or nevv joy inefTabk' dlfJ^used, 
Beyond compare ihe Son ot God was seen 
Moii t;lorioii£; in him all his Huher ^hon 
Subsianiiatly esprtsscd; and in his Face 
Divine iTompaission visibly appeared, 
Love ulihoun end, and wldioui mt:nsi.ire _i;i3ce; 
Which uficfing, ihus He to his Faiher spake: — 

"O Fatlicr, ^raciou^ was thai word \vh]ch ctosed 
Thy ^ov^m sentence, ihat Man should find ^race; 
For which boih Heaven and EarUi shall hitiK extol 
Thy praises, wiih the innumerable sound 
Of hymns and iacri?<i song^t wherewith thy throne 
Fncompasicd shall resound thee ever blest^ 
For^ shonJd Mnn finally be lost — should Man^ 
Thy creaiiire laft so loveJ^ iby youn^st son, 
Fa31 circumvented thus by frauds though joined 
With his own folly — I That be from thee far, 
Thai far l^ from thee, Father, who -irL judge 
Of all ihinjis made, imd judge*^i only rightl 
Or shall the Adversary thus obtain 
His end, and frusiraEe thineP Shall he fulfil 
His maiice, <ind thy goodness brinjr to naught 
Or proud return* thouj^h to his heavier doom 
Yet with revenge accomplished, and lo HtU 
Draw after him the vshole race of mankind^ 
By hini corrupted? Or u"ilt thou thyself 
Abolish [hy treaiion^ and unmakcn 
For him, what lor thy glory ihfiu hast made? — 
So should ihv goodness and (by greatness both 
Be qutjsticned and blasphemed withoni deten^tn" 

To w^hom the great Creator thus replied:— 


"O Son, in whom my soul hath chit:f deliglitf 

Son oi my bosom. Son who art alone 

My word, iny Hisdom, and el^ectuat might, 

All \iA-A ihou spoken as my ihooghlt; ari:, a]l 

As my eternal purpose hath decreed. 

Man shall not tjuiie bu lost, but saved who vviUi 

YcL nol of will In him, buL j-ract in me 

Freely voulsated. Once moie [ will renew 

His lapsed pou'ers, though forfeit, and em.hrdled 

By sin tu t'oul cxorbiiant desires: 

U|fhe!d by me. yet onctf more ho shall stjnd 

On even ground against hi? mortal foc^ 

By me upheld, that he may know how frail 

Hii fallen condition is, and to me owe 

Ail his ddiveranee, and to nont but me. 

Some I have chosen ot peculiar grace, 

EUct above ihi^ rest; so is my wilh 

The rcsl shall hear me call, and oit be wamed 

Their sinful state, and to appease betimes 

The incen^d Dtiiy, while offered grace 

Jnviu^; for 1 will clear their senses dark 

What may suffice, and soften stony beatis 

To pray, repent, and bring obedience due. 

To prayer, repentance, and obedience duo, 

Though but endeavoured with sincere intent, 

Mine ear shall not be slow, niine eye not ihut. 

And 1 will place within them as a guide 

My umpire Conscience; whom if they will hear^ 

Li^ht after light well used they shall atrjin, 

And to the end persisting safe arrive. 

This my long sufferance, and my day oJ" grace. 

They who neglect and scorn 5h:3ll ne^l.■^ taste; 

But hard be hardened, bhnd be blinded cnore, 

That they may stumble on, and deeper laM; 

And none but such ftom mercy I e:tclud?. 

But yet all is noc done. Man disobeying. 
Disloyal, breaks iiis fealty, and sins 
Against ihe high supremacy ot Heaven, 
Affecting Godhead, and, so losing all. 
To expiate his ueason haih naught left. 

cooKlll PAR.^tSE LOST I4I 

But, to destruction sacicd and devote. 

He with his whole posterity must die; — 

Die he or Justice must; unless for him 

Some othcfj able, and as u-illingj pay 

The rigid satisfaciion, de3[h for death. 

Say^ Heavenly Powers, where shall we tind such love? 

Which of ye will be [nortal^ to redeem 

Mans mortal crime^ and jusi^ the unjust to save? 

Dwells in ali Heaven chanty so dearP" 

He *TsktJ, but all ihe Heavenly Quire stood mute. 
And silence vvjis in Heaven: on Man^s behalf 
Patron or intercessor none appeared — 
Much Jess th^t durst upoEi ht5 own head draw 
The deadly forfeiture, and ransom set- 
And now without redemption all mankind 
Mu5t have been lost, adjudged to Death and Hell 
By doom severe, had not the Son of God, 
In whom the fulness dwells of love divine^ 
His dearest mediation thus renewed: — 

"Father, thy wtird is j>a^sed, Man shall find grace; 
And shall Grace not hnd means^ that finds her way, 
The speediest of thy winged messengers, 
To visii all thy creatures, and [0 all 
Comes unprevented, uriimplored, unsought? 
Happy for Man^ so coming! He her aid 
Can never seek, once dead in sins and losL — 
AEonemenc for himse[f> or offering meet, 
Indeb[ed and undone^ haih none lo bring. 
Behold me^ then: me for him, life for life, 
I oiler; on mo let thine anger fall; 
Account me Man: I for his sake will leave 
Thy bosom, and this glory next So ihce 
Freely put off, and for him lasdy die 
Well pleased; on me let Death wreak all his rage- 
Under his gloflmy power T shall not long 
Lie vanquished- Thou hsisc given me to possess 
Life in myself for ever; by thee I liv^; 
Though now 10 Death l yield, and am his due, 
All that of me can die, yei, ihac debf paid^ 
Thou wilt not leave me la the loathsome grave 

142 JOHN MILTON book m 

His prey, nor suffer iny unspoued soul 

For ever with corruption there 10 dwel^, 

Bui I shall rise viaorious, and subdue 

My van(|uislier» spoiled of his vaunted spoil. 

Death his death's wound shall then receive, and iioop 

Inglorious, of his mortal sting disarmed; 

I through the ample air in triumph high 

Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell, and show 

The powers of Darkness bound. Thou, at the sight 

Pleased, out oi Heaven shall look down and smile. 

While, by ihee raised, 1 ruin all my foes— 

Death last, and with his earcase glut the grave; 

Then, iviih the multitude of my redeemed, 

ShjU enter Heaven, long absent, and return, 

Faiher, to see ihy face, wherein no cloud 

Of anger shall remain, but peace assured 

And reconcilement: wrauth shall be no more 

Thenceforth, but in thy presence joy entire." 

Hi5 words here ended; but his meek aspect' 
Silent yet spake, and breathed immortal love 
To mortal man, above which only shon 
Filial obedience: as a sacrifice 
Glad to be offered, he attends the will 
Of his great Father, Admiration seized 
All Heaven, what this might mean, and whither tend, 
Wondering; bur soon the Almighty thus replied:— 

'^O thou in Heaven and Earth the only peace 
Found ou[ for mankind under wrauih, O thou 
My sole complacence! well thou know*st how dear 
To me are all my works; nor Man the least. 
Though last created, that for him 1 spare 
Thee from my bosom and right hand, to save, 
By losing thee a while, the whole race lost! 
Thou, therefore, whom thou only canst redeem, 
Their nature also to thy nature join; 
And be thyself Man among men on Eaiih, 
Made flesh, when lime shall be, of virgin seed, 
By wondrous birth; be thou in Adam's room 
The head of all mankind, though Adam's son- 
As in him perish all men. so in ihee, 


As from a second root* shall bo restored 
As many as are resiored; wiihouE lht:e, none. 
His crime makes j^uilty all his sons; thy merit, 
Imputed, 5 hall absolve them who renounce 
Their own hoch righieous and unrighteous deeds, 
And live in thee transpbnteii, and from thee 
Receive new life. So Man, as is most jusl, 
Shall satisfy for Man, he judged and die, 
And dyin^ rise, and, rising, with him raise 
His breihren* ransomed with his own d^ar life, 
So Heavenly love shall outdo Hellish hate. 
Giving to death, and dying to redeem, 
So dearly to redeem what Hellish hate 
So easily destroyed, and siill destroys 
fn those who, when ihey may, ixccepi not grace. 
Nor shalt [hou, by descentiing to assume 
Man's nature, lessen or degrade ihine own. 
Because thou hast, though ihroned m highest bliss 
Equal to God, and equally enjoying 
God'likc frukion, quitted all to save 
A worEd from utter loss, and hast been found 
By merit more than birthright Son of God, — 
Found worthiest to be so by being good, 
Far more than great or high; because in thee 
Love hath abounded more ihan glory abounds; 
Therefore thy humiliation shall e?ialt 
With thee thy manhood jiho to [his Throne: 
Here shalt tliou sit incarnate, here shalt reign 
Both God and Man, Son both of God and Man, 
Anointed universal King. All power 
r give theci reign for ever, and assume 
Thy merits; under thee, as Head Supreme, 
Thrones, Princedoms, Powers. Dominions, I reduce; 
All knees to thee shall bow of them that bide 
In Heaven, or Earth, or, under Karih, in HelL 
When thou, attended gloriously from Heaven, 
Shalt in ihe sky appear, and from thee send 
The summoning Archangels lo proclaim 
Thy dread iribunal, forthwith from all winds 
The living, and forthwith the cited dead 


Of all past ages, lo the general doom 
Shall liflsietii such a peal shall rouse their s!cep. 
Then, all rhy Saints ass?mbkd, thou shall judge 
Bad men and Angeb; ihey arraigned shall $ink 
Bcneach ihy sentence; Hell^ her numbers full, 
Thenceforth shall be for ever shut. Meanwhile 
The World shall burn» and from her ^shes spring 
New Heaven and Earth, wherein ihe juit shall dwell. 
And, after all their tribulaiions long, 
See goklen diiys, fruitful of golden deeds, 
With Joy and Love triumph'ing. and fair Truth. 
Then thou thy regal sceptre shalt lay by; 
For regal sceptre then nu more shall need; 
God shall be AH in All, But all ye Gods, 
Adore Him who, to compass all [his, dies; 
Adore the Son, and honour him aa me-'* 

No sooner had the Almighty ceased hut— all 
The multitude of Angels, with a shout 
Loud as from numbers without number, sweet 
As from bleat voices, uttering (oy — Heaven rung 
With jubilee, and loud Hosannas filled 
The eternal regions. Lowly reverent 
Towards eiihcr ihrone they bow, and to the ground 
With solemn adoration down they cast 
Their crowns, inwove with amnrant and gold,^ 
Immortal amarant, a flower which once 
In Paradise, East by the Tree of Life, 
Ile^an to bloom, bur, soon for Man's offence 
To Heaven removed where first it grew, there grows 
And flowers aloft, shading the Fount of Life, 
And where the River of Bliss through midst of Heaven 
Rowls o*er Elysian flowers her amber stream! 
With these, that never fade, the Spirits elect 
Bind their resplendent locks, inwreaihed wirh beams. 
Now in loose garlands thick thrown ofT, the bright 
Pavement, (hat like a sea of jasper shon, 
Tmpurpled with celestial roses smiled. 
Then, crowned again, their golden harps tliey took— 
Harps ever tuned, that glittering by iheir aide 
Like quivers hung; and with praamble sweet 



Of chaiming symphony ihey introduce 
Their sacred song, and waken raptures high: 
No voice exempt, no voice but well couSd [oin 
Melodious part; such concord is in Heaven. 
TheCj Faiher, first they sung, Omnipotent^ 
Immutable, ImmortnU Infinite, 
Ettrnal King; ihee^ Author of all beings 
Fountain of lights thjiself invisible 
Amidst the glorious brighmess where eHou sitt'sc 
Throned inaccessible, but when thou shad'st 
The full blaze of thy beam?, and mrough a cloud 
Drawn round about thee like a radiant shrine 
Dark with excessive bright thy skins appear, 
Yd dazzle Heaven, that brightest Seraphim 
Approach not, bu[ with both wings veil their eyes^ 
Thee next they sang, of all creation hrsCj 
Begotien Son, Divine Similitude, 
In whose conspicuous countenance, wichout cloud 
Made visible, che Almighty Facher shines, 
Whom else no creature can heboid: on thee 
Impressed the effulgence of his glory abides; 
Transfused on [hee his ample Spirit resis* 
He Heaven of Heavens^ and all [he Powders thefein, 
By thee created; and by thee threw down 
The aspiring Dominations- Thou that dav 
Thy Faihcr^s drendful thunder didst not spare. 
Nor stop thy filming cliarioi- wheels, that shook 
Heaven's everlasting frame ^ while er the necks 
Thou drov'st of warring Angels disarrayed. 
Back from pursuit^ thy Power? with loud acclaim 
Thee only extolled^ Son of thy Father^s mightj 
To execute fierce vengeance on his foes- 
Not so on Man: him, through their malice fallen. 
Father of mercy and gf ace^ thou didst not doom 
So stricdy^ but much more to pitj' enebne^ 
No sooner did thy dear and only Son 
Perceive thee purposed not to doom fraii Man 
So stricdy, but much more to pity endined, 
He, to appease thy wrauth, and end the strife 
Of mercy and justice in ihy face discerned. 

146 JOHN MILTON book iii 

Regardless of the bliss wiierein he sat 
Second to thei?, oitered himself no die 
For Man's offence. O unexampled love! 
Love nowhere to be found less than J^lvine! 
Hail, Son oE God, Saviour of men! Thy niinie 
Shall he the copious matter of my sonjj 
Hi^riceforih, and never shall mv harp Lhv praise 
Forget, nor from thy Father's praise disjoin! 

Thus they in Heaven, ^bove ttiy Starry Sphere, 
Their happy hours in joy and hymnmg s|x;nt. 
Meanwhile, upon the firm opaeuus globe 
Of this round World, whose iitii convex divides 
The luminous inferior Orbs, enclosed 
From Chaos and the inroad of Darkness old, 
Saian alighted walk^. A H;lobe far oti 
Jt seemed; nov/ seems a boiJiidlf]Ss continent. 
Dark, waste, and wild, under the frown of Night 
Starless exposed, and ever-threatening storms 
Of Chaos blustering round, inclement ^kyj 
Save on. ihat side which from the wall of Heaven, 
Though distant far, some small reflection gains 
Of glimmering; air leis vexed with tempest loud. 
Here walked ilic Fiend ai large in spacious field. 
As when a vultur, on Imaus bred. 
Whose snowy tidge the roving Tartar bounds, 
Dislodging from a region scarce oi prey, 
To gorge the flesh of lambs or yeanling kids 
On hills where flocks aTe fed. flies toward the springs 
Of Ganges or Hydaspes, Indian streams, 
Bui in his way lij-hrs on the barren plains 
Ot Sericana, where Chineses drive 
With sails and wind their cany waggons light; 
So, on this windy sea of land, the Fiend 
Walked up and down alone, bent on his prey: 
Afone, for other creaiurc in this place, 
Living or lifeless, to be found was none: — 
None yet- but store hereafter from the Earth 
Up hither like aerial vapours flew 
Of all things transitory and vain, when sin 
With vanity had filled the works of men— 


Both all [Kings vain^ and jH who in vain things 

Buili their fond hopes of glory or IflsiJng fame^ 

Or happiness in this or the other life. 

All who have iheir reward on tarthj the fruits 

Of painful superstiiion and blind zeal, 

Naughi seeking but [he praise of men, here find 

Fin retribution^ empty as their deeds; 

AU the unacco]Tipli$hed works of Nature's hand, 

A[jor[ive, mon:itrous, or unkindly mixed. 

Dissolved on Earth, fleet hither^ and in vain^ 

Till linal dissolution, wander here — 

Not [fL [he neighbouring Moon, as some havt dreiimod; 

Those argent fields more likely habitants^ 

Translated Saints, or middle Spirits hold, 

Betwixt the angelical and human kind. 

Hither, ol iH-joined sons and daughters born^ 

First from the ancient world those Giants came. 

With many a vain exploit, though then renowned: 

The builders next of Babel ou the plain 

Of Sennaar. and siill with vain design 

New Babels, hati they wherewithal, would build: 

Oihers came single; he who, to be deemed 

A god, leaped fondly into /Etna flames, 

Empedocles; and he who, Eo i^n^oy 

Plato^s Elyiium^ leaped into the »ea, 

Cleombrotus; and many more, loo long, 

Embryos and idiots^ eremites and triars, 

White, black, and grey, wiih alJ [heir trumpery. 

Here pilgrims roanij that ^Lraycd so iar lo seek 

In Golgotha him dead who lives in Heaven; 

And they who, to be sure of Paradise, 

Dying put on the weeds of Dominic, 

Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised. 

Th^y pass the planets seven, and pass the fi^ed^ 

And that crystaHin sphere whose balance weighs 

The trepidation talked, and that firsi moved; 

And now Saint Peter at Heaven^s wicket seems 

To wait ihem with his keys, and now at foot 

Of Heaven s ascent they lift their feet, when, lo! 

A violent cross wind from either coast 


Blows ihetn [ran&verse, len ihousand leagues awry. 
Into the devious air. Then might ye see 
Cowls, hooJ?, and habiis, with their wearers, tost 
And fluiiered into riigs; I lien icliques, beads, 
Indulgences, dispenses, pardons, bulls, 
The spore of winds; all these^ upwhirUd aloft, 
Fly o'er the backside of the World far off 
Into a LimlK) brgc and broad, sloce called 
The Paradise uf Fools; lo few untcnown 
Long after, now unpeopled and unirod. 

All ihis dark globe tht; Fitnd found as he passed; 
And long he wandered, till at last a gleam 
Of dii\\ning light turned ihiihcrward in baste 
His travelled sicps. Far disuiil he descries, 
Ascending by degrees magnificent 
Up to the wall of Ht-aven, a strutsiire high; 
At top whereof, but far more tich, appeared 
The work as of a kingly palace-gate, 
Wilh frontispiece of diamond and gold 
Imbelli^hed; thick with sparkling orient gems 
The portal shon, inimitable on Eatth 
By model, or by shading pencil drawn- 
The stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw 
Angels ascending and descending, bands 
Of guardians brigiUi when he from Esau fled 
To Padan-Aram, in the field of Luz 
Dreaming by night under the open sky, 
And waking cried, 7"^^^ is the gate of Hcfisien. 
Each srair mysteriously was meant, nor stood 
There always, but dra^vn up to Heaven sometimes 
Viewless; and underneath a bright sea fiowetl 
OE jasper, or of liquid pearl, whereon 
Who after came from Earth sarling arrived 
Wafted by Angels, or flew oer the lake 
Rapt in a chariot drawn by fiery steeds. 
The stairs were then let down, whether to dare 
The Fiend by easy ascent, or aggravate 
His sad exclusion from the doors of bliss: 
Direct against which opened from beneath, 
Iu4t o'er the blissful seat of Paradise, 





A pjs^agc down 10 the EariU — a passage wide; 
Wider by far ih?n thai of after-times 
Over Mount Sion^ and, ihouH^ thjil wtre large, 
Over the Promised Land to God so dcar» 
By which, to visit oft ihose happy tribes, 
On high behests his Angels to and fro 
Pfls$ed Ertquent^ and his eye with choice regard 
From Paneas^ the fount of Jordan's flood, 
To Beersaba^ where the Holy l^nd 
I3urdi?rs on /I'.gvpi and the Arabian shore- 
So wide the opening seemed, where bounds U'eTC ^t 
To darkness^ such as bound the ocean wave. 
Satan from hence, now on the 3ower stair, 
That scaled by steps of gold 10 Heaven-gate. 
Looks down with wonder at the sudden view 
Of all tliis World at once. As when a scout. 
Through dark and desart ways with peril gone 
Ail night, at last by break ai cheerful dawn 
Obtains iho brow of some high-climbing hill, 
Which to his eye discovers unaware 
The goodly pioipect of some foreign land 
First seen, or some renowned metropoUa 
With plisicring spires and pinnacles adorned, 
Which now ihc rising sun gilds with his beam?; 
Such wonder seized, though after Heaven seen, 
The Spirit malign, but much mure envy seized, 
At sight of all this World beheld so fair- 
Round he surveys (and well might, where he Stood 
So high above the circling canopy 
Of Night's e^^tcnde^l shade) from eastern point 
Of Libra to the llcecy star that bears 
Andromeda far off Atlantic seas 
Beyond the horizon; then from pole to pole 
He views in breadth, — and, without longer pau$e, 
Down right into the World's first region throws 
His flight precipitant, and winds with ease 
Through the pure marble air his oblique way 
Amongst innumerable stars, that shon 
Stars distant, but nigh-hand seemed other worlds. 
Or oiher worlds ihey seemed* or happy isles. 

150 JOHN MILTON book iti 

Like ihose Hes]>crian Gardens farriEid of old. 

Fortunate fields^ and groves, and flowery vales; 

Thrice happy i5]c5[ But who dwell kappy ihere 

Ho staid not to inquire: above iheni all 

The golden Son^ in splendour likest Hoaven^ 

Allured his eye. Thither his course he bends, 

Through the calm firmament (but up or down, 

By centre or eccentric^ hard to lell, 

Or longitude) where the great luminary, 

Alooi: the vulgar constellations thick. 

Thai from the lordly eye keep distance due, 

Dispenses light from far- They^ as they move 

Their starry dance in numbers that tompute 

Days, tnonthsj and years, towards his all -cheering 

Turn swift their various motions^ nr are turned 
By his magnetic beam, that gently warms 
The Universe^ and to each inward part 
With gentle penetraiion^ though unseen 
Shoots invisible virtue even IQ the Deep; 
So wondrously was set hts station bright- 
There lands die Fiends a s|3ot like which perhaps 
Astronomer in ihe Sun's lucent orb 
Through his glazed optic tube yet never saw* 
The place he found beyond expression bright. 
Compared with aughi on Earth, mcta! or sEone— ^ 
Not all parts like, but all alike informed 
With radiant light, as glowing iron wiih fire^ 
If metal, paTt seemed gold, pan silver clear- 
If slone^ carbuncle mosc or chrysolite, 
Ruby or topaz, to the twelve that shon 
in Aaron's breasi-plaie, and a stone besides; 
Imagined rather oft than elsewhere seen— ^ 
That stone^ or like to diat, which her^ bcfow 
Philosophers in vatn so long have sought; 
In vain, though by their powerful arE they bind 
Volatile Hermes, and call up unbound 
In various shapes old Proteus from the sea, 
Drained through a limbec to his native Eorm. 
What wonder then i£ fields and region^ here 



£0OK lit 


Brcalhe forth elixir pure, and rivers run 
Potcible goEdp when, wiih oner virtuous touc:h, 
The arch'<:himic; Sun, so far from us remote, 
Pfodutosp with urrcstrial humour mixcd^ 
Here in the d;uk so miiny prtcious things 
Of colour glorious and clfccL so fare? 
Here m^tlc^r new to gaze ihc Devil met 
Unda?-/Jcd. Par and wide his eye commands; 
For ^ighl no obstacle found hero, nor shade, 
Bm all sunshint:^ as when his beams ai noon 
Culminjice from tliL^ equator, as they now 
Shot upward scfll direct, whence no way round 
Shadow from body opaque can tall; and the air. 
Nowhere so clear^ sharpened his visual ray 
To objecis distant far, wfiereby he soon 
Saw wiL[iin ken a glorious j\.ngel siand^ 
The same whom |ohn saw aUo in the Sun. 
His back was turned, but not his brightness hid; 
Oi beaming sunny rays a golden liar 
Circled his head, nor less his locks behind 
Illustrious on his shoulders fledge wnh wings 
Lay waving round: on sonic great charge imployed 
He Sijemed, or iixcd in cogitation deep- 
Glad was the Sj>irit impure, as now in hope 
To hnd who inldn direct his wandering (light 
To Paradise, ihe happy of Man, 
His jouiney^s end^ and our beginning woe* 
But first he casts to chanjje his pr<jper shape, 
Which else niight work him danger or delay: 
And now a stripling Cherub he appears, 
NoE of the prime, yet such as in his face 
Youth smiled celestial^ and to e\'exy limb 
Suitable grace diflu^ed; so well he feigned- 
Under a coronet his flowing hair 
In curls on either check played; wings he w^ore 
Of many a coloured plume sprinkled with goldj 
His hnbit fit for speed juccina; and held 
Pefore hiis decent steps a silver wand. 
He drew net nigh unheard; the Angel bright^ 
Ere he drew nigh^ his radiant visage turned, 

J52 JOHN MILTON book ill 

Admonished by iii^ ear, and straight was known 

The Archangel Uriel — one of ihe seven 

Who in God^s presence, nearest to his throne* 

SiLind ready at command^ and are his eyes 

Thai run tEirough ail the Heavens, or down to the 

Bear his swift erriinds over itioisl and dry, 
O'er sea and bnd. Him Satan thu^ accosis: — 

"Uriel! for thou of those seven Spirits that stand 
In sight of God's high throne^ gloriously bright, 
The first art wont his ijreal auifientic will 
Inierpreier through highest Heaven to bring, 
Where all his Sons thy embassy attend^ 
And here art hi^cliest by supreme decree 
Like honour to ohtain, and as his eye 
To vi^it oU [his new Creadon round' — 
Unspeakable desire to see itnd know 
AU these his wondrous works, hm chielly Man 
His chief dctight and favour, him for whom 
All these his works so wondrous he ordained. 
Hath brought me from the quires of Cherubim 
Alone thus wandering. Brightest Seraph, tell 
In which of all ihese shining orbs hath Man 
His fixed scat — or fixtd seal hath none, 
Hut all ihese shining orbs hi^ choice to dwell — 
Thai I may find him, and with secret t^ze 
Or open admiration him behold 
On whom the great Creator hath bestowed 
Worlds, and on whom haih all the^e graces poured; 
That both in him and all things, as is meet, 
The Universal Maker we may praise; 
Who justly hath driven out his rebel foes 
To deepest Hell, and, to repair that loss. 
Created this new happy race of Mtn 
To serve him better. Wise are all his waysl" 
So spake the false dissembler unperceived; 
For neither marx nor angel can discern 
Hypocrisy^ — the only evil that walks 
Invisible, except to God alone. 
By his permissive will, through Heaven and Earth; 


^™^ ^" PAR.IDISE LOST I53 

And oftj [hough Wisdom wake^ Suspicion sleeps 

At Wisdom's gaic^ and to S]mplit:icy 

Resigns her charge* while Goodnes? thinks no HI 

Wheie no ill stems: which now for once beguiled 

Uriels though Regent of ihc Sun, and held 

The sharpest-sighted Spirit of all in Heaven; 

Who 10 the fraudulent iniposior foul, 

In his uprightness, an^^vcr thus reiurned: — 

*Tair Angel, thy desire^ which tends lo know 
The works ot God^ thereby to glorify 
f he ^reai Work-maisrer, leads to no excess 
Thai reaches blamCj but raihcr merits praise 
The more it seems excess, ihat led ihee hiiher 
From Ehy empyrcd mansion ihus alone. 
To witness with thine eyes what some perhaps, 
Contented with report, hoar only in Heaveni 
For wonderful indeed are all his works, 
Plea^ani to know, and worthiest 10 be all 
Had in remembrance always with ddiijliif 
But what created mind can comprehend 
Their n umbel, or the wisdom infinite 
Thai brought [hem forth, but hid their causes deep? 
I saw when, at his word^ the formless mass. 
This World s material nmuld^ came lo a heap: 
Confusion heard hii \ oice, and wild Uproar 
Stood ruled^ stood vast Infinitude conlincd- 
Till, at his second bidding. Darkness ffed, 
Light shon, acid order from disorder sprung- 
S^vifi 10 their severaS quaner^ hasted then 
The cumbrous elcmenls — Earth, FEootl^ Atr^ Fife; 
And this ethereal quint'essence of Heaven 
Flew upward, spirited wtih varioU-"? forms, 
That rowled orbicular, and curncd to siars 
Numberless, ai thou seesl, and how (hey move: 
Each had his place appointed, each his course; 
The rest in circuit walls this Universe* 
Look downward on [hat globt, whose hither side 
With lijihi from hence^ [hough but reflected, shines: 
That place is Earth, ihe seat of Man; that light 
His day, which else, as the other hemisphere, 



Night would invade; bui there the neighbouring Moon 
(So called ihaE opposite fair star) her aid 
Tiinciy interposes^ and, her monthly round 
Still ending* siill rentwinj^, ihrou>;h mid-hearcn, 
With borrowed light her eountenance triform 
Hence fins and empties, to en)[ghtcn ihe JLarih, 
And in her pale dominion checks the night. 
That ^pot to which I point is Paradise, 
Adam's ahode; those lofty shades his bower- 
Thy wyy [hou csnsi not miss; me mine requires." 
Thus said, he turned; and Salan, bowing low, 
As to su|^rior Spirits is wont in Hif3vcn, 
Where honour due ami reverence none neglects. 
Took leave, and toward the coast of Ejrth beneath, 
E>own from the ecliptic, s[)ed with hopeil success^ 
Throws his sleep fligbi in many an aerie wheel, 
Nor staid till on Niphaiea' top he lights- 


Th^ Abgumlnt. — Sacan, n^^iv in proi[ioct oi Eden, and niyh ihc place where he 
musi cow aUtni|>t the b^Nld enicTpri^f whicl) he tmd^'rifwh alone ^^.^inst Gchi and 
Majij falJs into n^joy tUnabii with him^lf, and ]iiany pa^ion$ — fi-arn envy, and 
dv^j^ajta but Jt lenfjth conhrms himself ilt ^\-\U journe>"s nn lo Pnradiso> whose out- 
waid prtHpKi and MiujiLLjn i"> di^iiiribed; civerteaps ihc bounds; ^itip in iht ^hapc of a 
Comorant, on the Tree of LiEc, ,is hi^hcsc in iht Garden, io loyk about him. The 
Garden dcstril>c;t!- Sitan'^ fir^t ^if^ht oE Adam and Evt; hi^ wonder ac iheir excellent 
iorm and happy iUi*:^ but wiih r«oluiic^n itj w^rk chdr lull: nvcrhcars chelr discourse; 
thente fia^htr^ that the Tree ol Knowledj^u was forbidden tJieni lo eat of under penalty 
of death, and thereon inrends l^^ found hks tempiaLioa b>' seducij^^ ihem To trnnsfir^si 
then lenvci thein a ivhiJe, Ut ^now furtlitrr of their iciicc by snme other iviean^. M^an- 
white UrJelp deiCJjndinj; on a sunb^jaiUk w.crns <igbnel, who hud in chatir^ the yatc 
of ParaditCn that wjine c\tl Spiftt had escaped ihc Deep, and pa^s^d at noon by his 
Sphere^ in ihc &haiK! of a j:;ood An^^cl. down to Paradise, discovered after by his 
furious gestures in the Mc^unt. Gabnel pfoPiiMs lo find htin ere morning. Nij^ht 
ct^at^in^ ftn^ Adsm nind tve tJjscourst^ of Cf^cnu ^<^ their rest: tht-lr bower dcsi^ribcdi 
their eveninp worship. Gabriel, draivm^ forth his bands nf nijjht-watch to walk iht 
rounds o( Par^dii^t.-, ap]>ointf^ two stronj^ An^k to Adam's bc]wer, k^it the evil Spine 
s^^ould be there doin^ scjme harm lo Adsro or Eve sleepin;;: there chey find him at 
the ear of L\^, teinptin^ hLT irt a dream, and brinji bin^n thfui^'h unwilhn;;, To 
Gabriel; by whurn quvsiinnid, he btortifuhy an^wiTSh prepares lesisfance; but^ hindered 
hy a tign from Htaven, Jliei <3Ul of Paradise. " 

O FOH that warning voicCj which he who saw 
TIk Apycalypsi? heard cry in Heaven aloLid^ 
Thtn when The Dragon^ put lo second rout, 


Came furious down to be rc\engcd on men. 

Woe io the inhabitants on Earihl thai now, 

While time was, our first parents had been warned 

The coming oi their secrei Foe, ,ind scaped. 

Haply iD scajied, his mortal snarcf For no^v 

Satan, now iirst inllamed wiifx la^c. came down, 

The ttmpter, ere the accuser, of mankind^ 

To wreak an innocent frail Man his loss 

Of that first battk, and his (light to HelL 

Yet not rejoicing in his speyJ. though bold 

Far off and tearless, nor ivich cause to boa^t. 

Begins his dire attempt; which^ nij^h the birch 

No\i rovvling, boils in his tumukuous breast. 

And like a devilish engine back recoils 

Upon himself- Horrorj md dou bt distract 

H is^roybtcdjhoughts^ ndTrom_lheJbottomjti r 

The he ll wit h in him; fo r within him _He H 

He brin^s^ and round aBoui him,^ nor from Hell 

One step, no more than from Himself, can tly 

By change of place. Now conscience ivakes despair 

That slumbered; wakes the bitter memory 

Of what he was/what is, and whaTinuii ba 


Worse; ot worsc^ecds wor^e sufferings must 
Sometimes towards Eden, which now in his view 
Lay pleasant, his grieved look he fixes sad; 
Sometimes towards Heaven and the full-blazing Sun, 
Which now sat high in hjs meridian tower: 
Then, much revolving, thus m sighs began; — 

"O thou thac, with surpassing glory crowned, 
Look'st from thy sole dominion like the god 
Of this new World^t whose sight all the stars 
Hide their diminished heads— to thee I call. 
But with no fiiendly voice, and add thy name, 
O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams» 
That bring to my remembrance from what slate 
r fell, how glorious once above thy sphere. 
Till pride and worse ambition threw nie down. 
Warring in Heaven against Heaven'^ matchless King! 
Ah, wherefore? He deserved no such return 
From me, whom he created what I was 




In that bright eminenc<^. an<! with his good 
Upbraided none; nor was Wis service hard. 
What could he le« than to afTord him praise, 
The easiest recoinptose, and pay him liiaoks^ 
How due? Yel all his good proved ill in me. 
And wrought but matice. Lifted up so high, 
1 "sdaincd subjecdon, and thought one step higher 
Would set me highest, and in a moment quit 
The dtbt immense oF endless gratitude, 
So burthcnwme, 5til] paying* still tti owe; 
Forgetful what from him T still received; 
And understood not that a grateful mind 
By owing owes not* but nill pays, ai once 
Indebted and discharged — what burden then? 
Oh* had his powerful destiny ordained 
Me iomc inferior Angel, I had stood 
Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised 
Ambition, Yet why not* Some other Power 
As great might have aspired, and me, though mean» 
Draun to liis part. But other Powers a? great 
Fe][ not, but stand unshaken, from within 
Or from without to all temptations armed! . 

Hadst thou the sasne free will and power to stand? r l^?- 

Thtm hadst. Whom hast thou then, or what, to accuse, ^^^'^^^ 
But Heaven^? free love dealt equally to all? ^y^ 

Be then his love accursed, since, love or hate, 
To me alike it deals eternal woe. 1 

Nay, cursed be thou; since against his ihy will , 

Chose freely what it now so justly rues, ] 

Me miserable I which ^^^yj^gjl IJ^ y 
Tnftnite wrauth and infini te despair? 
"Wiiich way Tfiy is^efT; myself am Hellj 
ArfdrrfTfhe" lo wesT deep3 low er de ep ^ 
Still tJirc alening to devo ur irT e opens wide , 
To w hich the Hel l IsuffeTseems a Heaven. 
(JlhTn, ai^ IFst relent! ts there no place 
Left for repcntence. none far pardon left? 
None left but by submission; and that word 
Disdain forbids me» and my drea d fat sharne 
Among the Spirits beneath, whomTseduced^ 


Wrih DiiiL?r promises and oifii^r vaunts 

Than w suEsmit^ boasting 1 could subdue 

The Omnipoient- Aye mc! ihcy little know 

How dearly I abide that boast so vain. 

Under whai lormtrnts inwardly I groan. 

While tliey adore me on the throne of Hell, 

Wiih diadcin iinti ^ccpEre hijjh advanced, 

The \q\k'cc suW I fall^ only supreme 

In misery: such joy ambition finds! 

Bill say I could refwni, and could obiain. 

By act of firaee* my former state; how soon 

Would highth rccal hijjh [houghci, how soon unsay 

What feigned submission swore! Ease would recant 

Voi^s made in pain, as violent and void 

(For never tan true reconcilement grow 

Where wounds of dtjaJly hate have pierced so Jeep) 

Which ivoukl but lead nic to a wor^e relapse 

And heavier tall: so should I purchase dear 

Shoit intermission, bought with double smart. 

This knot's my Puniiher; therefore as far 

From gramiiij! he, as I from begging, peace, i_^ fjX^ 

A\[ hope excluded thus^ behold, mstead 

Of us, outcast, exileJ* his new delight, 

Mankind, created, and for him this World! 

So farewell hope, and, wuh hope, farewell fear. 

Farewell remorse! A\\ good to me is lost; 

Eyil^Jje^houjnv^GSSiEy ^ tKe g at lea st 

D ivided empire w it h Hea ven's King I ho i d , 

By thee^^ nd more^han^ I^alf perhaps will reign; 

As >f3n CK long, and this new W orPr sliari know," 

Thus while he ^pake, each passion dimmed hrs face, 
Thrice dianged with pale — iri^. envy, and despair; 
Which marred his borrowed visage, and betrayed 
Him counterfeit, if any eye beheld: 

For Heavenly minds from such distempers foul 

Are ever clear. Whereof he soon aware 

Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm, 

Ariiiicer of fraud; and was the first 

That practised falsehood under saintly shew, 

Deep mabce to conceal, couched with revenge: 

158 JOHN MILTON book iv 

Yet not enough had practised to deceive 
UrieLonce warned; whose eye pursued him down 
The way he weni^ and on ihe Assyrian mount 
Saw him disfrgLireds more than could befall 
Spirit of happy sort: his gestures fierce 
He marked and mad demeanourjjtien^al(>ne^ 
As he supposed, all unob^ervedj unseen, 

So on ne fares,* altd' to the border comes 
Oi Elden, where delicious Paradise, 
Now nearer^ crowns wilh her enclosure green, 
As wiih a rural mound^ the champain head 
Of a steep wilderness whose hairy sides 
With ihicket overflown, grolei^que and wild. 
Access denied; and overhead up-grew 
Insuperable highth o£ loftiest shade^ 
Cedar, and pine, and fir^ and branching pdm, 
A sylvan scene, and, as the ranks ascend 
Shade above shade, a woody theatre 
Of sEaieltest view. Yet higher than theii tops 
The verdurous wall of Paradise up-^pnmg; 
Which to our general Sire gave prospect Earge 
Into his nether empire neighbouring round. 
And higher than that wall a drchng row 
Of goodhest trees^ loaden with fairest truit^ 
Blossoms and fruits atonce ot gbltlerrTuie, 
Appeared, with gay enamelled colours mixed; 
On which the sun more glad impressed hi^^ be:tni5 
Than in fair evening cloud, or humid bow, 
When God hath showered the earih; so lovely seemed 
That lantskip. And oE pure now purer air 
Meets his approach, and lo ihe heart inspires 
Verna! delight and joy^ able to drive 
All sadness but despair- Now gcnde gales, 
Fanning their odoriterous wings^ dispense 
Native perfumes^ and whi^^per whence they stole 
Those balmy spoils. As when to them who sail , 

Beyond the Cape of Hope, and now are past ] 

MozambiCj ofl at sea north-east winds blow 3 

Sabean odours from the spicy shore i 

Of Araby the Blest, wilh such delay j 


Well pleased they skick their course?^ and many a 

Chetretl with the graicful smell oJd Ocean smiles; 
So eniertained those odorous sweets the Fiend 
Who came their bane, though wiih them better pleased 
Than Asinodeits wich the fishy fume 
Thm drove him, thouj;;h enamoured, from the spouse 
Of Tobit's son, and ^vlck a vengeaiice sent 
From M^]dia post to /Egypt, there f:ist bound- 
Now to the ascent of ihaE sleep 5avaj^;e J^ill 
Saian had journeyed on, pensive and slow; 
But Eurlhcr way found none; so thick entwined, 
As one continued brake, ihe undergniswth 
Of shrubs and tanj;lini; bushes had perplexeo 
All fxith of man or beast that passed thnt way. 
One gate ihcre only was, ami ihat looked cast 
On the other side. Which when the ArcK-FoIon saw. 
Due cnirance he disdnincd, and, in contenipii 
At one stighl baund high overleaped all bound 
Of hill or highest wall, and sheer within 
Lighis on his feet. As when a prowling \^"Qlf, 
Whom hunger drives to seek new hauni for prey, 
Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve^ 
In hurdled cotes amid the field secure. 
Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold; 
Or as a [hief^ benl to uiihoard the cash 
Of some rich burgher^ whose substantial doors^ 
Cross-barred and bolted fast^ fear no assault, 
In at the window climi>s, or oVr the tiles; 
So domb this first grand ThEtf ]n[o God's fold: 
So since into his Church lewd hirelings climb. 
Thence up ho fleWj and on the [ Tree qf^Li^ e, 
The niiddlc tree and highest there that grew^ 
Sat like a Cg rmorajU ; yet jiot uuejife 
ITiereby regained^ but sat devismg death 
To them who lived; nor on the virtue thought 
Of that life-giving plant, but only used 
For prospect what, well used, had been the pledge 
Of irnmortality. So liiile knows 
Any, but God alone, to value right 

l6o JOHN MILTON book w 

The good before him, but perverts best things 

To worst ahusG, or to iheir meanest use. 

Beneath him* with new wonder, now he views, 

To all delight ot hum^n sense exposed. 

In narrow room Nature's whole wealih; yea, more — - 

A Heaven on Earth: for blis^Cul Paradise 

Of God the garden was* by him in the east 

Of Eden jilamed- Eden stretched her line 

From Aiuan eastward to the royal lowers 

Of great Seleucia* built by Grecian kings, 

Or where Llie sons of Eden long before 

Dwek in Telassar, In this plt:asant soil 

His far more pleasant garden God ordained. 

Out of the fertile ground he cati^cd to grow 

All trees of noblest kind for sight, smell* taste; 

And all amid them stood the Tree of Life» 

High eminent, blooming ambrosial fruit 

Of vegetable i,'old; and next to life. 

Our death, the Tree of Knowledge, grew fast by — 

Knowledge of good, bought di^ar by knowing ill. 

Southward through Eden went a river large, 

Nor changed his course^ but through the shaggy hill 

Passed underneath ingulfed; for God had thrown 

That mountain, as his gardi^n-mould, high raised 

Upon the rapid current, which, through veins 

Of porous earth with kindly thirst updrawn, 

Rose a fresh fountain, and with many a rill 

Watered the garden; themro united fell 

Down the s[eep glade, and mei the nether flood. 

Which from his darksome passage now appears, 

And now, divided into four main streams, 

Runs diverse, wandering many a famous realm 

And country whereof here needs no account; 

But rather to tell how, if Art could tell 

How, from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks, 

Rowling on orient pearl and sands of gold, 

With ma^y error under pendant shades 

Ran nectar, visiting each plant, and fed 

Flowers worthy of Paradise, which not nice Art 

In beds and curious knots, but Nature boon 



Poured forth profuse on hill^ and dale^ and pTaiTij 

Boih where the moining sun fir$C wi^rmly ^mote 

The open ficldj and where [he unpierccd shaJe 

Imbrowncd ihe nooniide bowers. Thus was this pTace, 

A happy lural scat of various view: 

Groves whose rich trees wepi odorous gums and balm, 

Others whose frnii, burnished with golden rind. 

Hung amiable — -Hesperian tables true, 

li trucj here only — and of delicious taste* 

Betwixt [hem lawns, or level downs, and flocks 

Grazing the tender herb, were interposed^ 

Or palmy hillock; or ihe flowery lap 

Of some irriguouB valley spread her store^ 

Flowers of all hue, and without thorn the rose. 

Another side^ umbrageous grocs and caves 

OE cool recesSj o er which the mantling vine 

Lays forth her purple grapcj anti gently creeps 

Luxuriant; meanwhile murmuring waters fall 

Down the slope hills dispersed, or in a lake, 

That to the fringed bank wiih myrde crowned 

Her crystal mirror holds, unite their streams. 

The birds their quire apply; afrs, vernal JiirSj 

Breathing ihe smell of field and grove, attune 

The trembling leaves, while universal Pan, 

Knit with the Graces dnd the Hours in dance, 

Led on the eternal Spring- Not that fair field 

Of Enna, where Proserpin gathering flowers, 

Herself a fairer flower^ by gloomy Dis 

Was gathered^which cost Ceres all thai pain 

To seek her through the world — nor that sweet grove 

Of Daphne, by Oronies and the inspired 

Castatian spring, might with this Paradise 

Of Eden strive; nor that Nyseian isle, 

Girt with the river Triton, Vi^here old Cham, 

Whom Gentiles Ammon call and Libyan Jove> 

Hid Amalthea, and her florid son, 

Young Bncchus, from his srepdame Rhea^s eye; 

Nor, where Abassin kings their issue guard. 

Mount Amara (though this by some supposed 

True Paradise) under the Ethiop line 


By NSlus' hfi^dy enclosed wilK shining rock, 
A whole d^v'a ioumey highp but wid^ resnoie 
From this Assyrian garden, where Lhe Fiend 
Saw undelighted all delight, all kind 
Of living creaiures^ new to sight and strange- 
Two of far nobUr shape, erect and tall, j 
God-like erect^ with naiivcr honour clad .,\j ^ 
In njiked majesty, ieemed lords of all. 
And wonhy seemed; for in iheir looks divine 
The image of their glorious Maker shon, 
Trinhj ^^^isdom^ sanclitude severe and pure — 
Severe, but in true filial freedom placed. 
Whence true authority in men: though both 
Not equalj as rh&ir sgk not equal seemed; 
For contempfacion he and valour fornit^d, 
For softness she and 5weet atiraciive grace; 
He for God only, she foi God in him. 
His fair large front and eye sublin^e declared 
Absolute rule; and Hyacinthin locks 
Round from his parted forelock, manly hung 
Clusterings bui not beneath his shoulders broad: 
She, a? a veil down to the slender ^vaist^ 
Her unadorned galdtn ircsscs wore 
Dishevelledj but in wanton ringlets waved 
As the vine cuds her tendrils — ^which implied 
Subjection, but retiuired with gcn[le sway^ 
And by her yielded, by him best received — 
Yielded, with coy submission^ modest pride. 
And sweet, rcluciantp amorous delay, 
Nor those mysterious parts were ihcn concealed: 
Then was not guilty shame. Dishonest shame 
Of Nature's works p honour dishonourable. 
Sin-bred, how have ye troubled all mankind 
With shews mstead, mere shews of seeming pure 
And banished from man's life his happiest life. 
Simplicity and spotless innocence I 
So passed they naked on, nor shunned the sight 
Of God or Angel; for they thought no ill: 
So hand in hand they passed, the loveliest pair 
That ever since in lovers embraces met — 


Adam the goodliest mnn of men sin ce bor n J* ^ j 

Mis sons; the taire^i: ot her dhughtcrs E ve. 

Under a lutt ot shade that on a green 

Stood whispering soft, by s fresh fountain-siJe* 

They sal ihem down; and, after no mon? toil 

Of ihcir 5wcet gardening labour than sufficed 

To recommend cool Zephyr, and make ease 

More easy, wholesome ihirst and apperite 

More i^raceful^ to thcrr supper-friifis ihey fell — 

Neftarme fruirs. which the comphant bodghs 

Yielded them, sidelong as ihey sat recline 

On the soft do^-ny bank damasked with Howcrs. 

The savoury pulp they chew, and in the rind, 

Siill as ihcy thirsted^ scoop ihe brimming stream 

Nor gcntJe purpose^ nor endearing smiles 

Wanted, nor youthful dalliance, as beseems 

Fair couple finked in happy nuptial league. 

Alone as they, Aboui them frisking played 

All beasts of the earthy since wild, and of all cIvmh 

In wood or 'vilderncss* forest or den. 

Sporiing the lion ramped, and in his paw 

Dandled the kid; bears, tigers, ounces, pards 

Gflmbolled before them; the unwieldy elephant. 

To make them mirthj used all his might, and wrcachcd 

His lithe proboscis; close the serpent sly, -.- ■ - 

Insinuating, wove with Gordian twine 

His breaded iiain, and of his fatal guile 

Gave proof unheeded. Others on the giais 

Couched, and, now lillcd with pasture, gazing sat^ 

Or l>edwaTd ruminating; for the sun, 

Declined, was hastening now wirli prone career 

To the Ocean Isks, and in the ascending scale 

Of Heaven the stars djat usher evening rose: 

When Satan, still in gaze as first he stood, 

Scarce thus at length failed speech recovercfl sad:^ ^^^ 

''O HelH what do mine eyes with grief behold? 
Into our room of bliss thus high advanced 
Creatures of other mould — Earth-born perhaps. 
Not Spirits, yet to Heavenly Spirits bright 
Litde inferior^whom my thoughts (pursue 



With wonder^ and could love; so lively shines 
In them dJYme-cese^i^blance^^nd such grace 
The hand that formed ihem on their shape hath 

Ahl gentle pair, ye litde think how nigh 
Your change approaches^ when aTTtE ese d ehghis 
Wil l vanish, ^jiiLdsljl!fit.^e-tC^5?rr- 
More woe, th ejiigrtLXQur Liste i? noi-vofjoy: 
Happy, but for so happy ill secured 
Long Eo continue, and this high seat* your Heaven, 
III fenced for Heaven to keep ouE such a foe 
As now is entered; yet no purposed foe 
To you. whom 1 could pky thus forlorn, 
Though I unpiried. League with you I seek, 
And mutual amity, so siriiit, so close, 
That I with you must dwell, or you with me. 
Henceforth. My dwelling, haply, may not please, 
Like ihis fair Paradise^ your sense; yet such 
Accept your Maker's work; he gave it me, 
Which I as freely give. Hell shall unfold^ 
To enteriain you iwo. her witlesl gates, 
And send forth all her kings; there will he room, 
Not like these narrow limits, to receive 
Your numerous offspring; if no better place, 
Tiiank him who puts me* loath, to ihis revenge 
On you. who wrong me not, for him who wronged. 
And, should [ at your harmless innocence 
Melt, as I do, yet public reason just — 
Honour and empire with revenge enlarged 
By conquering this new World — compels me now 
To do what else, chough damned, I should abhoi." 

So spake the Fiend, and with necessity, 
The tyrant's plea, excused his devilish deeds. 
Then from his lofiy stand on diat high tree 
Down he alights among the sportful herd 
Of those four-footed kinds* himself now one, 
Now other, as iheir shape served best his end 
Nearer to view his prey, and, unespied, 
To mark what of their state he more might learn 
By word or action marked. About them round 



A lion now he stalks with fiery glare; 
Then as a tiger, who by chance hath spied 
firToirie pourljeiJjwo^jgeniIc"Hwns^T""^^ 
SfraigTu croucEcTcloai?; then rii:ing, clianges oft 
His couchant watch, as one ^ho chose his ground, 
Whence rushing he might surest seize them boih 
Griped in each paw: when Adam, first of men. 
To firsl of ivonien* Eve, ihus moving speech, 
Turned him all ear to iiear new utterance How-. — 

"Sole parincr and sole part of all thi^se joys. 
Dearer thyself all, needs must (he Power 
That insde us, and for Ui ih\$ ample World, 
Be infinitely good, and of his good 
As libera! and free as infinite; 
That raised us from the dust, and placed us here 
In all this happiness, who at this hand 
Have nothing merited, nor can perform 
Aught whereof he hath need; he who requires 
From U5 no other service ihan lo keep 
This one, this easy charge — of all the tree? 
In Paradise that bear deUcious fruic 
So various, not lo taste that only Tree 
Of Knosvietlge, planted by the Tree of LJfe^ 
So near grows Death to Life, whate'er Death is — 
Some dreadful thing no doubt; for well thou know'st 
God liaih pronounced it Death Co taste ihat Tree: 
The only sign _oLQi[r_ obedience -left 
Among so many sJ^g ns o f pow er and rule 
Conferred upon U5,aiKr dominion given 
Over all other creatures that possess 
Earth, Air. and Sea. Then let us not think hard 
Oue easy prohibition, who enjoy 
Free leave so large to all things else, and choice 
Unhmiied of manifold defights; 
But let us ever praise him, and extol 
His bounty, following our delightful task. 
To prune these growing plants, and tend these flowers; 
Which, were it toilsome, yet with thee were sweet." 

To whom ihus Eve replied:^"0 thou for whom 
And from whom I was formed flesh of ihy Sesh, 



And wuhout ivhom am to no end^ my guide 

And heud! wliai Uiou hasl said is just and rtght. 

For we lo him^ indeed, all praises owCj 

And daily thanks^ — I chiefly^ who crnjay 

So far the happier loi^ enjoying ihet 

Pre-eminent by so much odds, while ihou 

Like consort to ihyself canst nowhere find^ 

Thai day I oft remember^ when from sleep 

1 first awaked, and found myself reposed, 

Under a shade^ on flowers, much wondering where 

And what I waSj whence thither brought, and ho\v. 

Not cfEstant far from thence a murmuring sound 

Of waters issued from a cave, and spread 

Into a liqiud plain; then stood unmoved, 

Pure as the expanse of Heaven. I thither went 

With imexperienced thoujjht, and laid me down 

On the green bank> to look into ihe clear 

Smooth lakcj that to me seemed another sky. 

As I bt^nt down to look, jusi opposite 

A Shape within the waicry gleani appeared, 

Bending to look on me. 1 started back^ 

It started back; but pleased I soon returned. 

Pleased it returned as soon with an^wermg looks 

Of sympathy and Iovch There T had fixed 

Mine eye? ttll now^ and pined with vain desire, 

Had not a voice thus warned me: "What thou seest^ 

What [here chou seest, fair creature, is thyself; 

Wiih thee it came and goes: but fonow"nic,~^ 

And I will bring thee where no shadow sLiys 

Thy coming, and thy soft imbraces — he 

Whose image thou art; him ihou shall enjoy 

Inseparably ihine; to him shalt bear 

MuUiludes like thyself^ and thence be called 

Moiher of human race/ What could I doj 

Bill follow straight^ invisibly thus Icdi* 

Till I espied ihec, fair, indeed, and tall, 

Under 3 platan; yet methought less fair, 

Less winning soft, less amtably mild, 

Than thai smooih wateiy image- Back I turned; 

Thou^ following, cri^d^st aloud, ^Return^ fair Eve; 



Whom fliest ihou? WhoiD ihou fliesl* oi him lIaou a7t» 
Hi5 flesh, his bone, 10 give thee being I lent 
Out of my side to thee, nearest my heart, 
SubsLjniijl life, co have thee by my sidy 
Henceforth .in individual solace dear: 
Part of my soul I seek thee, and thee cTairsi 
My oEher half.' With that thy gentle hand 
Seized mine: I yielded, and from ihu limc see 

How beauty ls_excclled_b v manly ^ race 
And wisdom, which alone is truly fair," 

So spake out gcneiai mother, anJ, wkh eyes 
Of coniuj;al attraction unrcproved, 
And meek surrender, half-embracinp leaned 
On our first father; half her swelling breast 
Naked met his, under the flowing gold 
Of her loose tresses hid. He, in deliirht 
Both of her beauty and submissive charms, 
Smiled with superior love, as Jupiter 
On Juno smites when he impregns the clouds 
That shed May flowers, and pressed her matron lip 
With kisses pure, A5ide ihc Devil turned 
For envy; yet with jealous leer malign 
Eyed them askance, and to himself thus plained: — 

*'Si<i'ht hateful, sight tormenting! Thus these t^vo, 
Imparadised in one another's arms, 
The happier Eden, shall enjoy iheir fill 
Of bliss on bliss; while I to Hell am thrust, 
Where neither joy nor lo^e, but fierce desire. 
Among our other torments not the Eeast, 
Still unfulfilled, with pain of longinq pinesT 
Yet let me not iorget what 1 have gained 
From their own mouths. All is not theirs, h ^eems; 
One fatal tree there stands, of Knowledge called, 
Forbidden them to taste. Knowledge forbidden? 
Suspicious, reasonless! Why should their Lord 
Envy them that? Can it be sin Eo know? 
Can it be death? And do they only stand 
By ignorance? U that their happy state, 
The proof of iheir obedience and their faith? 
O lair foundation laid wlxereon to build 

l6B JOHN MILTON &ook iv 

Their ruin! Hence J will exciie iheir minds 

With more desire to know^ and to re}ect 

Envious commands, invented with design 

To keep them low^ whom kno^vlcdgt might exalt 

Equal wirh godsn Aspirinp to be such, 

They tasie and die: whfll liketier can ensue? 

But first with narrow search I must walk round 

This garden^ and no corner leaver unspicd; 

A chance but chance may lead where I may meet 

Some wandering Spirit of Heaven^ by founiain-side^ 

Or in thick shade retiredp from him to draw 

What furiht^f would be learned. Live while ys may, 

Yel happy pair; enjoy^ till 1 return^ 

Short pleasures; for long woes are to succeed! 

So saying, his proud step he scornful turned, 
But with sly drcumspeciionj and began 
Through wood^ through waste, o*er hill, o'er dale, his 

Nfeanwhile in utmost longitude, where Heaven 
WithTHanh and Ocean meets, the setting Sun. 
Slowly descended^ and with right aspect' 
Agatnsr ihe eastern gate of Paradise 
Levelled his evening rnySn It was a rock 
Of alablaster, piled up to the clouds^ 
Conspicuous far, winding wiLh one ascent 
Accessible from Eariht one entrance high; 
The rest was craggy cliff, that overhung 
Still as it rosfij impossible lo climb, 
Belwixt these rocky pillars Gabriel sar^ 
Chief of the angelic guards^ awaiting night; 
About him exercised heroic games 
nie unarmed youih of Heaven; but nigh at hand 
Celenial armoufy, shields, helms, and spears^ 
Hung high, with diamond flaming and with gold* 
Thither came Uriels gliding through the even 
On a sunbeam, swift as a shooting star 
In auiumn ih war is the night, when vapours fired 
Impress (he air, and ^hews the martner 
From what point of his compass to beware 
Impetuous winds. He thus began in haste: — 



"Gabriel, to thee ihy course by Tot hath given 
Charge and stricl waich ihat Eo this happy place 
No evil ihmg approach or enter in- 
This day at highth of noon came to mv sphere 
A SpiriCj zealous^ as he secmedj to know 
More of ihe Almighiy's works^ and chiefly Man^ 
God's latest image. [ described his way 
Bcni all on speed, and marked his aeric gait, 
But in the mount that lies from Eden norths 
Where he first hghtcd, soon discerned his looks 
Alien from Heaven^ with passions foul obscured, 
MJnc eye pursued him sisU^ but under shade 
Lost sight of him. One of the banished crew, 
J teaTp halh ventured from die Dcep^ to raise 
New troubles; hini ihy care must be to find." 

To ^vhom the winded W^irrlor thus returned; — ' 
'"Uriels no wonder if thy perfet sight. 
Amid the Suns bright circle where thou sitt'stj 
See far and \^ide. lu at this gate none pass 
The rigikince here placedp but such as come 
Well kno^^n from Heaven: since meridian hour 
No creature thence. If Spirit oi other sort^ 
So minded* have overleaped these earthly bounds 
On purpose^ hard ihou know^st it to exclude 
Spiritual substance with corporeal bar* 
BuU if within ihe circuit of these walks, 
In whatsoever shape, he kirk of ^^hom 
Thou u(rst^ by morrow dawning f shall know." 

So promised he; and Uriel [0 his charge 
Reiurned on thai bright beam, whose point now 

Bore him slope downward to the Sun, now fallen 
Beneath the A:iOreSi whether the Prime Orb, 
IncrcdibEe how swift, had thither fowled 
Diurnal, or ihis less votsibil Earth, 
By shorter flight 10 the east, had left him there 
Arraying with reflected purple and gold 
The clouds that on his western throne atiend. 

NTow came sliil Evening on, and Twilight gray 
Had in her sober livery all things dad; 


Silence accomtKiiiied; for bejisl and bird, 
Tliey lo iheir grassy couch, the^e lo their iie^ES 
Were slunk, al! but the wakeful tii;^htingalc. 
She all nighi iong her amoruus descani suni-: 
Silence was pleased. Mow glowed the lirniiiinent 
With living Saphira; Hesperus, ihar hd 
The starry host^ rode briijhtest, till the Moon, 
Rising in clouded roajc&ty, at length 
Apparent queen* unveiled her peerless light, 
And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw; 
When Adam thus to Eve:— "Fair consort, the hour 
Of night, and all things now retired to rest 
Mind us of like repose; since God hath set 
Labour and rest, as d:iy and night, to men 
Successive, and ilie timely dew of sleep, 
Now falling with soft slumberous weight, inclines 
Our eyo-hds. Other creatures all day long 
Rove idle, unimployed, and less need rest; 
Man hath his daily work of body or mind 
Appointcdj which declares his dignity, 
And [he regard of Heaven on all his ways; 
While other animals unactive range, 
And of their doings God takes no account. 
To-morrow* ere fresh morriing streak the east 
With hrst approach of light, we must be risen, 
And at our pleasant Ubour, to ri^forrn 
Yon flowery arbours, yonder alleys green, 
Our walk at noon, with branches overgrown, 
Thar mock our scant manuring, and require 
More hands than ouis to lop their wanton growth. 
Those blossorns also, and those dropping guni^, 
That lie bestrown, unsighdy and unsmooih, 
Ask riddance, if we mean to tread with ease. 
Meanwhile, as Nature wills, Night bids us rest/' 

To whom thus Eve, with perfect beauty adorned: — 
"My author and dis|>oser, what thou bidd'st 
Unargued 1 obey. So God ordains: 
God is thy bw, thou mine: to know no more,. 
Is woman's happiest knowledge, and her praise. 
With thee conversing, I forget all time. 



All seasons, and iheir change; oil plensc alike, 

S« eoi is ihe bri^ath ot Morn, [ii^r rising sweet, 

Willi charm of earliest birds; pleasant ihc Sun, 

When first on this delightful land he spreads 

His orient beams, on herb, tree, fruii, and nower, 

Glistoring with dew; fragrant the hxiW Earth 

After soft showers; and swett the coniin^^ un 

Of jjFalcfut Evening mild; then silent Nrijht. 

With this her solemn hird. and this fair Moon, 

And these ihe gems of Heaven, her starry train: 

Bm jieiihcr breath of Morn, when she ascends 

With charm of earliest birds; nor rising Sun 

On this delightful land; nor herb, fruit, fiuwer, 

Glistering with dew; nnr fragrance alcer showers; t\\p- 

Nor grateful Eveuinjj mild; nor silent Night, | 

With this her solemn bird; nor walk by mmn* 

Or gliitenng star-light, i^jho ur thee is S"eet. 

But wherefore all night long shini' these? for whom 

This glorious sight, when sleep hath shut all eyes?" 

To whom our general ancestor replied: — 
"Daughter of God and Man, accomplished Eve, 
Those have their course to iinfsh round ihe Earth 
By morrow evening, and from land to land 
In order, though to nations yel unborn, 
Ministering light prepared, they set and rise; 
Lest total Darkness should by night regain 
Her old f>os!^e&sion. and extinguish life 
In nature and all things; which these soft fires 
Not only enlighten, but with kindly heat 
Of various influence foment and warm. 
Temper or nourish, or in part shed down 
Their stellar virtue on all kinds thai grow 
On Earth, made hereby apter to receive 
Perfection from the Sun*s more potent ray. 
These then, though unlieheld in deep of night, 
Shine not in vain. Nor think, though men were none, 
That Heaven would w ant spectators, God want praise. 
Millions of spiritual creatures walk the Earih 
Unseen, both when we wake, and when we sleep; 
All these with ceaseless praise his works behold 


Both day and nitjhu How ofttn^ from the steep 
Of echoing hill or thicket^ have we heard 
Celestial voices to the midriighi air* 
Sole J or responsive each to other's noie^ 
Singing their great Creacorl Ofi in bands 
While they keep watchj or nightly rounding walk. 
With heavenly touch of in^lrumental sounds 
In full harmonfc number joined, their songs 
Divide ihe nlghi^ and lift our thoughts to Heaven " 

Thus lafking, hand in hand alone they passed 
On to their bhssful bower* It was a place 
Chosen by the sovran Planter^ when he framed 
All ihings to Man's delightful u^e. The roof 
Ot thtckesc covert was inwoven shade^ 
Laurel and myrlle, and what higher grew 
Of firm and fragrant leaf; on either side 
Acanthus^ and each odorous bushy shrub, 
Fenced up the verdsnt wall; eacli beauteous flower. 
Iris all hueSp roscs^ and gessamin^ 
Reared high their flourished heads between^ and 

Mosaic; under foot the violet, 
Crocus^ and hyacinth^ wiih rich inlay 
liroidcred the ground, more coloured than with stone 
Of cosdiest emblem- Other creature hcrc^ i^ 

Beasts birdj insect, or worm, durst enter none; , mJ 

Such was their awe of Man. Jn sb ad ier bowe r 'J ^^^ 

More sacrcdandje£jiesi££e^^ ' 

Pa n or Syiv anus never slcpC^ nor N ymph 
jp r Faunus haunted. Here, in close recess, 
wiih fiowers, garlands, and sweeL-5mel]cng hearh$ 
Espoused Eve decked first her nuptial bed, 
And heavenly choirs the hymensan sung, 
What day ihe genial Angel to our Sire 
Brought her, in nnked beaniy more adorned, 
More lovely, than Pandora, whom the gods 
Endowd^d with all dieir gifts; and, O! too like 
In sad evenly when, to ihe unwiser son 
Of Japhet brought by Hermes, she ensnared 
Mankind with her fair looks, (o be avenged 


P.\R.\DIS11 LOST T73 

On him who had stole Jove's authentic fitG. 

Thus ai ihcir shady lodge arrived, both siood, 
Eodi turned, and under open sky adored 
The God that made boih Sky, Air, Earth, and Heaven, 
Which ihey beheld^ ihe Moon's resplendeni gJobe, 
And starry Pole:— "Thou also msdesi the Night, 
Maker Omnipoteni; and ihou the Day, 
Which we, in our 3ppoin[ed work imployed» 
Have finished, happy in our mutual help 
And muiiial lovc» the crown of all our bli^& 
Ordained by thee; and this delicious place. 
For us too large, where ihy abundance wants 
Partnikers, anti uncropt falls to the ground. 
But thou ha&t promised from us two a race 
To hll the Earth, who shall with us extol 
Thy goodness infinite, both when we wake. 
And when we seek, as now^^ thy gift of sleep." 

This said unanimous, and other rites 
Observing none, hui adoration pure. 
Which God likes best, into their inmost bower 
Handed they went, and, eased the puuing-otl 
These troublesome disguises which we wear. 
Straight side by side were laid; nor turned, I ween, 
Adam from his fair spouse, nor Eve the rites 
Mvstcrious of connubial love refused: 
Whatever hypocrues ausicrely talk 
Of purity, and place, and innocence. 
Defaming as impure what God declares 
Pure, and commands to some, leaves free 10 all. 
Our Maker bids increase; who bids abstain 
But our destroyer, foe to God and Man? 
Hail, wedded Lo\e, mysterious law, true source 
Oi huTnan offspring, sole propriety 
In Paradise of all things common elseT 
By thee adulterous lust was driven from men 
Among the bestial herds to raungc; bv thee. 
Founded in reason, loyaL just, and pure. 
Relations dear, and all ihe charities 
Of faiher, son, and brother, first were known. 
Far be it that 1 should write thee sin or b!ame. 


174 JOHN MILTON hook r 

Or ihink thcc uiibeliiiing holiest place, 
l^tripciual fountain of domestic sweets. 
Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced, 
Present, oT pasEj as saints and pairiarchs used* 
Here Lo\e his golden shafts implovs, here lights 
His constant lamp^ and wav^s his purple wingSj 
Keigns here and revels; not in the bought smile 
Of harlois — loveless, joyless, unindeurfidj 
Casual fiuition; nor in court amour^j 
Mixed danctj or wanton mask^ or midnight bal^ 
Or serenate^ which l\i^ stafved lover sings 
To his proud Uir^ best quiued with disdain, 
ThesGj lulled by nighiingaleSj imhr:iciiig slept^ 
And on their naked limbs the flowery roof 
Showerc<I rosGs^ which the morn repaired. Slcpp-enj 
Blest nai H and. O^ ye t happ iest, i j^vgjgek 
_NQ7I^^DPJ cr state^ and k now to know no morel 

Now had Night measured wiHT^TcTThadowy cone 
Half-way up-hill this vasl sublunar ^ault, 
And from their ivory port the Cherubim 
Forth issuing, at the accustomed hour, stood arnicd 
To their nijjht-watchcs in warlike parade; 
When Gabriel to his next in power thus spakcn- — 

*^Uzzic], half these draw olT, and coasi ihe south 
With strictest wg[c}i; ibese other w^heel the north; 
Our circuit meets full west*" x^s flame they prt, 
Half wheeling to the shieldt half to the spcar, 
From these, two strong and subde Spirits he called 
That near him stood, and gave them ihu^ in charge: — 

*'Ithuriel and Zephon^ with winged speed 
Search through this Garden^ icave unsearched no 

But chiefly where those two fair creatures lodge, 
Now laid perhaps asleep, secure of harm^ 
This ^v^n'mg from the Sun'? decline arrived 
Who lells d£ some infernal Spirit seen 
H[therward bcni (who could have thought?), escaped 
The bars of Hell, on errand bad, no doubt: 
Such, where ye find, seize fast, and hither bring/' 

So saving, on he led his radiant files, 



Dazzling ihe moan; these to the bower direct 

In search ot whom ihey soughi. Htm there they founJ 

Sqiist lik-t; a load, cloati at iht; ear of Eve^ 

Assaying by his devilish art to reach 

The organs of her fancy, and ^vith ihem forge 

Illusions as he li^t, phantasms and dreams; 

Or ifj inspiring venom, he juight taint 

The animal spirits, that from pure blood arise 

Like gentle breaths fron^ rivers pure^ thence raise p 

At least disiemperedj tlfsconiented thoughts^ 

Vain hopes, vain aim^, inordinate desites^ 

Blown up wjih high conceits inE^cndermg pride- 

Him thus intent Uhuriel with hts spear 

Touched Lghdy; for no falsehood can endure 

Touch of celestial temper, but returns 

Of force to its own likeness- Up he starts. 

Discovered and surprjsL^d* As, when a spark 

Lighl$ on a heap oi nitrous powder, laid 

Fit for the tun, some magazin to store 

Against a rumoured war, the smutty grain^ 

With sudden blaze diffused, indames the air; 

So started up, in his own shape, th& Fiend. 

Back stept ihose iwo fair Angels^ half amazed 

So sudden lo behold the grie^ly King; 

Yet chuSj unmoved with £ear, accost him soon; — 

*^VVh{ch of those rebel Spirits adjudged to Hell 
Cojn'st thou, escaped thy prison^ and^ trnnsformeJ* 
Why satt'st thou like an enemy in wait. 
Here watching at the head of these that sleep?'* 

"Know ye not, then/' said Saian, filled with scorn, 
*^Know ye not m^^ Ye knew me once no mate 
For you^ ihere siiiing where ye durst not soar! 
Not to know me argues yourselves unknown^ 
The lowest oE your ihrong; or, if ye know, 
Why ask ye^ and iuperftuous begin 
Your message^ like to end as much in vatn?" 

To whom ihus Zephon, answering scorn with 
scorn: — 
'Think notp revoked Spirit^ ihy sha|>e the same, 
Or imdiminished brightness^ to be known 

iy6 JOHN MILTON bookie 

As when thou siood'st in Heaven upright and pure- 
That j;loi"y thcn^ when thou no moro ^vast gootl^ 
DcparLtcI from thee; and thou resemhlesi now 
Thy sin and place of doom obscure and foul. 
Bui come; for thoo^ bi^ sure^ shall give account 
To him who sent ua, whose charge is To keep 
This place inviotabk^ and ihese from harm." 

So spake the Cherub; and his grave rebuke, 
Severe in youthful beauiy, added grace 
Invincible. Abashed ihe Devil stood^ 
And felt how awful goodness is^ and saw 
Vircuc in her shape how lovely — saw, and pmed 
His loss; but chteHy W find here ohsi^rved 
His lustre visibly impaired; yet st^cmed 
Undaunted. "'If I must contend/^ said he^ 
*^Best with [he best — the sender^ not the sent; 
Or all ai oncci more glory will be won^ 
Or less be lostJ' 'Thy fear," said Zephon bold, 
"Will save us trial what ihe least can do 
Sin^^le ngainst thee wicked, and ihence weak.'* 

The Fiend replied not, overcome wiih raj;e; 
But, like a proud steed reined, went hatigluy on, 
Chaumping his iron curb. To sirive or fly 
He held it vain; awe frflm above had quelled 
His heart, not ehe dismayed. Now drew they nigh 
The Vi^estern poini, where those half-rounding guards 
Just nicr^ and, closings stood in squadron joined^ 
Awaiting next command. To whom their chiefs 
Gabriel^ from [he front thus called aloud: — 

"O friendSj f hear the tread of nimble feet 
Hasting ihis way, and now by glimpse discern 
Ithuritl and Zephon through the shade; 
And with them comes a ihird^ of regal port, 
But faJed splendour wan^ who by his gait 
And fierce demeanour seems ihe Prince of Hell — 
Not likely to pan hence without contest', 
Siand firm, for in his look defiance lours. 

He scarce had ended, when those two approaeJied, 
And brief related whom ihey brought, where found, 
How busied J in what form and posture couched- 


To A^'Kom, wiih 5iern regard^ ihus Gabriel spake: — 
*'Why bast ihou, Satan, broke the bounds prescribed 
To ill}' transgressions, and d[5iiirbed the charge 
Of otberSj who approve not to transgress 
By thy exaniplc^ but have power and right 
To tjuestion ihy bold cnirance on this place; 
Imployed, it stems, lo violate sleep, iind those 
Whose dwelling God haih planted here in bliss?"" 

To whom thus Saianp wah contemptuous brou:^ 
"Giibrielj thou badst in Heaven the esteem of wise; 
And such f held thee; but this question asked 
P"is me in doubt. Lives there who loves his pain? 
Who would noEj finding way, b reak loose from HeEb 
Though thither doomed^ Thou wouldst ihyselt. no 
doubtj, " 

And boldly venture to whatever place 

Farthest from pain^ where thou mightst hope to change 

Torment with ease, and soonest recompense 

Dole wsih delight" which in this place 1 sought: 

To thee no reason, who know'st only fiood^ 

ilut evil bast not tried. And uiU object 

His will who bound us? Let him surer bar 

His iron gates^ if lie intends our stay 

In diy[ dark durance. Thus much what was asked: 

The rest is true; they found me v^■hc^e they say; 

But ihat implies not violence or harm " 

Thus he in scorn. The warlike Angel moved. 
Disdainfully halt smiling, ihus repliedt— 
"O loss of one in Heaven to jud^ of wise, 
Since Satan fell, whom folly overthrew. 
And now returns him from his prison scaped, 
Gravely in doubt whether lo hold them wise 
Or not who ask what boldness brought him hither 
Unlicensed from his bounds in Hell prescribed! 
So wise he judges it lo fly £rom pain 
However^ and to scape his punishmenti 
So judge [hou sdll, presumptuous, till the wrauch. 
Which ihou incurr'si by flying, meet chy flight 
Sevenfold, and scourge [hat wisdom back to Hell, 
Which taught thee yet no better that no pain 



Can equal anger intinke provoked. 
Bui wherefore lEiou alone? Whtrefore with ihee 
Camp not all Hell broke loow? Is pain to ihcm 
Le$s pain, less lo be fled? or ihou than ilwy 
Less hardy to endure? Cou ra^on^ thief. 
The first in fliglit from p^nThadiTTEou alTeged 
To thy deserted host this cause of flight. 
Thou surely hadst not come sole fugitive," 

To which ihe Fiend thus answered, frowLiing 
stern: — . .. 

"Not that I less endure, or sliiink from pain, 
Insulting Angel! well thou know^st I stood 
Thy tiercesE, when in battle to thy aid 
The blastinjj volleyed iliundef made all speed 
And seconded thy else not dreaded spear. 
Rut still ihv words at random, as before, 
Aigue thy inexperience what behoves^ 
From hard assays and ill successes pst» 
A faithful leader — nor to hazard all 
Through ways of danger by himself untried. 
I, therefore, I alone, first undertook 
To wing the tlesolaie Abyss^ and spy 
This new-created World, whereot in Hell 
Fame is not silent, here in hope lo find 
Better abode» and my aiHicied Powers 
To setde here on Enrih, or in mid Air; 
Though for po^^ssion put to try once more 
What thou and thy gay legions dare against; 
Whose easier business were to serve their Lord 
High up in Heaven, with songs to hymn his throne, 
And practised dUlances to cringe, not fight/' 

To whom the Warrior-Angel soon replied; — 
*'To say and straight unsay, pretending first 
Wise to fly jiain, professing next to spy, 
Argues no leader, but a liar traced, 
Satan; and couldst thou 'faithful" add? O name, 
O sacred name of faithfuhiess profanedl 
Faithful to whom? to thy rebellious crew? 
Army of fiends, lit body to fit headi 
Was this your discipline and failh ingaged. 


Your military ohcdiencci to dissolve 

Allegiance Lo ihe acknowledged Power Supreme? 

And thoLi| sly hypocrite^ who now wouldst seem 

Pairon of liberty, who mort; than thou 

Once fawnedp and cringed^ and servilely adored 

Heaven's awful Monarch? whcroforCj buL in hope 

To dispossess himj and thyself to reign? 

But m^irk what 1 areed thee now: Avaunt! 

Fly thtUier whence thou fledd'st^ If from this hour 

Within ihese h allowed llmj tE jhguji pp eprT 

B ack, to ihe~Infem3 l Pit I dr ag thee cha ined > 

And seal thee so as hencefort h not to scorn 

Thejaci le ga tes oj Hell too ^B uly Bar red ." 

So threatened he; but Satan to no threats 
Gave heedj but waxing more in rage^ replied: — ' 

*'Then, when I am thy captive, talk ot chains. 
Proud hmWi^ry Chtrub! but ere thtn 
Far heavier load ihyscit expect to feel 
From my prevailing ajm^ though Heaven^s King 
Kide on thy wings^ and ihou wiih thy Com|>eerSt 
Used to the yokSj draw'st his Triumphant wheels 
In progress through the road o£ Heaven star-paved-** 

While thus he spake, the angelic squadron bright 
Turned Eicry red^ sharpening in mooned horns 
Their phalanx iind began to hem him round 
Wilh ported spears, as thick as when a field 
Of Ceres ripe for harvest waving bends 
Her bearded grove of ears which way the wind 
Sways them; the careful ploitghman doubting siands 
Lesc on the threshing-floor his hopeful sheaves 
Prove chalf. On the osher side, Satan^ alarmed. 
Collecting all his n:iight, dilated stood, 
J-.ike TenerifT or AUaS j unr emoved : 
jjjj ^ture reac hed thg 5kv7a nd on his cre st 
S at Hgrro r^umed; nor wanted in his jjrasp 
What seemtd both spear and shield. Now dreadful 

Might have ensued; nor only Paradise, 
In this commotion^ but the starry cope 
Of Heaven perhaps, or all the Elements 


At least, had gone to wrackj disturbed and torn 
With violence of this condict^ had not soon 
The Elernaij to prevent such horrLI Tray, 
Hung forth in Heaven his golU^^n scales^ yet seen 
Betwixt Astrsa and [he Scorpion sign* 
Whi^rein all things created lirst he weighed. 
The [lendulous ronnd Earth with balanced air 
In counterpoise, now ponders all events^ 
Battles and realms. In these he put Iwo weightSj 
The sequel each of parting and of light: 
The lauer quick up llew^ and kicked the beam; 
Which Gabrtel spying thus bcspako the Fiend: — 

*'Satan, I know thy strcnjjih^ and ihuii knowV mtne^ 
Neither our own, but given; what folly then 
To boast what arms can do! since thtne no more 
Than Heaven permils, nor mine, though doubled now 
To trample thee as mire. For proof look up, 
And read thy lot in yon ctlcsHal sign. 
Where thou art weighed, and shown ho^^' hght, how 

If thou resist " The FlenJ looked up, and knew 
Hin mounted scale aloft: nor more; but fled 
Murmuring; and with him fled the shades oE NighL 


The Ap^T-Mts^r.—Klorninp appr^3cliccf> Eve relawT to AJ^in lier iroublesome 
drc^ii^: h^? lik^s ii tif>tp yet cemEorts Kcr^ they c^i^c It^rtli u; tlic:ir &Ay latjours: their 
mornme hyarin ai the door yf ihcir bower. God, if> randtr Man Lneiuu^bka i^nds 
Raphael to admonish him of his obe<1icni;Cd <^f his (I'tc Mlstti^p ^yi his cntmy nenr at 
handj who he is, and ^vh^' hi^ enemy, and whatever else may avail Adam to know. 
Raphael ttin-Lts dnwn to Paradise; his appt^r.incc described; hij cemiji^ Jiscernwl by 
Adam afar oRi siding at [he door of hia bower; he poes om lo meet him. brings him 
B his Iddge^ cntertaLn& Wiiu with ihe cht^iccsC trnjts of pjradis^h goK to£tthcr by Ev^; 
their discodrM at ^it!?^e. Raphael performs hu mes&a^ep minds Adam of his ^tate and 
of hts cnemyi relalest al Adam's ^^;L|ut:^t^ whn that L^nctny Ls, ;ind hi^w he came to be 
sOj bc^i^iiing from his flrst revolt in Hcav^tli and the occnsic^n thereof; ho^v he drew 
hjfi legions afccr liint tc^ die parts of the i^orth, and there inciletl them to rebel wilb 
him. pcriuadinj^ all but onfy Abdiel, a i^eraph, who la aryuincnt di^$ll:^di:j and 0|>p05K 
hiiUr thea forsakes hian. 

Now Mom* her rosy steps in [he casiern clime 
Advancing, sowed [he c;ir[h wi[h orient pearly 
When Adam waked, so cus[omcd; for hh sleep 


Was acrie li^hc, from pure digcsiion bred, 
And tcEiipcrate %'apuurs bland, which the only sound 
Of leaves and fuming rills* Aurora'^ f^n, 
Xjighlly dispersed, and the shrill iTi[iiin song 
Of hjrds on every bough. So much the more 
His wonder was to fiiul unwak^^iied Eve, 
Wiih tresses discomposed^ and glowing cheeky 
As through unquiet rest- He, on his side 
Leaning half raised, with looks ot cordial love 
HuEi;; over hei tinamoured, and beheld 
Beauty which, whether ^^^aking or asleep. 
Shoe forth peculiar graces; then^ with voice 
Mild as when Ztjplivrus on Flora breathes, 
Hi:r hand soLt ;ouchin£> whtspt^vcd ihus: — "Awake, 
^Ey fairest, my e^pousetl, my latest loun^.h 
Heaven's last^ best gilt^ my ever-new dclightl 
Awake! tht morning shines, and the fresh field 
Calls us; we lose the prime lo mark how sprintj 
Our tended plania, hotv blows the citron grove, 
What drops the myrrhj and what the balmy reed, 
How Nature paints her colours, how tliLi hee 
Sits on the bloom extracting liquid sweel*" 

Such whis^iering waked her^ but with startled tye 
On Adam; whom imbracing, thus she spake^ — ■ 

**0 sole in ^^hom my thoughts lind al] repose^ 
My glorVj my pcrfecxton! glad I see 
Thy face, and morn returned; for J this night 
(Such ni.ghl till this 1 never parsed) have dreamt^d, 
If dreamed^ not, as I ott am wont, of thee, 
Works of day past, or morrow's next design; 
Bui of ollence and trouble, which my mind 
Knew never till this irksome night* Methought 
Close at mine ear one called nie forth to walk 
With gentle voice; I thought it ihine^ it said, 
'Why sleep^st thou, Eve? now is the pleasant lime, 
, The cool, the silent, save where silence yields 
To the night- warbling bird, that now aw^ike 
Tunes sweetest his love-laboured song; now reigns 
Full-orbed the moon, and, with more pleasing light. 
Shadowy sets oil the face of things — in vain, 

l82 JOHN MILTON book v 

If none regaTd- Heaven wakes with all hh eyes; 

Whom lo behold but thee^ Nature's desire. 

In whose si^hi all ihings joy, w[[h ravishment 

Ariracled by thy beauty still to gaze?' 

I rose as at ihy call^ but found [hee not: 

To find [hee I directed then my walk; 

And orij meLhought^ alone I passed through ways 

That brought mc on a sudden to ihc Tree 

Of interdicted Knowledge, Fair it seemed, 

Much fairer to my fancy tlian by day; 

And^ as I wondering looked^ beside \t ^tood 

One shaped and winded like one of those from Heaven 

By us oft seen: his dewy locks distilled 

Ambrosia, On that Tree he also gazed; 

And, ^O fair plant/ said he, 'with [Vuit surcharged. 

Deigns none to ease thy load, and taste thy sweei, 

Nor God nor ManP Is knowledge so despised? 

Or envy, or what reserve forbids to taste? 

Forbid who will, none shall from me withhold 

Longer tiiy ot!(;re^ll good, why else set hcreP' 

This said, he paused not, but with venirous arm 

He plucked^ he tasied- Me damp horror chilled 

At such hold words vouched with a deed 50 bold; 

Bur he ihuSj overjoyed: 'O fruit divine, 

Sweet of ihyselfj but much more sweet thus cropt^ 

Forbidden here, it scems^ as only Ht 

For gods^ yei able to make gods of men! 

And why not gods of men, since good, the more 

Communicated, more abundant grows, 

The author not impaired^ but honoured more? 

Here^ happy creature, fair angelic Evel 

Partake thou also: happy though thou art. 

Happier thou may'st be^ worthier canst not be- 

Taste this^ and be henceforth among the godi 

Thyself a goddess; not to Earth confined, 

But sometimes in the Air; as we; sometimes 

Ascend lo Heaven, by merit thinCj and see 

What life the gods live there, and such live thou.' 

So saying, he drew nigh, and to me held. 

Even to my mouth of thac same fruit held pan 


Which he had plucked: the picasam savoury smell 
So quickenL^i appc^ilte thai [, methoughip 
Coultl noi buE lasrc* PorihwUh up 10 the clouds 
With him 1 ilcw\ and undcrncaih beheld 
The £arth outsirt^^iched immense^ a prospect wide 
And various. Wondering at my flight and change 
To [his high exaltation^ suddenly 
My guide was gune^ and J^ meihou^hi, sunk Josviis 
And fell asleep; but, O^ how glad I waked 
To find this buE a drcaml" Thus Eve her night 
Rebtedp and thus Adam answered sad;^ 
"fiy$t linage of mysdf, and dearer half^ 
The trouble of thy thoughts this night in sleep 
Affects me equally; nor can I like 
This uncctnh dream — of evil sprung^ 1 fear; 
Yet evil whence? In thee can harbour none. 
Created pure* But know that in the soul 
Are many le&ser facuUieSj ihai serve 
Reason as chief- Among these Fancy next 
Her ollice holds; of all external [hin^s. 
Which the five watchlul senses represent, 
She forms imagLnatlons, aerie shapes^ 
Which Reason, (oining or disioininij^ Irames 
All what we aiTirm or ^vhai deny, and cafi 
Our knowledge or opinion; then rciiros 
Into her private cell when Kature rests, 
Oft^ in her absence, mimic Fancv wakes 
To imiiiaie her; huts nii5Joining shapes, 
Wild work produces oft, and most in dTcams, 
111 matching words and deeds long past or late- 
Some such resemblances^ meihinks, I find 
Of our last evening's talk in this thy dream. 
But with addition strange. Yet b^ noc sad: 
Evil into the mind of God or Man 
May come and go^ so unapproved, and leave 
No spot or blame behind; which gives me hope 
TThai what in sleep thou didst abhor lo dream 
Waking thou never wik consent to do- 
Be not disheartened, [hen^ nor cloud those look=?j 
That wonl to be more cheerful and serene 


Th^ji when fair Morning first smiles on ihe world; 
And kt us to our fresh imployments rise 
Among the grove^j the fountains^ and ihe flowers. 
That open now their choicest bosomed smclli^ 
Reserved from nighty and k^pt ior thee in store." 

So cheered he his fair spouse; and she wa^ cheered. 
But silently a gentle tear let lalL 
From either oye^ and wiped them with her hak; 
Two odier precious drops ihat ready stood^ 
Each in their crystal sluice, he, ere ihcy fell, 
Kissed as the gracious signs of sweet remorse 
And pious awe^ that feared to have offended^ 

So all was cleared, and to the field ihey hasie. 
But first, from under shady arborous roof 
Soon as tliey forth were come la open sight 
Of day-sprin;;^ and ihe Sun — who, scarce uprisen. 
With wheels yel hoveiEng o'er the ocean-brim, 
Shot parallcE to the Earth his dewy ray, 
Discovenng in wide lantskip all the east 
Of Paradise and Eden's happy plains — 
Lowly they bo wed j adoring ^ and began 
Their orisons, each morning duly paid 
In various sryle; for neiiher various style 
Nor holy raplure wanted they to praise 
Their Maker^ in fit strains pronounced, or sung 
Unmeditated; such prompt eloquence 
Flowed from their lipSj in prose or numerous verse^ 
More luneable than needed lute or harp 
To add more sweetness. And they thus began:— 

"These are ihy glorious vi^orks, Parent of good, 
Almighty! thine this univerial frame. 
Thus wondrous fair: Thyself how wondrous then! 
Unspeakable! who sitt'st above these heavens 
To us invisible, or dimly s^^t^n 
In these thy lowest works; yet these declare 
Thy goodness beyond thoughip and power divine- 
Speak, ye who best can tell, ye Sons of Light, 
Angels— for ye behold him, and with songs 
And clioral symphonies, day without night. 
Circle bis throne rejoicing — ye in Heaven; 



On Earth join, all y*; creatures^ to ^\io\ 
Him firstj him last, h[m midstT and without end. 
Fairest of StarSy last in the tram of Ntght, 
rf better thou belong not to the Dawn, 
Sure pledge of daVj that crown^st the smiling morn 
With thy hrlght cirderj praise him in thy sphere 
While dav ariseSp that sweet hour o£ prime* 
Thou Sun, of ihis great World both eye and soul, 
Acknowledge hitn thv Greater; sound his praise 
In thv eternal course^ both whtti ihou climb'sti 
And when high noon ha-vi ^aJned^ and when thou faU'st. 
jV[oDnj I hat no^v mt^et'st the orient Sun^ now liiest, 
With the fixed Siars, fixed in thefr orb that fliesj 
And ye five other wandering FireSj thai niove 
In mystic danct?, not withouc song^ resound 
His praise u ho out of Darkness called uji Light. 
Air, and yc Elements, the eldest birth 
01 Nature^E wombp that in quaternion run 
Perpctua! circle^ ntultiforrrij and mix 
And nourish all things, let your ceaseless change 
Vary to our grent MnLer slill new praisc\ 
Ye Mlsis and ExhaUiionSj that now rise 
Frwm hill or steaming lake, duskv or gray. 
Till the sun paint your fleeey skirts with gold. 
In honour to [he World's grent Author rise; 
Wheihcr to deck with doud$ the uncoloured sky^ 
Or wei the ihir-ity earlh with falling showers, 
Risinjj or fallings still advance his praise. 
His praise, ye Winds, that from four quarters blow. 
Breathe soft or loud; and wave y^ur lopii, ve PineSp 
With every Plants in sign ot worship wa^e. 
Fountains^ and y^, ihat warbJe, as ye How, 
Melodious murmurSj warbling tune his praise- 
Join voices^ all ye living Souls. Ye Birds, 
Thatj singings up to Heaven-gaie asceiid^ 
Bear on your wings and in your notes his praise. 
Ye that in waters glide, and ve thai walk 
The earthj and stately treads or lowly creep. 
Witness if / be silent, morn or even. 
To hiEl or valley, fountain, or fresh shade, 


Made voca! by my son;;^ and taught his praise^ 
Hailj universal Lordf \^Q bounteous siill 
To give us only ^ood; and^ if ibe night 
Have gaihered aught of evil, or concealed, 
Disperse u, a$ now light di5p<?!s the dark" 

So prayed ihey innocentp and to [heir [houghca 
Firm peace recovered soon^ and wonted calm- 
On to their morning's rural work ihey haste. 
Among sweet dew? and flowers, where any row 
Of fruiMrees^ over-woody^ reached too far 
Their pampered boughs^ and needed hands to check 
Frulde^s imbraces; ot ihey led ihe vine 
To wed her elm; she^ spoused^ about him [wmes 
Her marriageable arms^ and with her brings 
Her dowcr^ ^he adopted dusters^ lo adorn 
Hi^ barren leaveSn Them thus imployed beheld 
With pity Heaven's high King^ and ro him called 
Raphael^ the soctable Spirit^ that deigned 
To travel with 1 obias^ and secured 
His marriage with ihe seven-iimcs- wedded maid. 

**Raphae!/' said he, '^ihou hear'si: whai stir on Earth 
Satan^ from Hell scaped through the darksome Gulf, 
Hath raised in Paradise^ and hov^ disturbed 
This night ihe human pair; now he designs 
In iheni at once to ruin all mankind, 
Go^ therefore; half this day^ as friend with friend, 
Converse wilh Adam^ in what bower or shade 
Thau hnd'Ei him from the heal oi noon reiired 
To respite his day-labour with repast 
Or wilh repose; and such discourse bring on 
As may advise him of his happy state- 
Happiness in his power lefi free lo will^ 
Lef[ lo his own free will, bis will though free 
Yet mutable- Whence warn him to beware 
He swerve noij loo secure; tell him withal 
His danger^ and Iiom whom; what enemy, 
Late fallen himself from Heaven^ is plotting now 
The fall of others from like slate of bli^s. 
By violence? no^ for that shall be withstood; 
But by deceit and lies. This lee him knowj 




Lest, wilfully transgressing, he pieti^nd 
Surprisal, unadmonished^ unf ore warned^" 

So spako the Eternal Faihtr* and fulfilled 
All justice. Nor delayed the winged Saint 
After his charge received; but from among 
Thou^tid celestial Ardours, where he stood 
Veiled with his gorgeou? wing$, upspringing light. 
Flew through the midst of Heaven. The angelic quires 
On each hand partings to his speed gave way 
Through all the empyreal road^ till, at the gate 
Of Heaven arrived, the gate self-opened wide^ 
On golden hinges turning, as by work 
DIvfne the sovran Archiiccl had framed. 
From hence — no cloud or, to obstruct his sightT 
Star interposed, however small^he lices. 
Not unconform to other shining globe?, 
Earth, and the Garden of God, with cedar? crowned 
Above all hilh; as when by night the glass 
Of Galileo, less assured^ observes 
Imagined lands and regions in the Moon; 
Or pilot from amidsl the Cyclades 
£>«Ios or Samos first appenrinj- kenSn 
A cloudy spot. Down ihiiher prone in Hight 
He speeds, and [hroiijih the vast ethereal sky 
Sails between ^worlds and worlds, with aready wing 
Now on the polar winds; ihen with quick fan 
Winnows ihc buxom air, till, within hoar 
Of towering eagles, to all the fowls he seems 
A phcenix, ga^ed hy all, as that sole bird» 
When, to enshrine his relics in the Sun's 
Bright temple, 10 ^^gypiian Thebes he flies. 
At once on the eastern cliff of Paradise 
He lights, and to his proper shafje reiurns, 
A Seraph winged. Six wings he wore, to shade 
His lineaments divine: the pair that clad 
Each shoulder broad came manding o'er his breast 
With regal ornament; the middle pair 
Girl like a starry zone his waist, and round 
Skirled his loins and thighs with downy gold 
And colours dipt in heaven; the third his feet 


Shadowed from ciihcr hce! w\i\\ feathered maH* 

Sky-tincEured grain. Like Mail's son he siood. 

And shook hii plumes, thai heave iily fragrance filled 

The circuit wide. Straight knew him aW ihe bands 

Of Angeis under watch, and to his state 

And to his message high in honour rise; 

For on wme message hi^h ihey guessed him bound- 

Their glittering lents he fxtssed^ and now is come 

Imo the hlissKil iictdp through groves of myrrlij 

And flowering odours^ cassia, nard, and balm, 

A wilderness of swe<jl^: for Nature here 

Wantoned as in her prime, aiid j?layed at will 

Her vfrgin fancies, pouring forth more sweet, 

Wild aixjve rule or art, enormous bliss. 

Hinij through the spicy forest onward tome, 

Adam discerned, as in the door he sal: 

Of his cool bower, while now ihe mounted Sun 

Shot down direct his fervid rays, W warm 

Earth's inmost womb, more warmth than Adam needs-" 

And E\e, tviihin, due at her hour, prepared 

For dinner savoury fruils, of taste to ptcase 

True appetite, and not disrelish diir^l 

Of net!tarDus draughts between, from milky siream^ 

Berry or grape; [o whom thus Adam called: — 

"Haste hither, Eve> and, worlh thy sight, behold 
Eastward among I hose I roes what glorious Shape 
Comes this way moving; seems another morn 
Risen on mid-noon. Some great behest from Heaven 
To us perhaps he briiiii^s, and will voutsafe 
Tliis djy lo be our gueit^ But go with speed, 
And what thy scores contain bring forth^ and pour 
Abundance hi to honour and receive 
Our heavenly stranger; well may we afFord 
Our givtrs iheir own gifts, and large bestow 
From large hesTawed^ where Nature multiplies 
Her (ertile grow[hj and by disburdening grows 
More fruitful; which instructs us not to spare/^ 

To whom thus Eve; — "Adam, Earth's hallowed 
Of God inspired J sm^ll store will serve where storCj 



All basons, ripe for use hangs on the stalk; 
Savt what, by frugal storing, firmness gains 
To nourish, and superUuous moist consume?. 
But I will hasten and from each bniigh and brake, 
Each plant and juiciest gourd, will pluck such choice 
To entertain our Angcl-gucsi as he. 
Beholding, shall confess that here on Earth 
God hath dispensed his bounties as in Heaven,'* 

So saying, with Jispalchful ttjoks in haste 
She turns, on hospitable thoughts intent 
Wliat choice to choose for delicacy best, 
What ordpr so contrived as noi to mix 
Tastes, not wefl joined, inelegant, but bring 
Taste after tasre uphdJ with kindliest change: 
Bestirs her then, and from each tendi:r stalk 
Whatever Earth, all-bearing moiher, yields 
In India East or West, or middle shore 
In Ponlus or the Punic coast, or uhcre 
Alcinous reigned, fruit of all kinds, in coat 
Rough or smooth-rined, or bearded huikn or shell, 
She gaihers, tribute larj^e, and on the board 
Heaps with unsparing hand. For diink the grape 
She crushes, inoffensive must, and mt'aihs 
From many a berry, and from swciet kernels pressed 
She tempers dulcet cre,ims — nor those to hold 
W^int* her fit vessels pure; then strews the ground 
With rose and odours from the shrub unfumed. 

^^eanwhiIe our primitive great Sire, to meet 
His godlike guest, walks forth, without more [rain 
Accompanied than with his own complete 
Perfections; in himself wa$ all his 5tatc, 
More solemn than the tediotis pomp that waits 
On princes, when their rich reiin'ue Inng 
Of horses led and grooms besmeared with gold 
Dazzles the crowd and sets them all agape. 
Nearer his presence, Adam, though not awed, 
Yet with submiss approach and reverence meek, 
As to a superior nature, bowing low, 
Thus said: — ^'Native of Heaven (for other place 
None can than Heaven such glorious Shape contain). 


Since^ by descending from the Throno? above, 
Those happy pUces ihou hadsL deigned a while 
To want, and honour these, vouisafe wirh us, 
Two only, who yet by sovran gift possess 
This spacious ground, in yonder shady bower 
To res[, and what ihe Garden choicest bears 
To sit and taste, till this meridian heat 
Be over, and Fhe sun more cool decline/* 

Whom thus The angelic Virtue answered mild:— 
"Adam, I therefore came; nor art ihou such 
Created, or such place hast here to dwell. 
As may not oft invite, though Spirits of Hcjvcn, 
To visit thee. Lead on, then, where thy bower 
O'ershades: for these mid-hours, till evening rise, 
1 have at will." So to the sylvan lodge 
They cntne, [hat like Pomona's arbour smiled, 
With flowerets dccktcl and fragrant smells. Uut Eve, 
Undecketl, save with herself, more lovely fair 
Than wood-nymph, or the fairest goddess feigned 
Of three that in Mount Ida naked strove. 
Stood to entertain her guest from Heaven; no veil 
She needed, virtue-proof; no thought infirm 
Altered her cheek. On whom the Angel "Hail!" 
Bestowed — the holy salutation used 
Long after to blest Mary, second Eve: — 

*^Hai]f Mother of mankind, whose fruitful womb 
Shall fill the world more numerous with thy sons 
Than with these various fruits the irees of God 
Have heaped this tablel" Raised of grassy lurf 
Their [able was, and mossy seats had round. 
And on her ample square, from side to side. 
All Autumn piled^ though Spring and Autumn here 
Danced hand-in-hand. A while discourse they hold — 
No fear lest dinner cool — when thus began 
Our Author: — "Heavenly Stranger, please to taste 
These bounties, which our Nourisher, from whom 
All perfet good, unmeastired-out, descends. 
To us for food and for delight hath caused 
The Earth to yield: unsavoury food^ perhaps. 
To Spiritual Natures; only this I know, 


That one Cckitial Faiher gives to a!L" 

To wliom the Angel: — ^Therefore, wEial he gives 
(Whose praise be ever sung) to Man, in pari 
Spiriiual, may of purest Spirits be fountl 
No ingr:itefu1 food: and food alike [how pure 
JnteltigcnLtal substances require 
As doiEi your Raiiunal; and bodi contain 
Within ihem every lower faculty 
Of senscj whereby ihey hear, see* smell, touchy taste, 
Tasting concocij digest, assimilates 
And corporeal to incorporeal turn. 
i-^or knoWj whatever was created needs 
To be sustained and fed. Of Elements 
The grosser feeds the purer: Earth ihe Sea; 
Earrh and [he Sea feed Air; the Air those File? 
Ethereal, and, as lowest, first the Moon; 
Whence ifi her visage round those spots, unpurged. 
Vapours not yet into her substance turned. 
Nor doih ihe Moon no nourishment e?;hale 
From her moist continent to higher Orbs, 
The Sun, that light imparts to alt, receives 
From all his alimental recompense 
In humid e^ihalaiion-i, and at even 
Sups WJih [he Ocean- Though in Heaven the trees 
Of life ambrosial fruita^ bear, and vines 
Yield neciar — though from off ihe boughs each morn 
We brush mellifluous dews and find the ground 
Covered with pearly grain— yet God hath here 
Varied his bounty so with new delights 
As may compare with Heaven; and to ra^ie 
Think not I ihall he nice " So down they sat. 
And to iheir viands fell; nor seemingly 
The Angelp nor in mist — the common gloss 
Of theologians — but with keen dispatch 
Of real hunger, and concoctive heat 
To transubstantiate: what redounds transpires 
Through Spirits wiih ease; nor wonder, if by fire 
Of sooty coal the Empiric Alchimist 
Can turn, or holds it possible lo turn^ 
Metals of drossiest ore to perfet gold, 

192 JOHN MILTON book t 

As from ihe mine. Meamvliilc at ubie Eve 
Ministered naked, and their flowing cup5 
With plea^dnt liquors crowned. O innocence 
Deserving Paradi&c! If ever» then, 
Then had ihe Son^ of God excuse to have been 
Enamoured at that sight. But in iho^e hi^arts 
Love unlibidinous roiyned, nor jealousy 
Was undersiootj, ihe injured lover's hell. 

Thns when with mcnts and drinks they had sufficed. 
Not burdened nature* sudden mintl arose 
In Adani not to let the occasion paThS, 
Given him by this jjrcat conference, to know 
Of things above his world, and of iheir being 
Who dwell in Heaven, whose excellence he saw 
Transcend his own so far, whose radiant fcrms* 
Divine ellulgence* whose high power so far 
Exceeded human; and his wary spf^ech 
Thus to the empyreal minister he framed: — 

"Inhabicant with God, now know 1 well 
Thy favour, in this honour done to Man; 
Under whose lowly roof thou hast: vouisafed 
To enter, and the^e earihly fruits to taste. 
Food not of Angels, yet accepted so 
As ihai more wilhngly thou couUlst not seem 
At Heaven's high feasts to have fed; yet what 

To whom the winded Hierarch replied: — 
"O Adam, one Ahnighty is, from wliom 
All things proceed, and up to him return. 
If not depraved from goad, created aW 
Such to perfection; one first matter alh 
Indued with various forms, various de^^rces 
Of substance, and, in things that livCn of life; 
But more refined, more spiriious and pure. 
As nearer to him placed or nearer tending 
F^ch in their several active spheres assigned. 
Till body up to spirit work, in bounds 
Proportioned to each kind. So from [he root 
Springs lighter the green stalk, from thence the leaves 
More aerie, last the bright consummate flower 



Spif[ES odorous brcslhcs: flowers and llK'ir iruk, 

Nian's nourishment, by gradual scaU ^ublimeJ, 

To vital spiriis aspire, to animal^ 

To intelltcCu^il; give both life anJ sense. 

Fancy and understanding; whence ilie Soul 

Reason receives, and Reason is her being, 

DiM:ursivc» or Intuitive; Discourse 

Is ottest yours, the latter most is ours, 

DilTcring but fn degrL?e, of kind [lie same. 

Wonder not, ihtn, wjiai God for you saw good 

If I rctusc noi^ but convert, as you. 

To proper substance. Timo iruy come when Men 

With Angels may participate, and fint! 

No inconvenient diet, nor too light fare; 

And from these corporal nuirimenLs, perhaps. 

Your bodies may at last turn all to spirit. 

Improved hy tract of time, and winged ascend 

Hthereal, as we, or may at choice 

Here or in heavenly paradises dwell, 

IE ye be found obedient, and retain 

Unalterably firm hi? love entire 

Whose progeny you arc, Mcanwhilt" enjoy, 

Your liil, what happiness this happv state 

Can comprehend, incapable of more/* 

To Avhom the Patriarch of Mankind replied; — 
'^O favourable Spirit, propitious gues^ 
Well hast thou taujiht the way thai might direct 
Our knowledge, and the scale of Nature ael 
From centre to circumference, whereon ^ 
In coniemplanon of created ihings, 
By steps we may ascend to God. But say. 
What meant that caution joined, // ye be jound 
Obedient? Can we want obedience, then, 
To him, or possibly his love desert, 
Who formed us from the dust, and jjlaced us here 
Pull to ihe utmost measure of what bliss 
Human desires can seek or apprehend?" 

To whom the Angel:— *^Son of Heaven and Earth, 
Attend! That thou an happy, owe to God; 
That ihoEi continue^t such, owe to ihyself, 

l^ JOHN MILTON eook >J 

That is, to thy obedience; th^2^ei^ stand. 
This was that camion given thee; be advUcd^ 
God made tht:e peifecii not immutable; 
And good ht made thee; but to persevere 
He left it In thy power — ordained thy will 
By nature free^ not overruled by fate 
Inextricable J or strict necessity. 
Our vulunsjry service he requires^ 
Not our necessitated. Such with him 
Find$ i^o acccpiancej nor can iind; for how 
Can hearts not tree be tried whether they stne 
Willing or nOj who will but what they must 
By destiny^ and can no ofher chooseP 
Myself, and all th^^ Angelic llo5t, that stand 
In sight of God enthroned, our happy state 
Hold, as you yours, while our obedience holds. 
On other surety none: freely we serve^ 
Because wc freely love, as in our will 
To love or not; in this we stand or falh 
.A.nd some are fallen, lo discbedicnce fallen. 
And so from Heaven to deepest Hell- O fall 
From what high sEate of bliss into what woel" 

To whom our great Progenitor: — ^^Thy words 
AtrenttvCj and with more delighted ear. 
Divine insfrucEor, 1 have heard, than when 
Cherubic songs by night from neighbouring hills 
Aerial music send. Nor knew I noi: 
To be, both will and deed, created free. 
Yet that we never shall forget to love 
Our Mater, and obey him whose command 
Single is yet 50 just, my constant thoughts 
Assured me, and still assure; though what thou lell'st 
Haih passed in Heaven some doubt within me move, 
But more desire to hear, if thou consent, 
The full relation, which must needs be strange, 
Worthy of sacred silence to be heard. 
And we have yet large day, for scarce the Sun 
Hath finished half hts journey^ and scarce begins 
His other half in the great i:one of heaven." 

Thus Adam made request; and Raphael, 



After short pause assenting, tlius be^an:— ■ 

"HigK mauec thou inioin'st mc, O prime of Men-^ 
Sad [ask and hard; for how shall I relate 
To human sense the invisible exploits 
Oi waiFLng Spirit^.' how, without remorse, 
ThE> ruin of so many, glorious once 
And perfct while ihey stood? how, last, unfold 
The secrets ot another world* perhaps 
Not lawful to le^cal? Yet for thy good 
This is dispensed; and what sunnouius the reach 
Of human sense I shall delineate so, 
By likening spiritual in corporal forms. 
As may express ihcm bcFi:— though what if Karth 
Be but the shadow of Heaven, and thhtgs therein 
Each to other like more than on F.arih i^ [hon^hi! 

"As yet this World xvas nor, and Chaoii wild 
Reigned where these heavens now lowl, where Eaidx 

now rests 
Upon her centre poised, when on a dav 
(For Time, though in Eternity, applied 
To motion, measures all things durabk 
By present, past, and future), on such day 
As Heaven's great year brings forth, the empyreal host 
Of Angels, by imperial summons called. 
Innumerable before the Almighty's throne 
Forthwith from all rhe ends of Heaven appeared 
Under their hierarchy in orders bright. 
Ten thousanti ihousand ensigns high advanced. 
Standards and gonfalons, *twij:t van and rear 
Stream in the air, and l^or distinction ser\e 
Ol; hierarchies, of orders, and degrees; 
Or in their glittering tissues bear imblazed 
Holy memorials, acts of zeal and love 
Recorded eminent. Thus when in orbs 
Of circuit inexpressible they stood^ 
Orb within orb. the Father Infinite, 
By whom in bliss imbosomed sat the Son^ 
Amidst, as from a Raming Mount, whose cop 
Brightness had made invisible^ thus spake: 
'Hear, all ye Angels, Progeny of Light, 

** a 

196 JOHN MILTON book v 

Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Viriues, Poivefs^ 

Hear my dccrccj which unrevoked shaU siand! 

This day I have begot whom I declare 

My onlv Son, and on ihii holy hill 

Him fiave anoinied, whom ye now behold 

At my riphl hand. Your head I him appoint, 

And by myself have sworn to him shall bow 

All knees in Heaven, and shall confess him Lord. 

Under his great vicegerent reign abide, 

United as ony iiidividLiai soul. 

For ever happy. Him ^vho disobeys 

i^ic disobeys, brt'^ks union, and* [hat day. 

Cast out from God and blessed vision, falls 

Into utter darkness^ deep ingulfed^ his place 

Ordained wiihouc redemption, without end.' 

*'So spake the Omnipotent, and with his words 
All seemed well pleased; all secmal, but wero not alL 
That day, as other sok-jiin days» they spent 
In son^i and dance abuut the sacred Hill — 
Mysiical dance, which yonder starry sphere 
Of planets and of fixed in all her wheels 
Resembles nearest; mazes intricate, 
Ecceniric, intt^rvolved, yet regular 
Then most when most irregular they seem; 
And in their modons harmony divine 
So smooths her charming tones thai; God's own ear 
Listens delighted. Evening now approacbi^d 
(For we have also our evening and our morn — 
We our^ tor change delectable, not need); 
Forthwith from dance to sweet repast they tuttl 
Desirous; all in circles as they stood. 
Tables are set, and on a sudden piled 
With Angels' food; and rubied nectar fiows 
In pearl, in diamond, and massy gold. 
Fruit of delicious vines, the growth of Heaven, 
On flowers reposed, and with fresh flowerets crowned, 
They eat, they drink, and in communion sweet 
Quaff immortality and joy, secure 
Of surfeit where full measure only bounds 
Excess, before the all-bounteous King, who showered 



W kh copious hand, rejoicing in iheir joy. 

Now ^vlle^ ambrosial Niglit, with clouds txhiiied 

From that hiyk mount of GoJ whence light and shade 

Spring both, jhc trice ot brigiiiest Heaven had changed 

To gr:ituful tuilighi (for Kight come:i not thi:re 

In darker veil), and roseate dews disposed 

Ah but the unsleeping eyes o£ CioJ Co re^t, 

Wida over all ihc plain, Jind wider hi 

Than all ihii jjIoIjou^ Earth in plain outspread 

(Such are the Courts o£ GoJ), the Angcli*: throng, 

Dispersed in liand? and files, ihcir camp extend 

By living stroams ^mang the trees of life — 

Pavilions num!ier!c$s anti sudden reared. 

Celestial tabernacles, where they slept, 

Fanned iviih cool M-inds; sa\c those who, in their course, 

Melodious hymn^ ahin]i the sovran Throne 

AUern^tte all night long. But not so waked 

SatLin — so call him now; his Eormer name 

Is heard no more in Mca^cn. Hf, of the first. 

If nor the first Archangel, great in power, 

In fa^'Our, and preeminence^ yet fraught 

With envy against the Son ot GoJ, that day 

Honoured by his j-reai Father, and proclaimed 

Messiahj King Anointed, could not bear, 

Through pride, that sight, and thought himself 

Deep malice thence conceiving and disdain, 
Soon as midnight brought on the dusky hour 
Frjendliesr to sleep and silence, he resolved 
With all his legions to dislodge, and Ica^''^ 
Umvorshiped, uiiolieyeJ, the Throne supreme, 
Contemptuous, and. his nest subordinate 
Awakeninj;, thus to him in secret spake: — ■ 

^"Slecp'st thoUj companion dear^ whiil sleep can 

Thy eyelidsi* and remembere^r what decree, 
Of yesterday, so late haih passed the lips 
Of Heaven*? Almighty? Thou to me ihy thoughts 
Wast i^'ont, I mine to thee was wont, to impart; 
Both waking we were one; hosv, then, can now 




Thy sleep disscm^ New taws thou sggsi imposed; 
New laws from him who reigns new minds may raise 
!n us who serve — new counsels, lo debate 
What doublful may tn^ue- More in ihis place 
To utter is not saten Assemble ihou 
Of all those myriads which we lead the chief; 
Tel! them iliat^ by commatidp ere yel dim Night 
Her shadowy cloud withdraws, I am to haste, 
And all who under me their banners wavc^ 
Homeward with flying m^Trch where we possess 
7h[? Quarters of the North, there to prepare 
Fit entertainment to receive our King, 
The greaE Messiah, and his new commands, 
Who speedily ihrough all the Hierarchies 
Intends to pass triumphant, and give laws/ 

*'So spake the false Archangel, and inftis^ed 
Bad influence into the unwary breast 
Of his assocfaEe- He together calls, 
Or several one by one, the regent Powers, 
Under him regent; tells, as he was taughtj 
TJiatj the Most High commanding^ now ere Night, 
Now ere dim Night had disincumbered Heaven, 
The great hieratchal standard was to move; 
Tells the suggested cause, and casts beiween 
Ambiguous words and jealousies, to sound 
Or taint integrity- But ail obeyed 
The wonted signal, and superior voice 
Of their great Potentate; for great indeed 
His name^ and high was his degree in Heaven: 
Plis countenance, as the morning-star that guides 
The starry flock, allured them, and with lies 
Drew after hini the thiid part of Heaven's host. 
Meanwhile, the Eternal Eye, whose sight discerns 
Abstrusest thoughts, from forth his holy Nfouni, 
And from within the golden Lamps ihai [mm 
Nijjhdy before himp saw without their lighi 
Rebellion rising— saw in whom, how spread 
Among ihe Sons of Morn^ what multitudes 
Were banded to oppose his high decree; 
And, smiUng, to his only Son thus said: — 


"'Son, thou m whom my glory I behold 
Tn full resplendence, Heir of all my mightj 
Nearlv it now concerns us to be 5isre 
Of our Omni pone nce^ and with what arms 
We mean to hold what anciendy we claim 
Of deiiy or empire; such a foe 
Is rising, who intends 10 erect his ihronc 
Equal to ours^ throughout the spacious North; 
Nor so content^ hath in his ihought to iry 
In baide what our power is or our right. 
Let U5 ^dvi^e* and to this hazard draw 
With speed what force is left, and all imploy 
In our defence, lest unawares we lose 
This our high pUce, our Sanctuary, our Hilh' 

''To whom the Son^ with calm aspect' and clear 
Lightening divine, ineiTahlc^ serene^ 
Mjidc answer :^'M]ghiy Fatherp diou thv foes 
Jusdy hast in deilsioup and secure 
Laugh*st at their vain designs and tumults vain— ^ 
Matter to me of glorj", whom thcfr hate 
IllustraieSj when ihey see all regai power 
Given me lo quell their pride, and in event 
Know whether I be dexirous to subdue 
Thv rebels, or be found the ^vorst in Heaven/ 

*'So spake the Son; but Satan with his Powers 
Far was advanced on winjjed s|}eed, an host 
Innumerable as the siars □( nighty 
Or stars of morning, dew-drops which the sun 
Impearls on every leaf and every flower- 
Regions they passed, the irtighty regencies 
Of Seraphim and Potentates and Thrones 
In their triple degrees — regions to which 
All ihy dominion, Adam^ is no more 
Than what this garden is to all the earth 
And all the sea, from one entire globose 
Streiched into longitude; which having passed. 
At Jengib into the limits of [he North 
They came, smd Saian to his royal seat 
High on a hill, far-blazing^ as a mount 
Raised on a mounts with pyramids and towers 

200 JOHN MILTON »odk v 

From dfamond quarries hewn and rocks of gold — 
The palace of great Lucifer (so call 
Thai $truc[urG, in the dlsTecl of men 
Interpreted) which, not lon^; aher, he, 
Alicciing alt equ:ilicy with God, 
In itniiatiDn o£ that n^ount whereon 
Mt^s$iiih uas declared in sighi of Heaven, 
The Mountain of the Conj;re^auon called j 
For thither he assembled all his train, 
Pretending so commanded to consult 
About [he great reception of their 
Thiiher lo come, and with calumnious art 
Of counterfeited irulh thus held [heir cars:— 
'' Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Viifues, 
If these magniiic titles yet remain 
Not merely titular, since by decree 
Another now hath to himself ingiossed 
All power, and us eclipied under the name 
Of King Anointed; for whom all this haste 
Of midnight march, and hurried meeting here. 
This only to consult, how we may best, 
^^'ilh what may he devised of honours new, 
Receive him coming to receive from us 
Knoe-iribuie yet unpaid^ prostration vile! 
Too much to onel but double how endured — 
To one and to his image now proclaimed? 
But what if better counsels might erect 
Our minds, and teach us to cast oil this yoke! 
Will ye submit your necks, and choose to bend 
The supple knee? Ye will notj if I trust 
To know ye right, or if ye know yourselves 
Natives and Sons of Heaven possessed before 
By none, and, if not equal all, yi^t tTce, 
Equally free; for orders and degrees 
Jar not wiih liberty, but well consist. 
Who can in reason, then, or right, assume 
Monarchy over such as live by right 
His equals — if In power and splendour less, 
Tn freedom equal? or can introduce 


Law and edict on us, who wlihout Uw 

Err not? much less for this lo be our Lord, 

And look, for jdor+icion^ to ihe abuse 

OE ihost imperial lilies which assert 

Our being ordained to govern, noE lo serve!^ 

"Thus far his bold discourse without control audience^ when, among the St^raphim, 
Abdiel, ihan whom none with more 7eal adored 
The Deity, and divine commands obeyed. 
Stood up, and in a flame of zeal severe 
The current of his fury thus opposed^ — 

" O arijumoni blasphe'moiis, false^ and proud — 
Word^ which no ear ever to hear in Heaven 
Expected; least of all from thee, ingratCj 
In pfiice [hyself so high above ihy peers! 
Can^[ [hou with impious obloquy condemn 
The just decree of Godt pronounced and ssvorn^ 
That to his only Son, by right endued 
Wiih regal sceptre, every soul in Heaven 
Shall bend the knee, and in ihas honour due 
Confess him righifu! King? Unjust^ thou say^st^ 
Fladv unjust, to bind wiih laws ihe free^ 
And equal over equals to let reign^ 
One over all with unsucceeded power! 
5hah ihou give Uw to God? shalt thou dispute 
With H[m the points of libertyp who made 
Thee what Thou art^ and formed the Powers of 

Such as he pleased, and circumscribed their being? 
Yei, by experience taught^ we know how goodp 
And of our good and of our dignity 
How provident, he is— ho^v far from thought 
To make us less; bent raihcr to exalt 
Our happy scate, under one Head more near 
United. But — to grant it thee unjust 
That et]ual over equals monarch reign — 
Thyself, though great and glorious, dost thou count, 
Or all angelic nature joined in onej 
Equal to himt begorten Son, hy whom. 
As by his Wordj the mighty Father made 

202 JOHN MILTON book v 

All thing?, even thee, and all the Spirits of Heaven 

By him created in iheir brigiu degrecsp 

Crowned them with glory, and to their glorv named 

Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms^ Virtues, P-^wersP— - 

Es^niial Powers; nor by his reign obscured. 

But more illustrious made; since he, the headj 

One of our number [bus reduced becomes; 

His laws our laws; all honour to him done 

Returns our own. Cease, then, this impious rage. 

And lempc not these; bui hasien to appeals 

The incensed Father and the incensed Son 

While pardon may be founds in cime besoughi/ 

"So spakt^ the fervenr Angel; but hii ^-cjI 
None secondt^i.1, as out ot season fudged, 
Or singular and rash. Whereat rejoiced 
The Aposiat, and, more haughty, thus replied: — 

"'That we were formed, then^ say'^i thou; and the 
Of secondary hands^ bv la^k transferred 
From Fadier to his Son^ Siranjie point and new! 
Doctrine which wc would know whence learned! Who 

When this creation was? Eemember^st thou 
Thy making, while the Maker gave thee beingp 
We know no time when we were not as now; 
Know none before us, self-begotj self-raised 
By our own quickening power when fatal course 
Had circled his full orb, the birth mature 
Of this our native Heaven, Ethereal Sons. 
Our puissance is our own; our own ri^jlu hand 
Shall leach U5 highest deeds^ by proof eo try 
Who is our equaL Then thou shaU behold 
Whether by supplication we intend 
Address, and to begin the Almighty Throne 
Beseeching or besieging- This report, 
These tidings, carry to the Anointed; 
And fly, ere evil intercept thy ftighcJ 

*^He said; and, as the sound of waters deep^ 
Hoarse murmur echoed to his words applause 
Through the infinite Host, Nor less for that 


The flaniirig Scrnpli, f carles s^ [hough alone, 
Encompassocl round \^ith foes^ thus answered hold:^ 

"""O alienate from God^ O Spirit accursed, 
Forsaken ci all good! J see thy fall 
Determined, and thy hapless crew involved 
Jn ihi^ perhdJDus [raud* coniajjion spread 
Both of thy crime and putiishmeni^ Hencofonh 
No more be troubled how to quit the yoke 
Of God's M^siah* Those indulgent laws 
Will not he now vouisafed; oiher decrees 
Agatnst thee are ^nc forth without recall; 
That yolJen sceptre which thou didst reject 
h now an iron fO<i to bruise and break 
Thy disobedience. Well ihoii didsi advi$t; 
Yet not for ihy advice or threats I Jly 
The^e wicked tents devoted, lest ihe wraurh 
Impendent, r^girig imo sudden HaniCj 
Distinguish not: for soon exj3<^cc to feel 
His thunder on thy head^ de^ouring hre, 
Then who created thee lamt^niinj^ learn 
When who can uncreate [hee ihou shah know/ 

"So spake the Seraph Abdicl, faiLhliil tound; 
Among the faithless faithful only he; 
Among innumerable false unmoved, 
Unshaken J unseduced, untcrriRcd, 
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal; 
Nor number nor e^iample wtib him wrought 
To swerve from truth, or change his constant mind, 
Though single. From amidst iheni forth he passed. 
Long way through hostile scorn^ which he sustained 
Superior, nor of violence feared aught; 
And with retorted scorn his back he turned 
On those proud towers^ to swift destruction doomed/' 



The Apc[:mcn-t.— Eaphaci coniinucs lo reljic hoiv Michnel and Gabriel were sen! 
forth Id baide jgiiLiisL Sniafi and hu An^eU- Tlic firi[ fiylii described: S^iian and hii 
Powers rtiirc undor ni^hu ITc catls i council; invenis rl(;vili,h qnfiiict. whkh. in 
jh<^ sctond day's H.yh^ jjui Mich:iet ,ind liii An^i-!'^ m ^nie ttisnrdfj-; but ihe>' at lengii^i 
;jii3linij up niDiint^Jn^, nvtnvliclnu'd bntli ihc furtc nnd jii;(L"hmes of Sai^n. Yet, tbe 
tuniulc nor 50 fiidmu, timl, on ihc thicti d.iyn kiiJi Me^&ijh lii^ Soil, tor whom h^^ 
had r(;s':rvcd ihc slow ol that vii:y>r\'. He, in the [wnvcr nl iiU FriEhern coniincr to the 
piact, and caii^inii :ill hi^ kuions 10 stand ^lill "n tiiher side, w-iili his cbaciul and 
l]|under driving; inl" the rnnUt ot lii^ erciniei, pursues llicm, unable to resist, toivafdl 
the wall lit Haven: whicli otKniny, rlicy leajj Joi^'ii with horror .'ad cunfa^inn inio 
rhe p\kq of inirLiihintiit prepared lor ihcin in ilie Deep. Messiah ri'Lunii with 
iriLimph to his FiitlliiE, 

"All night The Jre^dltss An^cl, un pursued, 
Through Heaven's wide clianipaiyn held his way* till 

Wisktd hy die circling Hours, wUh ro^y liand 
Unbjirrcd (he ^ate?^ of Light- There is a cave 
Within ihc Mount of God* Last by hi^ Throtie, 
Where l^ight and Darkness in per|h?tual round 
Lotlgt and dislodge by turns — which maLe5 throu^jh 

Grateful vicitsitudei like day and night; 
Light issues forth, and at the other door 
Obsequious Darkness enter?, till her hour 
To vcit the heaven^ though darkness Uicre might well 
Seem twilight here- And now went (orih the Morn 
Such as in highest heaven^ arrayed in jjold 
Empyreal; from before her vanished Nightj 
Shot through wlih orient beams; when all the piain 
Covered with ihick embatdcd squailruns bright, 
Chariots, and flaming aims, and fit^ry steeds, 
Reflctiinu blaxe on blaze^ Hrsl met hi? view. 
War he perceived, war in procinct, and foimd 
Already known whac he for news had thought 
To have reported. Gbdly then he mi>:ed 
Among those friendly Powers, who him received 
With joy and actlamaiions loud, that one. 
That of so many myriads fallen yet one. 
Returned not lost. On to the sacred Hill 
They led him, high applauded, and present 


Before the SOiii suprcmei from whence 3 voice, 
From midst a golden cloud, thus mild wss heard: — - 

"* Servant of God, well donef Well hjiL ihou fought 
The belter fighc, who single hast maintaineil 
Against revoUetl multitudes the cause 
Of truth, in word migliiier than they in arms, 
And for the tesiimony of truth hast l>orne 
Universal reproach, Lir wor^e to bear 
Than violeiicci for this was all thy care — 
To sunt! approved in sight of God, Lhous^li worlds 
Judge(l Lhee perverse. The easier cunquest now 
Eemains thee — aided by this ho$t of friends, 
Back on ihy foes more glorious to return 
Than scorned ihou didst depart- and to subdue, 
By force who reason for their law refu^^e — 
Rlghi reason for their law, and for ihcir King 
Messiah, ^vEio by right of merit reigns. 
Go, Michael, of celestial armies prince, 
And thou, in military prowess next, 
Gabripl; lead lorih to battle theso mv sons 
IfU'iticible; lead forth my armed Saints, 
By thousands and by millions ranged for fight, 
Equal in number to that godless crew 
Rebellious. Them with fire and hostile arms 
Fearless assault; and, to ihe brow of Heaven 
Pursuing, drive them out from God and bliss 
Into their place of punishmtnt, the gulf 
Of Tartarus, which ready opens wide 
His iiery chaos to receive their fall/ 

"So spake ihe Sovran Voice; and clouds began 
To darken all the Hill, and smoke to rowl 
In dusky wreaths reluctant flames, the sign 
Of wrauth aivaked; nor with less dread the loud 
Ethereal irum[iet from on high gan blow. 
Ac which command the Powers Militant 
Thai stood for Heaven, In mighty quadrate joined 
Of union irresistible, moved on 
In silence their bright legions to the sounil 
Of instrumental harmony, that breathed 
Heroic ardour 10 adventrous deeds 


Under iheir godiike leaders^ in ihe cause 

Of God and his Messiah, On ihey move^ 

Indis&olubly firm; nor obviou? Iiiil, 

Nor siraittning vaU, nor wood» nor sireanif divides 

Thtir pprfct ranks; for high above [he ground 

Their innrch wa^, and the passive air upbore 

Their nimble iread. As when the total kind 

Of birds, in orderly array on wing. 

Came snniiHoned over Eden to receive 

Their names of ihee^ so over many a tract 

Of Heaven they marched, and many a provinci^ wide, 

Tenfold the length of this terrene. At la^i 

Far in the hori^^on, Lo the north, appeared 

From skirt to skirt a fiery region, stretched 

In baiiailous aspect; and, nearer view, 

BrJsded with xij>rlght beams innumerable 

Of rigid spears, and helmets thronged, and shields 

Various, with boastful argument portrayed^ 

The banded Powers of Satan hasting on 

With furious expedition: for they weened 

That selfsame dayj by fight or by surprise, 

To win the Mount of God, and on his Throne 

To set the envier of his state, the proud 

Aspirer, But iheir thoughts proved fond and ^'a^n 

In the mid-way; though strange to us it seemed 

At first that An^l should with Angel war, 

And in fierce hosting meet* who wont to meet 

So oft in festivals of joy and love 

Unanimous, 35 sons of one great Sire, 

Hymning the Eternal Father. But the ihout 

Of baale now began, and rushing sound 

Of onset ended soon each milder thought. 

High in the midst» exalted as a God» 

The Apostat in his sun-bright chariot sat. 

Idol of majesty divine* enclosed 

With flaming Cherubim and golden shields; 

Then lighted from his gorgeous Throne — for now 

Twixt host and host but narrow space was left, 

A dreadful fntervjil, and front to front 

Presented stood, in terrible array 


Of h[deous length. Before the cloudy van^ 
On the rough edge ot batlli? ere it joined, 
SaiaHp with vast and haughty siridc^ advanced, 
Came tovvermg^^ armed in adamant and gold. 
AbdicJ that sight endured not, where he stood 
Aiiionp; ihe mightiest, bent on highest deeds, 
And dius his own xmdaiinted heart explores; — 

" 'O Heaven! that such resemhlance of the Highest 
Should yet remain, where faiih and reatly 
Remain notl Wherefore should not strength and might 
There fa[! where virtue fails, or weakest prove 

Where boldest, though to si^ht unconquerable? 
His puissance, irus[ing in the Almighty's aid^ 
I mean Co try, w^ho&e reason I have tried 
Unsound and false; nor is it aught but just 
That he who in debate of truth hath won 
Should win [n arms, in both disputes :\likc 
Victor* Though brutish that contest' and foul^ 
When reason haifi to deal with force, }ct so 
Mosc reason h that reason overcome/ 

^^So pondering, and from his armed peers 
Forth-stepping opposite^ half-way lie met 
His daring foe, at this prevention more 
Incensed, and thus securely him defied:— 

^^'Proud^ art thou met? Thy hope was to have 
The highih of thy aspiring unopposed^- 
The Throne of God unguarded, and his side 
Abandoned at the terror ot thy po^ver 
Or potent tongue- Kooll not to think how vain 
Against the Omnipotent to rise in amis; 
Who, out of smallest things, could withoui end 
Have raised incessiint armies to defeat 
Thy folly; or with sohtary hand, 
Keaching beyond all limit, at one blow. 
Unaided could have linished thee, and whelmed 
Thy legions under darkness! But thou seest 
All are not of thy train; there be who faith 
Prefer, and piecy to God, though then 
To ihee not visible wlien I alone 

208 JOHN MILTOW book vi 

Seemed in thy world erroneous to dissent 
From all: my Sect tliou sc^ii; nou' Uarn lOo lace 
How fe w sometimes may know when thousands err/ 

^vhom the grand t'o^^ with scornful eye a^kanc^ 
Thus answered: — '111 for thee, buc in wished hour 
Of my revengfij first sought for, [hou recurn'st 
Trom ftighi, seditious Angela to receive 
Thy merited reward^ the first assay 
Of [his right hand provoked, since first that tongue, 
Inspired with tonsradiction, durst oppose 
A third part of the Gods^ in synod met 
Tlieir deities to assert: who, while thoy fed 
Vigour divine within them, can allow 
Omnipotence to none. But wclJ thou com'st 
Before thy fellows, ambitious to ^vin 
From me some plume, tha[ thy success may show 
Destruction to the rest. This pause between 
(Unanswered lest thou boasi) to let thee know, — 
At first I thought that LIEieny and Heaven 
To heavenly souls had been all one; but iiu^v 
I see ihat most through sloth had raiher serve^ 
Ministering SpiritSj irained up in feast and song; 
Such hasL thou armed, the minsirelsy o£ heaven— 
Servihty with freedom to contend ^ 
As boih their deeds compared this day shall prove/ 

*T*o \^ [lom^ m brief> thus Abdiel stern replied: — 
'Apostat! still thou err^st^ nor end wilt find 
Of erring^ from the pa[Ei of truth remote^ 
Unjusdy ihou deprav'st it with the name 
Of serviiudc, to serve whom God ordains. 
Or Nature: God and Nature bid die same. 
When he who rules is wonhiesfj and excels 
Them whom he governs. This is servitude — 
To serve the unwise, or him who hath rebelled 
Against hi^ worthier^ as thtne no^s' serve thee, 
Thyself not free, but to thyself enthralled; 
Yet lewdly dar'st our ministering upbraid. 
Keign th ou in Hell, thy k ingdo m; let rne serve 
TnTTeaven^ o d~ever blestr3M ^isT)ivine" 
Behests obey, worthiest tobeoEeyeS, 


Yet chains in Hclt^ not rejitma, expect: meanwhile, 
From me return(?d, as erst tliou saidsc, from flii^hc. 
This grceiing on ihy impious cresC receive.' 

"So sayings 3 noble stroke he lifted high» 
Wliich hung noi» but £0 swjf: with TGinp05C fell 
On ilie piotid crest of Satan iliac no sight, 
Nor motion of swift ihoughi, less could his shield. 
Such ruin ini.erce|)t. Ten paces Iiuge 
He back recoilci,!; the tenih on bended knee 
His mas^y spear upsoycd: as if, on earth, 
Winds under ground » or waters forcing vi'ay, 
Sidelong had pushed a mountain from his seat, 
Half-sunk wiih all his pines. Amazemeni stized 
T}^e rebel Thrones^ but greater r-t^s, to see 
Thus foiled their migiuiest; ours )oy filled, and shou^ 
Presage of victory, and tierce desire 
Of battle: whereat Michael hid sound 
The Archangel trumpet. Through the vast of Heaven 
It sounded, and the faithful armies rung 
Hosannah to the Highest; nor stood al gaze 
The adverse lej?;iijns, nor less hideous joined 
The horrid shock. Now storming fury rcise^ 
And clamour such as heard in Heaven till now. 
Was never; arms on armour dashing brayed 
Horrible discord, and the madding wheels 
Of brazen chariots raged; dire was ihe noise 
Of conflict; overhead the dismal hiss 
Of iicry dans in flaming voEleys flew, 
And, flying, vaulted either host with fire. 
So under Hery cope together rushed 
Both battles main wiih ruinous assault 
And inextinguishable rage. Ail Heaven 
Resounded; and, had Earth been then, all Earth 
Had 10 her centre shook. What wonder, when 
Millions of fierce encountering Angels fought 
On either side, the least of whom could yield 
7?Lesc elements^ and arm him with the force 
Of all their regions? How much more of power 
Army against army numberless to raise 
Dreadful combustion warring^ and disturb, 


Though not dostToy, iheir happy native seat; 

Had Jioi the Eternal King Omnipotent 

From txls strong hold of Heaven Ki^h overruled 

And hniit^d ih<?ir mi^hr, though numbered such 

As each divided legion mighr have secmpti 

A numerous host^ in strength, each armtd hand 

A legion] Led in fight, yet leader seemed 

Each wjrrior single as in chief- e>:pert 

When Id advance, or stand, or turn Ehe sway 

Of battle, open when, and when to close 

Th<^ lidges ot' grim war. No thou'^ht of flight, 

None o£ retreat, no unbecoming deed 

That argued fear; each on Imnsclf relied 

As only in his arm the moment lay 

Of victory. Deeds at eternal tame 

Were <lone* but inJinite; for wide was spread 

That war, and various: sometimeE on iirm ground 

A standing fight; then* soaring on mum wing, 

Tormented all the air; all aif seemed then 

Conflictin:; lire. Long lime in even scale 

The battle hung; lill Satan, who that day 

Prodigious power had shown, and met in arms 

No equal, ranging through the dire attack 

Of hghting Seraphim contused, al length 

Saw where tlie sword oi Michael smoie, and felled 

Squadrons at once: with huye two-handed away 

Brandished aloft, the horrid edge came down 

Wide-wasiing. Such de^uuction to withstand 

He hasted, and opposed the rocky orb 

Of tenfold adamant, his ample shield, 

A vast circumference- At his approach 

The great Archangel from his warlike toil 

Surceased, add, glad, as hoping here to end 

Intestine war in Heaven, the Arch-foe subdued, 

Or captive dragged in chains, with hostile frown 

And visage all inBamed, firsC thus began: — 

■"Author of Evil, unknown till thy revolt, 
Unnamed in Heaven, now plenteous as thou seest 
The^e acts of hateful strifi^-haieful to all, 
Tbough Ijeaviest, by just measure, on thyself 


And rhy adh£?renis — how lust thou disturbed 

Heavens blessed pesce, and into Nalurc broui;ht 

Misery, uncrcaEcd til! the crime 

Of thy fcbelJionI how hast ihou instilled 

Thy malice into thousands^ once upright 

And faithful, now proved falsel But think not here 

To trouble holy rest; Heaven casts thee out 

From all lier confines; Heaven, the seat oE bliss. 

Brooks not the works of violence and war. 

Hence, then, and Evil go with thee a>ong, 

Thy offspring, to the place of Evil, Hell — 

Thou and thy wiekcd crew! there mingle broils! 

Ere [his avenging sword begin thy doom, 

Or some more suddi^n vengeance, winged from God, 

Precipitate thee with augmented pain/ 

"So spake the Prince of Angels; to whom thus 
The Adversary: — -'Nor think thou with wind 
Of airy threats to a^ue whom yet with deeds 
Tiiou canst not. Hast thou turned the least of these 
To night — or, if to fall, but that they rise 
Unranquished — easier to transact with me 
That diou ?^houldst hope, imperious, and vi'ith threats 
To chase me hence? Err not that so shall end 
The strife which thou call'st evil, but we style 
The strife of glory; which we mean to win, 
Or turn this Heaven iiselt into the Hell 
Tiiou falalest; here, however, to dwell free, 
If not to reign. Meanwhile, thy utmost force— ^ 
And join Him named Almighty to thy aid — 
J f3y not, but have sought tliee far and nigh.' 

"They ended parle* and both addressed for fight 
Unspeakable; for who, though with the tongue 
Of Angels, can relate, or lo what things 
Liken on earth conspicuous, that may hft 
Human imagination to such highth 
Of godlike power.^ for likest gods they seemed, 
Stood they or moved, in srature, motion, arms, 
Fit to decide the empire of great Heaven, 
Now waved their hery swords, and in the air 
Made horrid circles; two broad suns [heir shields 


Blazed opposite, wlule E^tpoctation stood 

ji] horror; from each hand with sp^ed retired. 

Where erst was thickcsc fight, the Afijjcljc throLigj 

And left large held, unsafe with the wind 

Of fiuth commotion: such as (to set forth 

Great things by small) if, Nature's contord broke, 

Among the constellations war were sprung, 

Two planets, rushing Irom aspect' malign 

Of fiercest opposition, in mi J sky 

Should combat, and their jarring spheres confound. 

Together both, with next to Almighty arm 

Uplifted imminent, one stroke ihty aimed 

That might determine, and not need repeat 

As not of power, at once; nor odds appeared 

In might or swift prevention. But the sword 

Of Michael from the armoury of GotI 

Was given him tempered so that neither keen 

Nor solid might resist that edge: it met 

The svvord of Satan, with steep force to smite 

Descending, and in half cut sheer; nor stayed. 

Bur, with swift wlieel reverse, deep entering, shared 

All his right side. Then Satan lirst knew pain, 

And writhed him to and fro convolved; so sore 

The griding s^i'ord with discontinuous wound 

Paiised through him. But the ethereal substance closed. 

Not long divisible; and froni the jjash 

A stream of nectarous humour issuing flowed 

Sanguin, such as celestial Spirits may bleed. 

And all his armour srained, erewhile so bright, 

Fordiwiih, on all sides, to his aid was run 

By Angels many and strong, viho interposed 

Defence,_arluk^ others bor ^ hiui_Q£Lth cir jhie ldg 

BacF'to his chariot where it stood retired 

Froni off the files of war: there they him laid 

Gnashing for anguish, and despite, and shame 

To find himself not matchless, and his pride 

Humbled by such rebuke, so far beneath 

His confidence to equal God in power. 

Yet soon he healed; for Spirits, that live throughout 

Vital in every part— not, as frail Man, 



In enirailsj hc:iri or hcad^ livcr or reins — 
Caniioi bul by annihilating die; 
Nor in (heir JiquiJ texLure morial \vound 
Receive, no more ihan can the fluid air; 
All htjft ihey live^ ail head, all eye^ all car^ 
All incellecij ail sense; and as they please 
They limb ihcmseKesT and colour, shape, or size 
Assume^ as likes ihcm best, condense or rare^ 

^'Meanwhilcj in oilier parts^ like deeds doscrved 
Memorial^ uhere ihe might ot Gabriel lought, 
And with fierce ensigns pierced the deep array 
Qt NioJoch, furious king^ who him defied^ 
And at hi5 charioc-uheels lo cJra^ him hound 
Threatened, nor from ihe Holy One oi Heaven 
Refretned hts tongue blasphemous, but anon, 
Down cloven to the waist, wich shaii^rcd arms 
AnJ uncouih pain HeJ Ivllowing^. On each \v](ig 
Uriel and Raphael his taunting foe, 
Though hujjG anJ in a rock of diamond armodp 
Vanquished — Adramelech and Asmadai, 
Two potent Tbrone^j that to be less than Gods 
Disdained, but meaner thoughts learned in their flighl. 
Mangled wiih ghastly wounds through plale and maiL 
Nor stood unmlndlul Abdiel [o annov 
The atheist crew, buE wiih redoubled blow 
Ariel, and Arioch, and the violence 
Of RamieL scorched and Washed, overthrew, 
I might relaie ot thousands^ and their names 
Eternize here on Earth: but those elect 
AngeU, conienEed wiih iheir fame in Heaven, 
Seek not the praise of men: the other sort, 
In might though wondrous and in acTS ot war^ 
Nor of re[io^vn less eager, yef by doom 
Cancelled from Heaven and sacred memory^ 
Nameless in dark oblivion let them dwell 
For strength from truth divided* and l^rom jusij 
lllaudable, nought merits but dispraise 
And ignominy, yet to glory aspires, 
Vain-gEorious^and through infamy seeks fame: 
Therefore eternal silence be their dooml 

214 JOHN MILTON book vl 

"And now, their miehiiesc quelled, ihe batile swerved. 
With many an inroad gored; deformed rout 
Entered^ and foul disorder; all the ground 
With shivered armour strown, ajid on a heap 
Chariot and charioter lay overturned^ 
And fiery foaming steeds; what stood recoiled, 
Oer- wearied* ihrough the faint Satanic ho^i, 
Defensive scarce, or with pale fear surprised — 
Then first with fear surprised and sense of pain — 
Fled ii^nominiousT to stich evil brought 
By sin of disobedience, till that bout 
Not liable to fear, or (light, or pain. 
Far otherwise the inviolable Saints 
In cubic phalanx firm advanced entire, 
Invulnerable, impenetrably armed; 
Such high advantages their innocence 
Gave ihcm above their foes — not to have sinned^ 
Not to have disobeyed; in fight they stood 
Unwearied, unobnoxious to be pained 
By wound, tijough from their place by violence moved, 

"Now Nijihl her course began, and, over Heaven 
Inducing darkness, grateful truce imposed, 
And iitencc on the odious din of war. 
Under her cloudy covert both retired, 
Victor and Vanquished. On the foughten field 
Michael and his Angeh. prevalent 
Encamping, placed in guard their watches round. 
Cherubic waving hres: on the other part, 
Satan with his rebellious disappeared. 
Far in the dark dislodged, and, void of rest, 
His Potentates to council called by nijiht. 
And in the midai thus undismayed began: — 

" 'O now in danjjer tried, now known in arms 
Not to be overpowered, companions dear, 
Found worthy not of liberty alone — ■ 
Too mean pretence — but, what we more adectj 
Honour, dominion, glory and renown; 
Who have sustained one day in doubtful light 
(And, if one day, why not eternal dayir) 
What Heaven*s Lord had powerfullest to send 



Against us from aljout his Throne^ and judged 

Sulncicnt 10 subdue us lo his wilU 

iJut provti not so: then fallible, ii seems, 

Of fuiure wo may deem him, ihou^h till now 

Omniscient ihouijlu! True is, less firmly armed. 

Some di^advanliiyc; we endured, and pain — ■ 

Till now not known^ but^ known, as $Qon conitnined; 

Sinct now we find ihis our empyreal form 

Incapable oi moru^ in[ury, 

Imperishable, :ind, though pierced wiih wound, 

Soon closing, and by native vigour healed. 

Of evil, then, so small as easy ihink 

The remcily: jx^rhaps more valid arm?, 

Weapons more violent, when ncxi we meet, 

May serve to hotter us and worse our foes, 

Or eqtial U'h;u befvecn us made ihe odd*. 

In nature none. If other hidden cause 

Left them suptrior, while we can preserve 

Unhurt our minds, and undi;istanding liound. 

Due seare[i antl consultation \i'il| disclose,' 

"He sat; and in the assembly next upstood 
Nisroch, of Principalities the prime. 
As one he stood escaped from c:iuel fijjhc 
Sore toiled^ his riven arms to havoc hewn, 
And. cloudy in jsptct', thus answering spake:— 

"'Deliverer (rom new Lords, leader Eo free 
Enjoyment of our right as Ciods! yei hard 
For Gods, and too unttjuat work, we iind 
Against unequal arms to light in pain, 
As^ainst unpaincd, impassive; from which evil 
Knin must needs ensue- For what avails 
Valour or strength, though matchless, queUed with pairj. 
Which all subdues, and makes remiss die hands 
Of mightiest.'' Sense of pleasure we may well 
S]>are out of life perhaps, and not repine. 
But live content — which is the calmest life; 
But pain is perfect misery^ the worst 
Of evils, and, excessive, overturns 
All patience. He who, therefore, can invent 
With what more forcible we may offend 

2l6 JOHN MILTON book vi 

Our yet unwounded enemies, or arm 
Ourselves with like defence, to me deserve? 
No less than for deliverance what we owe/ 

*'WherGto^ with look composed, Sa^an replied: — 
'Noc uninvented ihac» which thou aright 
Believ*st so main to our success, I bring. 
"Which of us who beholds die bright surface' 
Of thia cthcreous mould whereon we siand^ 
This coniinenE of spacious Heaven, adorned 
With pfanr, fruit, flower ambrosial^ gems and gold — 
Whose eye so superficially surveys 
These thJEigs a? not la mind front whence they grow 
Deep under ground: materiaU dark and crude* 
Of spiritous and fiery spume, till, touched 
W[[h Hea^'en's ray, and tempered, they shoot forLh 
So beauteouSj opening to the ambient light? 
These in their dark nativity (he Deep 
Shall yield us, pregnant with infernal Bame; 
Whith, into hollow engines long and round 
Thick-rammed, at the other bore with touch of fire 
Dilated and infuriate, shall send forih 
From far, with thundering noise, amonjj our focs 
Such implements of mischief as shall dash 
To pieces and o'erwhelm whatever stands 
Adverse, tfiat they shalE fear we have disarmed 
The Thunderer of his only dreaded bolt. 
Nor long shall be nur labour; yet ere dawn 
Effect shall end our wish. Meanwhile revive; 
Abandon fear; to strength and counsel jointid 
Think nothing hard, much less to be despaired. 

'^He ended; and his words their drooping cheer 
Enlightened, and their languished hope revived. 
The invention all admired, and each how he 
To be the inventor missed; so easy it seemed, 
Once found, which yet unfound most would have thought 
Impossible! Yet, haply, of diy race. 
In future days, if malice should abound, 
Some one, intent on mischief, or inspired 
With devilish machination, might devise 
Like instrument to plague the sons of men 



For siHj on war and mutual slaughter bent. 

Forihwith from council lo the work they flew; 

None arguing sioad; innumerable hands 

Were leady; in a moment up they turned 

Wide the celestial soil, and saw beneath 

The originals of Nature in their crude 

Conception; sulphurous and nitrous foam 

They founds they mingled, snds with subtle art 

Conc(>cted and adusied^ ihey reduced 

To blackest grain^ and inio store convcved. 

Part hidden veins digged up (nor hath thts Earth 

Entrails unlike) of mineral and itonCp 

Wheieot lo found their engines and their balls 

Of missive ruin; part incentive reed 

Provide, pernicious with one touch to Jire, 

So all ere day-spring, under conscious Nighlj 

Secret they finished, and in order se^ 

With Silent circuEiisSpcciionp unespied. 

''Nov\^ when fair Morn orient in Heaven appealed, 
Up rose the victor Angels, and to arm? 
The matin irumpet sung* In arms they stood 
Of golden panoply, refulgent host^ 
Soon banded; others from the dawning hills 
Looked round, and scouts each coast Ught-armed scour. 
Each quarter, to descry the distant foe. 
Where lodged, or whither Bed, or if for fighij 
In motion or in halt. Him soon they met 
Under sprend ensigns moving nigh, in slow 
But HvrcL battalion: back with speediest sail 
Zophiel, of Cherubim the swiftest wing^ 
Came fiying, and jn mid air aloud thus cried: — 

" 'Arm^ Warriors, arm for fight! The foe at hand, 
Whom fEed we ihoughtj will save us long ptjrsuit 
This day; fear not his flight; so thick a cloud 
He comeSj and settled in his face I see 
Sad resoltJtion and secure. Let each 
His adamantine coar gird well, and each 
Fit well his helm, gripe fast his orbed shield, 
Borne even or high; for this day will pour down, 
If I conjeLture aught> no drizzling ^howcr^ 



But rairling storm o£ arrows barbed wiih fire,* 
"So warned he them, aware themselves, and soon 

In order» quit of all impodimenc. 

Instant, without disturb, (hey took alarm, 

And onward move embattled: whi^n, behold, 

Not distant far, with heavy p^ce the Foe 

Approaching gross and huge, in hollow cube 

Training his devilish enginry, ini paled 

On every side with shadowing squadrons deep. 

To hide the fraud. Ac interview both stood 

A while; but suddenly at head appeared 

Satan, and thus was heard coiniiianding loud: — 
" 'Vanguard, to righi and lefi the from unfold, 

That all may see who hate us how we seek 

Peace and composure, and with open breast 

Stand ready to receive them, if they like 

Our overture, and turn not back perverse; 

Hut that I doubt. However, witness Heaven! 

Heaven, witness thou anoni while we discharge 

Freely our part. Ye, who appointed stand. 

Do as you have in charge, and briefly touch 

What we propound, and loud [hat all may hear.* 
"So scollinjj in ambijruous words, be scarce 

Had ended, when to right and left the front 

Divided, and to either Hank retired; 

Which to our eyes discovered, new and strange, 

A triple mounted row at pillars laid 

On wheels (for like to pillars most they seemed* 

Or hollowed bodies made of oak or Hr, 

With branches lopt, in wood or mountain felied)^ 

Brass, iron, stony mould, had not Uieir mouihs 

With hideous orifice gaped on us wjde^ 
Portending hollow truce. At each, behind, 

A Seraph stood, and in his hand a reed 

Stood waving ripE with fire; while we, suspense, 

Collected siood wiihin our thoughts amused. 

Not long! for sudden all at once their reeds 

Put forth, and lo a narrow vent applied 

With nicest touch. Immediate in a flame, 

Bm soon obscured with smoke, all Heaven appeared, 



From ihose deep-Lhro^ited engines belched, whose roar 

Embo^vclled wilh outrageous noise the air. 

And 3II her eniraiEs tore, disgorgins^ foul 

Their devilish glut, chained thunderbolts and hall 

Of iron globes; which, ofi the Victor Host 

Levelled, with such impetuous fury smotep 

That whom they hit none on their feet mii^hl stand. 

Though standing else as rocks^ but down they feU 

I5y [hou5andip Angel on Archangel rowled^ 

The sooner for their arms. UnarmeJ, lliey might 

Have easily, as Spirits, evaded iwiTt 

By quick contraction or remove; but no^v 

Foul dissipation followed, and forced rout; 

Nor served ii to relax dicir serried files. 

What should they do? If on they rmhed, repulse 

Repeated, and indecent overchro^v 

Doubled, \vouJd render them yc[ more t-lesplsed. 

And 10 their foes a laughter — for in view 

Stood ranked of Seraphim another row, 

In posture to displode their second lire 

0£ thunder; back defeated to return 

They ^vorse abhorred* Satan beheld their plight. 

And to his mates thus in derision called: — 

" 'O friends, why come not on tlicse viciors proud* 
Hrewliile they fierte were coming; antl, when \vej 
To en[eriain ihem fair \vith open front 
And breast (what could we more r)^ propounded terms 
Of composition, straighc they changed their mind^, 
Flew ofT, and into strange vagaries fell^ 
As they would dance. Yet for a dance they deemed 
Somewhat extravagant and wild; perhaps 
For joy of offered peace. But I suppose, 
If our proposals once again were heard, 
We should compel them to a quick result/ 

"To whom thus BeliaJ, in like gamesome mood; 
^Leader, the terms we sent were terms of weight. 
Of hard contents, and fulj of force urged home, 
Such as we might perceive amused them all^ 
And stumbled many. Who receives them right 
Had need from head to foot well understand; 


220 J^^HN MILTON book vi 

Not L]ndE:rsiGodf this gift they have besides — 
They shew us when oui foes walk not upright." 
"So they among themselves in pleasant vein 
Stood scolTing^ highthcncd In thoir thoughts heyond 
All doubc of victory; Eternal Might 
To match with their inventions they presumed 
So easy, and of his thunder made a scorn, 
And all his host derided, while they stood 
A while in trouble. But they stood not long; 
Rage prompted them at length, and found them arms 
Against such helHsh mischief fit to oppose. 
Forthwith (behold the excellence, flie pow'er, 
Which God hath in his mighty Angels placed') 
Their arms away they threw, and to the hills 
(For Earth hath this variety from Heaven 
Of pleasure situate in hill and dale) 
Light as [he lightnfng-glimpse they ran, they flew; 
From their Eound^tioni, loosening to and fro, 
They plucked the seated hills, with all their load, 
Rocks, ivatcrs, woods, and, by the shaggy lops 
Uplifting, bore them in [heir hands. Amaze, 
Be sure, and terror, seized the rebel Host, 
When coming towards them so dread they saw 
The bottom of the mountains upward turned, 
Till on those cursed engines' triple row 
They saw them whelmed, and all their confidence 
Under the weight of mountains buried deep; 
Themselves invaded next, and on th^ir heads 
Main promontories flung, which in the air 
Came shadowing, and oppressed whole legions armed. 
Their armour helped their h:5rm.. crushed in and 

Into their substance pent — which wrought them pain 
Implacablej and many a dolorous groan. 
Long struggling underneath, ere they could wind 
Out of such prison, though Spirits of purest light. 
Purest at first, now gross by sinning grown. 
The rest, in imitation, to hke arms 
Betook them, and the neighbouring hills uptorej 
So hills amid the air encountered hills. 


Huried to and fro with pnuLation diie, 

I'hat undtiground ihey fought in dismal shade: 

Infernal noi^e! war seemed a civil game 

To ihis uproar; horrid confusion heaped 

Upon confusion rose- And now all Heaven 

Had j^^one lo wrack, with ruin overspread. 

Had not ihe Almighty Faiher, where he sits 

Shrined in his sanctuary nf Hejiven set-urc, 

Consulting on the sum of ihings^ foreseen 

This tumult, and permitted alK advised^ 

That iiis yrcat purpost he might so fullil, 

To honour his Anointed Son, avenged 

LTpon his enemies, and to declare 

All power on him transferrcj. Whence to his Son, 

The assessor of his Throne, he thus Iwgan; — 

" ^Effulgence of my ^lory^ Son beloved. 
Son in whose face invisible is beheld 
Visibly, what by Deity I am. 
And in whose h:ind "hat by decree 1 do, 
Second Omnipotence! two days are passed, 
Two days, as we compute ihe days of Heaven, 
Since Miciiael and his Powers went forth lo tame 
These disobedient. Sore hath been their light, 
As likeliest was when iwo such foes met atmed; 
For lo iliemsehes I left ihcm; and ihou know*st 
£<|ual in [heir creation ihey were formed^ 
Save what sin hath impaired — which vec hath wrought 
Insensibly, for I suspend iheir doom: 
Whence in perpetual fight they needs must last 
EndlesSj and no solution wiU be found. 
War wearied hath performed wha[ war can do. 
And to disordered rage let loose the reins, 
With mountains, a^ with weapons, armed; which 

Wild work iii Heaven, and dangerous to the main. 
Two days are, therefore, passed; the third is thine: 
For thee I have ordained it, and thus far 
Have suffered^ ihat the glory may be thine 
Of ending this great war, since none hut ihou 
Can end [L Into thee such virtue and grace 


Immense ! have tran^fused^ that all may know 
In Heaven and Hell Lhy power above compare, 
And (his j>ervecse commotion governed thus, 
To manifest thee worthiest to be Heir 
01: aW things — to be Heir, and lo be King 
By hacked unction, ihy dewrved r'ijbt- 
Co, then, ihou Mightiest, in thy Fjither's might; 
Aaeend my chariot; guide the rapid ivhee]^ 
Tliat shake Heaven^s basis; brlnj; forth, all my war; 
My bow and thunder, my Almighty arms, 
Gird on. and sword upon thy puissant ihii^h; 
Pursue these Sons ot Darkness* drive iliom out 
From ;ill Heaven s bounds into the utter Deep; 
There let them learn> as likes them, to despise 
God, and Messiah his anointed King/ 

"He said, and on his Son with rays direct 
Shon fill!. He aU his Father full expressed 
JnclTably into his face received; 
And thus the Godhead answering spake^^ 

*"0 Father. O Supreme o[ Heavenly Thrones, 
First. Highest. Holiest, Best, thou always seek st 
To gloriEy thy Son; I always thee, 
As is most just. I'his I my glory account, 
My exaltation, and my whole delight. 
That ihou in mc, well pleased, decUt'st thy will 
Fulfilled, which to lolhl is all my bliss. 
Sceptre and power, thy giving, I assume, 
And gladlier shall resign when in the end 
Thou shalt be ail in ^11. and [ in thee 
For ever, and in me all ^vhom thou lov'st. 
But whom thou hat^st I hate, and can put on 
Thy terrors, as I put thy miklness on. 
Image oi ihee in ,ill things: and shall soon. 
Armed with thy might, rid Heaven of these rebelled, 
To their prepared ill mansion driven down, 
To chains of darkness and the undying Worm, 
That from thy just obedience could revolt. 
Whom to obey is happiness entire. 
Then shall thy Saints, unmixed, and from the impure 

Far separate, circling thy holy Mount, 


Unfeigned halleluiiihs in ihec sing. 

Hymns of high priiise, and 1 aciionc ihem cKjef.' 

"So said, He, o'er his sceprre bowing, rose 
From the right hand of Glory where He 5at; 
And the thitd sAcred morn l>e^an to shine. 
Dawning ihiough Heaven. l*onh ruiiheil wiih y-Wid- 

U'ind sound 
Tfie chariot ot' Pa[i?rna1 Deity, 

Flashing thick flames, wheel wixhin wheel- undraivn, 
Itself insiinci with spirit, but convoyed 
By four cherubic Shapes. Four faces i^acii 
Had wondrous; as with stars, iheir bodies ;U! 
And wings were set wiih eyes; with eyes the wheels 
Of beryl, and careering (ires between; 
Over their heads a crysEal firmament, 
WhuTCDii a sapphire throne, inlaid with pure 
Amber and colours of the showery arch. 
He* in celesiial panoply all armed 
Of radiant Urim, voik divinely wrought, 
Ascended; at his right hand Victory 
Sat eagle-winged; beside him hnng hi^ bow, 
And quiver, with ihiee-buded thunder stored; 
And frorn alxiut hini fierce eflj&ion rowled 
Of smoke and bickering flame and sparkles dire, 
AcLended with ten thousand thousand Saints, 
He onward came; far off his coming shon; 
And iwi^niy thousand (I iheir number beard) 
CharioES of Gml, half on each hand, were seen. 
He on the wings of Cherub rode sublime 
On the cr^'siallin iky. in saphir throned — - 
Illustrious far and wide, bu[ by iiis own 
Ffrsi ^een. Them unexpected jov surprised 
When the great ensign of Messiah blazed 
Aloft, by Angels borne* hi? Sign in Heaven; 
Under whose conduct Michael soon reduced 
Hrs army, clrcumlused on either wing. 
Under their Head embodied all in one. 
Before him Power Divine his way prepared; 
At his command the uprooted hills retired 
Each to his place; they heard his voice, and went 

224 JOHM MTLTON book vi 

Obsequious; Heaven his wonted face renewed^ 
And wjih fresh flowerets hill and valley ^mikd. 

*^Thi& sa^v his hapless foes, but stood obdured, 
And to rebellious light rallied their Powers^ 
Insensate, hope conceiving from despair. 
In Heavenly Spirits could such pcrvcrsenew dwell? 
BuE to convince the proud what ai^ns avail. 
Or wonders move the obdurate to relentp 
They, hardened more by what might most reclaim, 
Grieving lo see Wi5 glory, at the sight 
Took envy* s.nd. aspiring to his highih, 
Stood re-imbattled tierce, by force or fraud 
Weening lo prosper^ and ai leiiglh prevail 
Against God and Messiah, or to fall 
In universal ruin last; and now 
To final h;ii[lc drew, dli^daining flight. 
Or faint retreat: when the great Son of God 
To all his host on either hand thus spake: — 

" 'Si and still in bright array, ye Saints; here stand, 
Ye Angels armed; this day from batde rest. 
Faithful hath been your warfare, and of God 
Accepted, fearless in his righteous cau^e- 
And, as ye have received, so biive ye done, 
Invincibly- But of this cursed crew 
The punishment to other hand belongs; 
V'engeance is his, or whose He sole appoints. 
Number to ihi^ day's work is not ordained. 
Nor multitude: stand only and liehold 
God's in<li^nation on these godless poured 
By me. Not you, bul me, they have despised. 
Yet envied; against me is all their rage, 
Because the Father, to whom in Heaven supreme 
Ktn;idom and power and glory apperiains, 
H.uh honoured me, according to his will. 
Therefore to me their doom he hath assigned, 
That they may have tfieir wish, to try wiih me 
!n battle which the stronger proves— they all, 
Or I alone against them; since by strength 
They measure all, of other encellence 
Not emulous^ nor care who them excels; 



Nor oiher strife with them do I vouisafc* 

"So s|>ake ihe Son, and into terror i:fianged 
Hi$ counicn^ncc, too severe to be beheld. 
And full of wrauih bent on his enemies. 
At once the Ft>ur spread out their starry wings 
Wi[!i dreadful ^had^j contiguous, and the orbs 
Of hj^ fierce charioi rowled* as with the sound 
Of [orrcnt flood?, or of a numerous ho$[. 
He on his impious foes rij-ht onward drove. 
Gloomy as Night. Under his burning wheels 
The steadfast Empyrean shook [hrou^hout, 
All but the Throne itself of God, Full soon 
Among them he arrived, in his right hand 
Grasping ten thousand thunders^ which he sent 
Before him, such as in iheir souls infixed 
Plagues- They, astonished, all resistance lost, 
All courage; down [heir idle weapons drci|ii; 
O er shields, and he[ms, and hdmi^d head? he rode 
Of Thrones and mighty Seraphim prostrate'. 
That wished the mountains now might be again 
Thrown on ihcm, as a shelter from his ire. 
Nor less on either side tempestuous fell 
His arrowy, from the fourfold-visaged Four, 
Distinct with eyes, and from the living wheels, 
Distinct alike wiih multitude of eyes; 
One spiril in them ruled, and every eye 
Glaied lightnings and shot forth pernicious fire 
Among the accursed, that withered ah their strength, 
And of their wonted vigour left them drained, 
Exiiauited, spiritless, afflfcled, fallen, 
Yei half his strength he put not forth, but chocked 
His thunder in mid-volley; for he meant 
Kot to destroy, but root them out of Heaven. 
The overthrown he raised, and, as a herd 
Of goats or timorous Jlack together ihronged, 
Drove them before him thunderstruck, pursued 
With terrors and whh furies to the bounds 
And crystal wall of Heaven; which, opening wide, 
Rowled inward, and a spacious gap disclosed 
Into the wasteful Deep. The monstrous sight 

:326 JOHN MILTON book V! 

Strook [hem n-hh horror biickward; but far worse 
Urged them Ewhind: headlong themsetves they ihrew 
Down from the verge of Heaven; eiernal ivraiich 
Burnt after them to the bottomless pit. 

"Hell heard the unsuLTprable noise; Hell saw 
Heaven ruining from Heaven, iind would have fled 
AlfrighteJ; but strict Fate had cast too deep 
Her dark Eoundailons^ and too fast had bound. 
Nine days ihcy felt; confounded Chaos roared, 
And felt tenfo[d confusion in their fall , 

Tlirough his wild Anarchy; so huge a rout 
Incumbered him with ruin. Hdl nt last. 
Yawning, received them whole, and on them closed — 
Hell, their Br habitation, fraught with fire 
Unquench.Tble* ihe house of woe and pain. 
Disburdened Meaven rejoiced, and soon repaired 
Her mural breach, returniiiji whence it ro\^led. 
Sole victor, from the expulsion of his foes 
Messiah his iiiumphal chariot turned. 
To meet him all his Saints, who silent stood 
Eye-wiinesses of His Ahiiighty acts, 
With jubilee advanced; and, as they went, 
Shaded with branching palm, each order bright 
Sung triumph, and him sung victorious Ring, 
Son, Heir, and Lord* to him dominion given. 
Worthiest to refs-n. He celebrated rode 
Triumphant ttiiough mid Heaven, into [ho courts 
And temple of his mighty Father thronerJ 
On high; who into glory him received, 
Where now he sits at the right hand of blis?. 

"Thus measuring things in Heaven by things on 
At ihy request, and that thou may'st beware 
By what is past» to thee J have revealed 
What might have else to human race been hid^ 
The discord which befell, and war in Heaven 
Among the Angelic Powers, and the deep fall 
Of those loo high aspiring who rebelled 
With Satan: he who envies now thy state;, 
Who now is plotting how he may seduce 


Thee also from obedience, thai, with him 

Bereaved oE happinea$, thou may'^t partake 

His punishment, eternal niiiery; 

Which would be all his sokcc anJ revenge, 

As a despite done against ihc Moit High, 

Thcc once to gain companion of his woe. 

But listen noi to his lempliTtions; warn 

Thy weaker; let it profit thee to have heard. 

By terrible example, the reward 

Ot di£obed]ent:e. Firm ihey mf^ht h;U'e stood, 

Yet fell. Remember, and Eear lo transgress." 


The AnttMi-N'T. — Ra[>liacJ, Jt the request of Ad^m, iclairn \i<t\v and u'hcrefore 
ihia World »js rini cr^^jit'd: — rlim Cod. afier ihc r:i|H^I]in^ nf 5^i;in and his An^jcFt 

mil of Hc^vi-n. deciarpjl his pli::i?urc &i cipaiir another World, ajid mhvr crencmx^ (j) 
divoU ihcrt'in; ^cnilz h'n Son wilh f:\itry. iind ^ifi'iiiiaJKc ni Ajfgcls, to periatnt the 
work lit cn^arinn in ii*; da>a: ihe AnyeJ? fdthraie wilh hj-mo^ the perform iini:i' diorrot, 
itn6 hh rcastcnslDn tato Heave;], 

Descend l^rom Heaven^ Urania, by that name 

If righdy ihou arl called, whose voice divine 

Following, above [he Olympian hill I soar, 

Above [he flight of Pega^ean wingf 

The meaning, not the name. I call; for thou 

Nor of the Muses nine, nor on the top 

Of oSd Olympus dwell'si; but, heavenly-born. 

Before the hills appeared or fountain flowed, 

Thou wi^h Eternal Wjsdom didst converse, 

Wisdom thy sister, and with her didsi play 

In presence ot the Almighty Father, pleased 

With Uiy celestial song. Up led by thee, 

Into the Heaven of Heavens I have presumed. 

An earthly guest, and drawn empyreal air. 

Thy tempering. With like safety guided down, 

Return me to my native element; 

Lest, from this flying sieed unreined (as once 

Bellerophon, though from a lower clime) 

Dismounted, on the Alcian field I fall, 

Erroneous there to wander and forlorn. 

Half yet remains unsung, but narrower bound 


Within ihe visible Diurnal Sphere- 
Standing on E:irtti, not rapt above the pole, 
More safe I sing u'iih mortal voicc^ unchanged 
To ho3tse ox mute, though fallen on evil days^ 
On evil Jays though tallen, and evil longues^ 
In darkncsSp and with dangers compassed round. 
And 5ohtudo; yet not. alone, while ihou 
Visii'st my slumbers nightly, or when Morn 
Purples the East- Still govern thou my song, 
Urania, and lit audience Rnd, though few. 
Rut drive ^ar oH ih<i barbarous dissonance 
Of Bacchus and his revellers, the race 
Of ilmr wild rout that tore the Thracian B;frd 
In Rho^hipe, where woods and roL:ks had cars 
To rapture, ull the savage clamour drou'ticd 
Both harp and voice; nor could ihe Must* dt:fend 
Her son* So tai[ not thou who thee implores; 
For thou art hi^avenly, she an einpty drcan^- 
Say, Goddess, what ensued when Raphai.1, 
The ail^ablc Archangel, had forewarned 
Adanij by dire example, to beware 
Apostasy, by xvhat befell in Heaven 
To those apostates, lest the hke befall 
In Paradise to Adam or bl.-i race^ 
Charged nol to touch the interdicted Tree, 
IF they transgress, and slight thai sole command j 
So easily obeyed amid the choice 
Of all lastes else to please their appeiite^ 
Thotigh wandtriny;. He, with his consorted Eve, 
The story heard allentive, and was tilled 
Wiih adrniration and deep muse^ to hear 
Of things so high and strange — things to their thought 
So unimaginable as hale in Heaven, 
And war so near the peace of God in bhsSj 
Wiih such confusion; hut the evil, soon 
Driven back^ redounded as a flood on [hose 
From whom it sprung^ impossible to mix 
With blessedness* Whence Adam soon repealed 
The doubts that in his heart arose- and, now 
Led oHj yet sinless, with desire to know 



Wfi.ic nearer miijhc concern him — kow this World 
Of heaven and earih conspicuous first be^jin; 
\\'^hen, and whereof^ created; for what cauaci 
WhaE wiihm Edcn^ or wiihoutt wa$ done 
Before his memory — as one whose drouth. 
Yd scarce allayed, still eyes the current streanij 
Whose liquid murmur heard now thirst exciteSj 
Proceeded thus to ask his Heavenly Guest: — 

'*Gr<;aC ihingSj and full of wonder in our ears^ 
Far differing from ihis World, thou hast revealeiT, 
Divine Inierprcterl by favour senc 
Down from the Empyrt^an to forewarn 
Us timely of what might else have been our loss. 
Unknown, which human knowledge couid noL leach; 
For which to die infinitely Gt^od we owe 
Immoria! ihiink^j and hj$ admonishment 
Receive ^^^iLh solemn purpose to observe 
Immutably his sovran weH, the end 
Gi what we arc BuLj smce thou hasi voutsafed 
Gently, for our insiructEon, lo impart 
Things abo^e Earthly thought^ whtch yet concerned 
Our knowing, as to highest Wisdom seemed^ 
Dcfgn to descend now lo^ver^ and relate 
What may no less perhaps avail us known^ 
How first began this Heaven which we behold 
Distant so high^ with moving fire? adorned 
Innumerable; and [his which yields or fills 
All space, the ambient Air^ wide interfused^ 
Imbracing round this florid Earth; what cause 
\fo\ed the Crealor, in his holy rest 
Through all eiernity^ so late to build 
Id. Chaos; andp the work begun^ how soon 
Absolved: if unforbid ihc^u may'st unfold 
What we not Lo explore the secrets ask 
Of his eternal empire, but the more 
To magnify his works [he more ^vc know. 
And Lhe great Light of Day yet wants to run 
Much of his race, though steep. Suspense in heaven 
Held by thy voice, thy potent \c^icG he hears 
And longer will delay^ to hear thee tell 

230 7^^^^ MILTON BOOK VII 

Hi 4 generation, and the rising birth 

Of Nature from the unappareni Deep: 

Or, if the Star of Evening and the Moon 

Hiiste to thy audience. Night with her will hring 

Silence, and Sleep listening to ihec will waltb; 

Or we can bid hii absence till ihy song 

End, and dismiss thee ere the morning shine." 

Thu^ Adam his iilustrious guest bc^sought- 
And thus the godhke Angel answered mild:^ 

"This also thy request, with caution a^ked, 
Obtain; though to recount Almighty works 
What ivords or tongue of Sernph can suflice, 
Or hear! of man sufltce to comprehend? 
Yet what thou cann auain, which best may serve 
To glorify the Maker, and infer 
Thee also happier, shall not be withheld 
Thy hearing. Such commission from above 
I have received, to answer thy desire 
Of knowledge within bountis; beyond absiain 
To ask, nor let thine own inventions hope 
Things not revealed, which the invisible King, 
Only Omniscient, hath suppressed in niijhi, 
To none communicable in Earth or Heaven, 
Enough is left besides to search and know; 
But Knowledge Is as food, and needs no less 
Her temperance over appetite, lo know 
In measure what the mind may well contain; 
Oppiesses else with surfeit, and soon turns 
Wisdom to folly, as nourishment to wind- 

"Know then thai, after Lucifer from Heaven 
fSo call him^ brighter once amidst the host 
Ot Angels than that star the scars among) 
Fell with his flaming Legions through ihe Deep 
Into his place, and the great Son returned 
Victorious with his Saints, the Omniputent 
Eternal Father from his Throne beheld 
Their multitude, and to his Son thus spake: — 

" 'At least our envious foe liadi failed, who thought 
All like himself rebellious; by whose aid 
This inaccessible high strength, the seat 


Of Deity supreme^ us dispos-^s^ed, 
He [rustetl eo have scizecij and inlio fraud 
Drew many ^vhom their place knows here no more- 
Yei iir ihe greater part have kept, I seo^ 
Their sraiion; Heaven, yet populous* retain? 
Numher sufficient to possess her realms. 
Though witle^ and this high temple to trequcnC 
With ministeries due and solemn riie^n 
BuE, lest his heart exalt hi«x in the harm 
Already done, lo have dispeopled Heaven — 
My damage fondly deemed^I can repair 
That detriment, if such it be to lose 
Self-lost, and in a moment will create 
Another world; out oi one man a race 
Ot men innumerable^ ihtre eo dwell, 
Not hetCs tillj by degrees of merit raised^ 
They open to themselves at lenj^th the way 
Up hither, under long obedience tried. 
And Earlh be changed to Heaven^ and Heaven lo Earth, 
One kingdom^ joy and union without end^ 
Meanwhile inhabit lax, ye Powers of Hen^tn; 
And thou, my Wordj begotten Son^ by thee 
This I perform; speak thou, and be it dane! 
My overshadowing Spirit and might with thee 
I send along; ride forth, and bid the Deep 
Within appoinied bounds be heaven and earth- 
Boundless the Deept because I am who iUl 
Infinitude; nor vacuous ihe space, 
Though I J uncircumscribedj myself retire^ 
And put not forth my goodness, which is free 
To act oc not. Necessity and Chance 
Approach not me^ and what I will is Fate-* 

^'So ^pake the Almighty; and to what he spake 
His Wordj ihe FiUal Godhead, gave eflt^ct^ 
Immediate are the acts of Godp more swift 
I'han lime or raotion^ hut to human ears 
Cannot without process' of speech be told^ 
So toid as earthly notion can receive- 
Great triumph and rejoicing was in Heaven 
When such ^vas heard declared the Almighty^s wilL 

232 JOHN MILTON book \u 

Glory they sung to the Most High, good\\'i]l 
To future men, and in their dwelMngs pesce — 
Gtory to Him whose just avenjjing ire 
Had driven out the ungodly from his sight 
And the habitations of the just; to Him 
Glory and praise whose wisdom had ordained 
Good out of evil 10 create — instead 
Of Spirits malign, a better Race to bring 
Into their vacant room, and ibence dii^usc 
Hii good to worlds and ages infinite. 

"So sang the Hierarchies, Meanwhile the Son 
On his great expedition now appeared. 
Girt with omnipotence, with radiance crowned 
Of majesty divine, sapience and love 
Immense^ and all bis Father in him shon. 
About his chariot numberless were poured 
Cherub and Seraph, Potentates and Thrones^ 
And Virtues, winged Spirits, and chariots winged 
From [he armoury of God, where stand of old 
Myriads, between two brazen mountains lodged 
Against a sokmn day, harnessed ai hand, 
Celestial equipage; and now came forth 
Spontaneous, for within ihcm Spirit lived, 
Attendant on their Lord- Heaven opened wide 
Her ever-during gates, harmonious sound 
On golden hinj^es moving, to let forth 
The King of Glory, in his powerful Word 
And Spirit coming to create new worlds. 
C)n Heavenly ground they stood, and from the shore 
They viewed the vast immeasurable Abyss, 
Outrageous as a sea, dark« wasteful, wild, 
Up from the bottom turned by furious winds 
And surging waves, as mountains to assault 
Heaven's highth, and wirh the centre mix the pole- 

" 'Silence, ye troubleii waves, and, thou Deep* peace!' 
Said then the omnific Word: 'your discord end!' 
Nor stayed; but, on the wings of Cherubim 
Uplifted, in paternal glory rode 
Far into Chaos and the World unborn; 
For Chaos heard hif voice. Him all his train 

Eooiivji PARADISE LOST 233 

Followed in bright proce^ionj 10 behold 
CreaLiorii and [he wonders of his might. 
Then suyed the fe^^'id wheels^ and in his hand 
He Look the golden compasses^ prepared 
In God^s eternal sEore, to cirtrumscribe 
This Universpj and all creaied ihfngs* 
One foot he cenired^ and rhe other turned 
Round through ihe vast profundity obscure. 
And said, 'Thus far extend, thu; far thy bounds- 
ThJs be ihy juit circumference^ O World!' 
Thus God the Heaven created, thus the Earthy 
Matter unformed and void. Darkness pr<ifound 
Covered the Abyss; but on the watery calm 
His brooding wings ihe Spirit of God outspread, 
And vital virtue infused, and vital warmth^ 
Throughout ihe fluid ma&5j but downward purged 
The black, lanareous, cold, infernal dreg% 
Adverse to hfe; then foundt:d^ then conglobed, 
Like ihings to like, the rest to several place 
Disparted, and between spun out die Air, 
And Earth, self-balanced, an her centre hung, 

" l^t dicre be Light!' said God; and forthwith Light 
Ethereal, first ot ihings^ quintessence ptiie, 
Sprung from the Dwp, and from her native East 
To journey through the aery gloom bt^jjan. 
Sphered in a radiant cloud— for yet the Sun 
Was not; she in a doudy tabernacle 
Sojourned the whiles, God saw the Light was goodj 
And hj^hi from darkness by ihe heinisphere 
Divided: Light [he Dsiy, and Darkness Night, 
He named. Thus was the first Day even and morn; 
Nor passed uncelebrated, nor unsung 
By the celestial quires^ when orien[ light 
Exhaling first from darkness they beheld^ 
Birthday of Heaven and Earth. Wiih joy and shout 
1 he hollow universal orb they filled. 
And touched iheir golden harps, and hymncn^ praised 
God and his vs/orks" Creator him they sung^ 
Both when first evening was, and when first morn, 

^'Again God said, 'Let there be firmamenE 


Amici (he \iaters^ and kt in cIlvlcIc 

The waters from the waters!' And God made 

Tlic firmament, expnnsi^ of liquid^ pure^ 

Transpart^ntt elemental airj Uirfused 

In circuiE to the uttermost convex 

Of lKi5 great round — partition tirm and sucGy 

The waters underneath from those above 

Dividing; for as Earth, so hj> the World 

Built on circumfluous waiers calm, in wide 

Crystallin ocean, and the loud misrule 

Of Chaos far removed, lest fiGri:e extremes 

Contiguous might distemper the whole fr;uTic: 

And Heaven he named the Firmatnent. So even 

And morning chorus sung the second Day. 

**The Earih was Eormedt buCi in the womb as yet 
Of v/aters, embryon immaiure. involved, 
Appeared noi; over all the face of Earth 
Main ocean llowed, ncji idle, but, with warm 
Prolific humour snftening all her globe. 
Fermented the great Mother to conceSve^ 
Satiate with genial moisFure; when God ^Tidi 
*iSe gathered no\v, ye waters under heaven, 
Into otic place, and let dry lanJ app^arT 
Immediately the mountains hu^e apfiear 
Emergent, and tht^lr brr^ad bare backs uplieave 
Inro ihe dnud^; iheir [ops ascend ihe sky- 
So high as heaved the tumid hills, so low 
Down sunk a hollow boiioni broad and deep^ 
Capacious bed of waters. Thither they 
Hasted wllh glad precipiiance, uprowlcd. 
As drops on dust conglobing^ from the dry; 
Part rise in crystal wallj or ridge direcEj 
For haste; such flight the great command impressed 
On the switi floods. As armies at the call 
Of trunipet (for of armies thou hasE heard) 
Troop 10 iheir standard, so ihe watery throng. 
Wave rowling afrer wave, where v^ay chey faund — 
If steep, with torrent rapture^ if through plain. 
Soft-ebbing; nor withstood them rock or hill; 
But they, or underground^ or circuit wide 



With serpent error wandering, found iheir ^^'ay. 

And on [he washy ooze dtep channc?!? wore; 

Easy» tro G<jd had hid iht ^TOiitid he drVh 

All bin wiihin those banks wheie rivers now 

StrcflLij, and perpeiual draw their humid iraiHr 

The dry land EarUi. nnd ikc great rcccpiaclc 

Of CtJnj;r['];aled waters he called Seas; 

And sjw that ic was yood, and ^iiiiJ. 'Let die Earth 

Put forth the verdant gra^s, herb yielding seed, 

And fruit'irce yielding fruit afltr her kind» 

M^hose seed i^ in herself upon the Earthi' 

He scarce had said when the bare HarEb, till ihen 

De:^ert and bare> un^ighily. unadorned, 

Brought lorth the tender grass, wliosc verdure clad 

Her universal face with plea^'ant preen; 

Then herbs of every icat. that sudden fiowcred, 

Opening their various colours, and made gay 

Her liosom, smelling sweet; aniiy ll'fese scarce blown, 

Eorih flourished thick the clustering vine, forth crept 

The smelling gouid, up stood the corny reed 

Imhatded in her Md: add the humble shrub, 

And bush with fri/.;'lcd hair implicit: last 

Rose, as in <fance, the sLitely trees, and spread 

Their branches hung with copious fruit, or gemmed 

Their blossoms. With high woods the hills were cro^^ned, 

With lufis the valleys and each fountam-side, 

With borders long the rivers, that Ejirth now 

Seemed like to Hea^e^, a seat where gods might dwcU, 

Or wander with delight, and love to haunt 

Her sacred shades; though God had yet not rained 

Upon the Earth, and man to till the t-round 

None \V3S, hut from the Earth a dewy mist 

Went up and watered all the ground, and each 

Plant of the field, which ere it wa$ in the Earth 

God made, and every herb before it grew 

On the green stem, GotJ saw that it was good; 

So even and morn recorded the third Day. 

"A^ain the Almighty spake, Xel there be Lights 
High in the expanse of Heavc:n. to divide 
The Day from Nigb^; and let them be for signs, 



For seasons, and fyr days, and circling yearSi 

And lei ll^em be for lights, ^s I ordain 

Their office in the firmament of heavt^n* 

To give J[gh( on the Earihr and it was sn. 

And God mnde two great Lights, great for th&ir use 

To Man, the greater to have rule hy day. 

The le&s by night, akernor; and made the Stars, 

And set them in the firmament of heaven 

To illuminate the Earth, and rule the day 

In their vios^tiudc, and rule the night. 

And hght from darkness to divide. God saw. 

Surveying his great work, that i[ was good: 

For, of celestial bodies, first the Sun 

A mighty sphere he framed, unlightsome first. 

ThouE^h of ethereal mould; then formed the Moon 

Globose^ and every magnitude of Slars^ 

And sowed wiih siars the heaven thick as a ficldn 

0£ light by far the Eirearer part he took. 

Transplanted from her cloudy shrine^ and placed 

In the Sun's orb, made porous to receive 

And drink the liquid hght^ firm to retain 

Her gathered beams, great palace now of Ughtn 

Hither, as to iheir founiain, other itars 

Repairing^ in their golden urns draw light. 

And hence the morning planet gilds her horns: 

By tincture or reflection they augment 

Their small peculiar, though^ from human sight 

So far remote, with diminuticn seen^ 

First in his east the glorious lamp was scen^ 

Regent of dny^ and all the horizon round 

invested with bright fayjit joconj to run 

His longitude through heaven's high-road; ihe giey 

Dawn, and the Pleiades, before him danced. 

Shedding sweet inHucnce, Less bright the Moon^ 

But opposite in levelled west^ ^vas set, 

Hi^ mirror, with full face borrowing her light 

From him; for olher light she needed none 

In that aspect, and still that distance keeps 

Till night; then in the ^nsl her turn she shines. 

Revolved on heaven's great axle^ and her reii^n 


With Ehon^anfl lessor Jighls divijual ho3ds, 
With thousand thousand siars, [hat then apiwaretl 
Span<;;hng the hemisphere. Then lirsE adorned 
Widi her brijjht luminaries^ ihat set and roic^ 
Glad evening nind ^Ud morn crowned the fourth Day* 

"And Cod said, 'Lei the waters ^en*?rai[^ 
Repttle with spawn abundant, living soul; 
And let Fo^^'l \]v abovt die earth, ^viih wtngs 
Dispbvt^d on the ojxrn firmameni oE Hcavenf 
And God created the ;;reai Whales, arid each 
Soul living, cctch thai crept^ which plenteously 
The waters generated by their kinds, 
And every bird of wing aEcer his kind^ 
And saw ihat n was i^ood, and blessed diem, saying, 
^Bt= fruitfulp mnUiply, and, in the seas, 
And lakcs^ and running Sircams, ihc waters fill; 
And It-t the fowl be muhiplicd on the earthT 
FurdiwiLh [he sounds and seas, each crL^k and bay, 
Wuh fry innumoraUc si^'iirm, and shoals 
Of fish diatj wiih Lheir fins and shining scales. 
Glide under the green wave in seiills thai oft 
Bank ihe tnid-sea. ParEp single or wiih mate, 
Gra/e the sea-weed, their pasture^ 5nd through groves 
Of coral stray* or, 5|X3ri]ng widi tjujck glance, 
Shew to the sun their wa\ed coats dropi with goid, 
Or, in lheir pearly sheds at ea^e, attend 
Mui^t nutriment, or under rocks dieir foud 
In jointed armour watth; on smooih (he seal 
And bended dolphins play; part, huge of bulk, 
Wallow! nj; unwieldy, enormous in their gaiip 
Tempest the ot:can- There Ijfviatlian, 
HugesL of living creatures* on [he deep 
Streiched like a promontory, sleeps or -swimij 
And seems a moving land^ and at his gilts 
Draws in^ and sit his trunk spouts ouEj a sea- 
Meanwhile the tepid eaves, and fens^ and shores. 
Their brooU as numerous hatch from the egg^ that soon^ 
Bursting with kindly rupture, forth disclosed 
Their callow young; but feathered soon and Hedge 
They summed lheir pens, and, soaring ihe air sublimcj 

238 JOHN MILTON hook vi 

With cUng despised the ground^ under a clouJ 

In prospect, Thert^ the (^agit anJ t(ie siork 

On cliffs and cedtff-Loj;s iheir eyries build. 

Pyrt loosely wing ihe Region; pan, more wisCj 

in common^ ranged in (ignre, wedge iheir way, 

Inidligeni of ieastjns, and set torlh 

Their aerie caravan, high over seas 

Flyings and over l^nds, with, jnuinal iving 

Easing ihcir Ilighi; so sleers ihe pruJ<sni crane 

Ht^f annual voyage, borne on winds: the air 

FJoais ai tliey pns^, fanned wiih unnuinbered plumes^ 

From branch to branch tfie smalltr bltds wlih song; 

Solac:Gd [he woods^ and sprt-ad their painieJ Hnig^^ 

Till even; nor ihen tbe solemn nightingal 

Ceased warbling^ but all night tuned her 50ft lays- 

Othersj on silver lakes and rivers^ bathed 

Their downy breasc; the swan, with arched neck 

Between her white wingi maniling proudly, rows 

Hor state wirh oary Icei; yet od they i^uic 

The dankf and, rising on stiff pcnnon^^ lower 

The mid aerial sky. Others on ground 

Walked firm — the crested cock^ whoso clarion sounds 

The siient hours^ and the Qther, whose gay train 

Adorns hinip coioured with the fiorid hue 

Of rainbows and siarry eyes* The waters thus 

With Fish replenished^ and the air with Fowl, 

Evening and morn solemnized ihe lifth Day, 

"^The sjxth> and of Creation fast^ arose 
With evening hnrps and matin; when God said, 
'Let the ILanh bring forih soul lining in her kind, 
Cattle, and creeping things, and bea^t of the earth, 
Each in their kind!' The Earth obeyed^ iind, straight 
Opening iier fertii womb^ leemed at a birth 
Jnnnmeroui living creatures, perfet forms, 
Limbed and fult-^^rawn* Out of the ground up rose, 
As from his lair^ the wild beast, ^^hece he wons 
Jn forest wild^ in thicket^ brake, or den — 
Among the trees in pairs they rose^ they walked; 
The cattle Jn the fields and meadows green; 
Those rare and solitary, these in flocks 

Bookvil PAHADISE LOST 239 

Paslurrng at or.ce and in broad hyrds, upsprtm^. 

The grassy clods now calved; now half appeared 

The tawny Lion, paiving to gcc free 

His hinder parts — then springs, a;* broke from bond^, 

And ranipanc ihukes his brinded mane: the Ounce, 

Tht; Libbard, and the Tiger, as this Mok 

Rising, the crurnbled earth above thoni threw 

In hllfocka; rhe swifc Stag ftoni underground 

Bore up his branching head; scarce from bii mould 

Behemoth, biggest born of earili, uitheaved 

His vastncss; Jlceccd ihe Hocks and bleating rose. 

As plants; ambiguous between sea and land, 

The Rivirr-Jiori!? jnd scaly Crocodile, 

Ax ones came forth ^vha[e\cr creeps the ground, 

In5ecf or worm. Those waved their limber fans 

For wings, and smallest lineaments exact 

In all the liveries decked of summer's prlJe, 

With s|Tots of goM and purple, a^^ure and green; 

These as a line their long dimension drew, 

Slreyking the ground vvith sinuous trace: not all 

Minims of nature; some of serpent kind, 

Wondrous in length and corpulenctn involved 

Their snaky Eolds, and added wings, Tir^t crept 

The parsimonious Emmet, provident 

Of future, in small room hrge heart enclosed — ■ 

Pattern of just equality perhaps 

Hereafter — joined in her popular tribes 

Of commonalty. Swarming next appeared 

The female Bee, that feeds her husband drone 

Deliciously, and builds bet waxen cells 

With honey siored. The rest are nuniberless^ 

And thou their natures know'st, and gav'&i them names 

Needless 10 thee repeated; nor unknown 

The Serpent^ subdest beast of all the ficld^ 

Of huge extent sometimes, with brazen eyes 

And hairy mane terrific, though to thee 

Not noxious, but obedient at thy call. 

"Now Huaven in all her glory shon, and rowled 
Her motions, as ihe great First Mover's hand 
First wheeled their course; Earth, in her rich attire 

240 JOHN MILTON eooK vn 

Consummate, lovdy smikiJ; Air, Water, Earth, 

By fowl, fish, bcj&t, was Hown, was &^^'um, was walked 

Frequent; and of the sixth Day yet remained. 

There wanted yet the master-work, the end 

Of ail yet done — a creature ivho, not jiroue 

And brute as other creatures, but etidui^d 

Wiih sanctity of reason, might erect 

His stature, and, upright uith from serene 

Govern the rest, selE-kno^vlug, and from thence 

Mai^nanimous to correspond with I leaven. 

But gratt'fut to acknowledge whence his good 

Descends thither wiih hc.irt, and voice, and eyes 

Directed in devotion, Lo atlore 

And worship God Supreme, who made him thkf 

Q]: ali liis works. Therefore the Omnipotent 

Erern;il Father (for where is not He 

Present?) thus lo hi^ Son audibly spake:^ 

*Let us inake now Man in our imj^ge, M^n 

In our simili[ude> and let them rule 

Over the fi^h and fowl of sea and air, 

Beast of the field, and over all the earth, 

And every creeping thing that creeps the ground!* 

This said, he formed thee, Adam, thee, O Man, 

Dust of the j^round, and in thy no^tril^ breathed 

The breath of life; in his own image he 

Created thee, in the ima^e of God 

Express, and thou bccam'si a living Soul. 

Male he created thee, but thy consort' 

Female, for race' then blessed mankind, and said, 

^Be fruitful, multiply, and li[l the Earth; 

Subdue it, and throughout duminion hold 

Over fi^h of the sea and fowl of the air, 

And every living thing that moves on the Earth!' 

Wherever thus created — for no place 

Is yet distinct by name— thence, as thou know st. 

He brought thee into this delicious grove, 

Thi^ Garden, planted with the trees of God, 

Delectable both to behold and taste, 

And freely all their pleasant fruit for food 

CJave thee. All sorts are here that all the earth yields, 


Variety without onJ; but of (he tree 

Which tasted work^ knowfedgci of good and evil 

Thou may 'si noi: in the day thou cat si, ihou diest. 

Death is ihc pcnahy ijnpci:it;d; beware, 

And govern well thy appeEiic, test Sin 

Surprise ihec, and heT Mack atitndant, Deaih. 

"Here finished lie, and all that he had made 
Viewed, and behold! all \va^ entirely f'ood. 
So even and morn accnniplishcd the sixth Day; 
Yet not tilt the CreiTtor, from his work 
Desisting, thougli unwearied, up rcTurned, 
Lp to [he He,fven of Heavens, his hij^h abode, 
Thence to behold this new-created World, 
The ,iddiiion o£ his empire, ho^v it shewed 
[ji prospect from his Throne, how good, h<i\v fair, 
Answering his great Idea. Up he rode, 
Folfowed with acclarnaiion, and the sound 
Symphonious of ten thousand harps, that luntd 
Angelic harnjonles. The Earth, the Air 
Resounded (tliou lemcmber'st, for ihou heard'st), 
The heavens and all ihe constollaiious rung, 
Tfie pbnets in their stations H^rening stood, 
While the bright pomp ascended jubilanL. 
'Open, ye everlasting gatosT they sung; 
'0[Tcn* ye Heavens, your living doors! let in 
The ^recit Creator, from his work returned 
Magnificent, his six days' work, a World! 
Open, and henceforth oft; fur God will deign 
To ^isit oft the dwellings oi just men 
Delighted, and with frequent intercourse 
Thither will send his winged messengers 
On errands of supernal grace.' So sung 
The glorious train ascending. He through Heaven, 
That opened wide her blazing porials, led 
To God's eternal house direct the way — 
A broad and ample road, whose du&i is gold, 
And pavement stars, as stars to thee appear 
Seen in the Galaxy, that milky way 
Which nightly as a circling zone thou seest 
Powdered with stars. And now on Eanh the seventh 

242 JOHN MILTON book vu 

Evening arose in Eden — lor ihe sun 

Was stty and twilight from ihe east camp on, 

Foremniiing nighL — when at the holy moEitil 

Of Hcavtn's high-seated top, the iniperini] throne 

Of Godhcatt, fixed foi ever firm and sure. 

The Filial Power arrived^ and $at Kim down 

With his jjreai: Father; tor He al$o went 

Invisible, yel stayed (such privilege 

Hath Omnipresence) anJ the work ordained. 

Author and end ot^ all things, and from work 

Now resting, blessed and hallowed the seventh Day, 

As resting on that day from all his work; 

But not in silence holy kept: the harp 

Had work, and rested not; the solemn pipe 

And dulcimer, all organs of sweet 5top> 

All sounds on fret by string or gotdcn wire. 

Tempered soft tunings, intermixed with voice 

Choral or unison; of incense clouds, 

Ffiming from golden censers, hid the Mount. 

Creation and the Six Days' acts they sung:— 

'Great are thy works, Jehovah! infinite 

Thy power! what thought can measure thee, or tongue 

Relate thee — greater now in [hy return 

Than from the Giant-angels? Thee that day 

Thy thunders magnified; but to create 

Is j^reatcr than created to destroy. 

Who can impair thee, mighty King, or bound 

Thy empire? Easily the proud attempt 

Of Spirits apostat, and their counsels vain» 

Thou hast repelled, while impiously th?y thnught 

Thee to diminish, and from thee withdraw 

The number of thy worshipers. Who seeks 

To lessen thee, against his purpose, serves 

To manifest the more thy might; his evil 

Thou usest, and from thence creat'st more good. 

Witness this new-made World, anodier Heaven 

From Heaven-gate not fjr, founded in view 

On the clear hyalin, the glassy sea; 

Of amphtude almost immense, with stars 

Numerous^ and every star perhaps a world 


"^^ "'" P.UtADlSE LOST 243 

Of destined habiistion — but thou know'st 

Their seasons; among these [iie seaE of men, 

Earthy with her nciher ocean circumfused, 

Their pleasant dwelling-ptace. Thrice Kappy men. 

And sons of men, whom God hath thus advanced, 

Creaietl in his image, there to dwell 

And worship him, and in reward to rule 

Over his works, on earlh* in sea, or air, 

And multiply a race of worshij>ers 

Holy and jus[! thrice liappy, if they know 

Their happiness, and persevere uprij-hi!' 

"So sung they, and the Empyrean rung 
With halleluiahs- Thus was Sahhath kept. 
And thy request think now fulfilled thai asked 
How first I his World and face of things began, 
And what before thy memory was done 
From the beginning, ihal posterity, 
Informed by thee, might know. If else ihou seek'st 
Aught, not surpassing human measure, say." 


Thk ApcL-MESTr — Adam jnc|uircs contrrning cokaHj] moiions; k dnubdully jn- 
sw.ered, and r*:horKd to search r:iiher ihings ninrc worthy cf kncivlwlfri^ Adam 
jL^^^Di^. 2fid. iU]\ de^ifouj (0 dciain Rj;>Ii^], relate 10 hiin whai he reii.<;i.,hcied lincc 
li]^ avn tceaiiEin— bi& jjlatinj; in I'jrrinllst; his wfk with God i:niictrnmfi aulitude jnfi 
fii ^wicry; hk hizi mceaae jnd nupti^U with Hvp. Hii discourse ivnh ihu Angel 
[|]creuj>on: who. after .idiiTonidonf icpcatal, dcparii. 

The Angel ended, and in Adam's ear 
So charming teh his voice that he a while 
Thought him still speakinj;, itill stood Hxcd to hear; 
Then, as new-waked, thu5 gratefully replied: — 
"What thanks sufficient, or what recompense 
Equal, have I to render thee, divine 
Hisiorijn, who thus largely hast allayed 
The thirst I had of knowledge, and vouisafcd 
This friendly condescension to relate 
Things else by me unsearchable — now heard 
With wonder, but delight, and, as is due, 
With ylory attributed to the high 
Creator? Something yet of doubt remains, 


Which only ihy solution can resolve- 
When I behold tills jjoodly frame, ihi^ World, 
Of Heaven and Earth consisting, and compute 
Their magnitudes— ihis EaiLh, a spot, a gTain, 
An atom, ^v ilK ibe Finiiatntni compared 
And all her numbered ^Urs, lb;i[ seem to rowl 
Sfiaces incomprehensible (for such 
Tiieir disiance argues, and their swift return 
Diurnal) merely to officiate light 
Round this opacous Eardi. this punctual spot. 
One day and nighi, in all their va^t survey 
Useless bciiidci — reasoning, I oft admire 
How Nature, wiac and frugal, could commit 
Such disproportions^ with 5U|>orfluous hand 
So ntany nobler bodies to create, 
Clreater so manifold, to this one usc^ 
For aught appears, and on rheir Orbs impose 
Such rt'Stlesi resolution day by day 
Repeated, whiEc the sedentary Earth, 
That better might with far less compass move. 
Served by more noble iliari herself, attains 
Her end without least motran, and receives. 
As tribute, snch a sumless journey brouL^ht 
or incorporeal speed her warmth and li^bt; 
Speed, to describe whose swiftness number fails." 

So spake our Sire, and by his countenance seemed 
Entering on slUilioua thoughts abstruse; which Eve 
Perceiving, ivhere. she sal retired in sight, 
With lowliness majestic from her aeaii 
And j-race that won who saw to wish her stay, 
Rose, and went forch among her fruits and flowers, 
To viiit how they prospered, bud and bloom, 
Her nursery; they at her cominj; sprung. 
And, touched by her fair tendance, jjiadlier grew. 
Yet went she not as not with such discourse 
Delighted, or not capable her ear 
Of what yjsi high. Such pleasure she rcscrvetl, 
Adam relating, she sole audiiress; 
Her husband ihc relater she preferred 
Before the Angel, and of him to ask 

BOOK vni 



Chose rather; he, ^flc knew, would inEcrimx 

Graiefti! tligrcs^ionSj anJ solve high dispute 

With confU^^l caresses: from his lip 

Not worcfs alone pleased her. Oh. when meei now 

Such pairs, in love iind nniiual honour joined? 

With iioddeaS'like demeanour forth she went, 

Not uiLfltTi,'nded; for on hei ^i Queon 

A pomp of winnini; Giifccs wailed still, 

And from about htr shot darts of desire 

Into all tyts, 10 ivish her siill in sii^ht. 

And R;iphncl now lo Adam's doubi proposed 

Benevolent and facile thus replied: — 

**To ask or search I blame ihec noi; for Heaven 
Is as tin; Ro<)k of God before thee sec, 
Wherein to read bis wondrous works, and learn 
His seasons* hours, or days, or months, or years. 
This to allain^ whether Heaven move or Earih 
Imports not, if thou reckon right; the rest 
From Man or Angel the great Architect 
Did wisely to conceal, and not divulj-e 
His secrets, to be scanned by diein ivtio ought 
Rather admire. Or, if they list to try 
Conjecture, he his fabric of the Heavens 
Hath lefi 10 ihcir disputes — perhaps to move 
His laughter at their quaint opinions wide 
Hereafter, when ihey come to model Heaven, 
And calculate die stars; how they will wield 
The mighty frame; how build, unbuild, contrive 
To save appearances; hnw gird the Sphere 
With Centric and Eccentric scribbled o'er, 
Cycle and Epicycle, orb in orb- 
Alreadv by thy reasoning this I guess. 
Who art to lead ihy oiTspring, and supposest 
That bodies bright and greater should not serve 
The less not bright^ nor Heaven such journeys run, 
Earth sitting still, when she alone receives 
The benefit. Consider, first, that great 
Or bright infers not excellence. The Hyrth, 
Thoiij;h, in comparison of Heaven, so small, 
Nor glistering, may of solid good contain 

246 JOHN MILTON book viv 

More plcnly than ihe Sun that barren shines* 

Whose virtue on itself works no eiTeci* 

But in the fruittul Earth; there first receivi?d. 

His beams, unactivc clsc^ their vigour find. 

Yet not to H^rth are those bright Iviminarios 

Officious, but to thee. Earth's habitant. 

And, for ihc Heaven's wide circuity let it spsak 

The Maker's high magnificence^ who builr 

So ^pacjou^, and his line stretched out so far, 

That Man may know he dwells not in his own— 

An edifice too larjje for him to till, 

Lodged ui a small paniLion, and the re^C 

Ordained (or uses to his Lord hest known. 

The swiftness of those Circles at'tribute^ 

ThougJi niimlicrless, to his Omnipotence, 

Thai to corporeal substances could add 

Speed almost spiritual. Mc thou think'st not slow, 

Who since the morninji-hour set out from Heaven 

Where God resides, and ere mid-day arri\ed 

In Kden — distance inexpressible 

By numbers that linve name. But this I urge, 

Admitting motion in the Heavens, 10 shew 

Invalid that which ihce to douht it moved; 

Not that [ so affirm, though so it seem 

To thee who hast thy dwelling here on Earth. 

God, to remove his ways from human sense, 

Plaeetl Heaven from Earth so far, that earthly sight, 

If it presume, might err in things too high, 

And no advantage gain. What if the Sun 

Be centre to the World, and other Stars, 

By his attractive virtue and their own 

Incited, dance about him various rounds? 

Their wandering course, now high, now low. then 

Progressivej retrograde, or standing siiH, 
In six thou seest; and what if, seventh to these 
The planet Earth, so steadfast though sh^ seem, 
Insensibly three different motions move? 
Which else to several spheres thou must ascfilie, 
Moved contrary with thwart obliquities, 


Or save ihe Sun his labour^ and thst swjft 
NcKtiirnal anJ diurnal rhomb supposed. 
Invisible else above all tiars^ the wheel 
Of D:iy and Night; which needs not thy hdief, 
Jf Earih, indusirious of herself, fetch Day^ 
Travditng cast^ and wjih her pari iiversi^ 
TroiT] ihe Sun's benm meet Nighi^ her odier part 
Siill liiminoii5 by his ray* What if that Ughij 
Sent from her ihrou;;h (he wide trarisptcuous :iir, 
To the lerrostrial Moon lo be as a star, 
}inligh;enin;j h^f by day^ as she by night 
This Earth — reciprocal^ if land be Ehere,. 
Fields and inhabicanis? Her spots thou 5ee$t 
Asclouds^ and clouds mav rain^ and rain produce 
Fruits in her softened soil, for some to eat 
Allotted there; 3nd cih^r Suns, perhaps, 
With [btjir attendant Moons, thou will descry. 
Communicating male and temale light — ^ 
Which two greal sexe? animate the World, 
Stored in each Orb perhaps wuh some ih^i live. 
J^or such vast room in Naiure unpossessed 
Ily living toul, desert and dcsolatCp 
Only to shine* yel scarce to con'iribute 
Each Orb a glimpse of light, conveyed m far 
Down to this habitable^ which returns 
Lighi back 10 rhem> is obvious to dtspuie. 
Hut whether thus these things, or whether not — 
Whether the Sun, predominant in heaven ^ 
Ri-^e on the Earth, or Earth rise on the Sun; 
He from the east his flaming road begin, 
Or she from west hev silent course advance 
VVith inoffensive pace that spinning sleeps 
On her so£r axle^ while she paces even, 
And bears thee soft with the smooth air along — 
Solicit not thy diouj^hts with matters hid: 
Leave them to God above; him serve and fear, 
Of other creatures as him pleases best, 
Wherever placed, Eet him dispose; joy thou 
!n what he gives to thecs this Paradise 
And thy fair Eve; Heaven is for thee too higli 

24B JOHN MILTON aooK nil 

To know wh.3.1 parses there. Be lowly vjIsc-; 
Think only what concerns chee anJ ihy bein^; 
Dream not oE other worJds^ what creatures ihere 
Live^ in what stale, condition, or degree- 
Contented thai thus far hath been revealed 
Not o£ Earth only, bm ol highest Heaven," 

To whom thus Adyni, cE^iared of douhi^ replied: — 
"How fully ha5t thou satisfied mc, pure 
Jnlclli^ence 0^ Heaven, Angel serene, 
And, freed from intricacies, lauglu to live 
The easiest way, nor wiih perplexing thoughts 
To inlerrupl the sv^'cet of life, from which 
God hath bid dwell far ol7 all anxious cares. 
And not molest us, unless we ourselves 
Seek ihem with wandering thoughts, and notions 

But ajJl the mind or fancy is to rove 
Unchecked; and of her roving is no end, 
Till, warned, or by experience taught, she learn 
That not to know at large of things remote 
From use, obscure and ^ubde^ but lo kno^v 
That which before us lies in daily iife, 
Is the prime wisdom: what is more is fume. 
Or emptiness, or fond impertinence, 
And renders us in things that most concern 
Unpractised, unprcpaied, and still t" seek. 
Therefore from this high pitch let u$ descend 
A lo^v'er flight, and speak of things at hand 
Useful; whence, haply, merition may arise 
Of somethmj" not unseasonable to ask. 
By sufferance, and thy wonted favour, deigned. 
Thee I have heard lelating what wa^ done 
Ere my remembrance; now hear me relate 
My story, which, perhaps, thou hast not heard- 
And day is yet noi spent; till then thou sccst 
Hmv subdy to deiaJn thee I devise, 
■ Inviting thee to hear while t relate — 
Fond, were it not in hope of thy reply. 
For, while I sit with thee, I seem in Heaven; 
And sweeter tliy discourse is to my ear 


Than fruiis of palm-trecj plca^jntcst io thirst 
And hunj^er both^ from labour, aL the hour 
Of swcoi repasi. They saiiatc^ and soon iill> 
Though pIcasaoE; hut iliy words, wilh gr.^cc divine 
imbued, bring Lo their swccintrss no satiety/" 
To whom ihns Raphael answered, heavenly 
meek: — 
^'Nof arc ihy lips ungrateful, Sire oi Men, 
Nor tongue ineloqu^nt; for God on thee 
Abundandy his gifts haih also poured^ 
Inward and outward boLh, his image fair: 
Speaking, or mute, all comelincsft and grace 
Aucnds ihte, and tach wordj each moiion^ lorms- 
Nor less Lhmk we in Heaven of thee on Earih 
Than of our fellow-servant, and inquire 
Gladly inEo the ways of God wi^h Jvliin" 
For Ccni, \vc see, hatii honoured thee, and set 
On Man his equnl love* Say therefore on; 
For f ihat day was absent, as befell^ 
Bound on a voyage uneouEh and obscuTe, 
Far on excursion toward the gates of Hell, 
Squared in Eull legion (such command wc had). 
To sec ihal nont: thence issued forth a spy 
Or enemy, while God was in his workj 
La^i he^ incensed at sueh eiuplion bold, 
Dc^lriiction with Creation might have mixed* 
Not th3[ they durst without his leave atti^mpt; 
But us he sends upon his hijjh behests 
For siait]^ as sovran King, and to inure 
Our prompt oh[jdience. Past wc tound, fast i^hut, 
The dismal g^teSj and U'^rricadoed strong. 
Gut, long ere our approaching^ heard within 
Noisfi, other ihan [he sound oE dance or song — 
Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage. 
Glad wc relurned up to ihe coasts of Light 
Ere Sabbath-evening; so we had in eharge. 
But thy relation now; for I attend. 
Pleased with [hy words no le^s than thou with 

mine " 

So spake the godlike Power, and tlius our Sire: — 

250 JOHN MILTON Book viu 

*'For Man to tclf how human life began 

Is hard; for who himself beginning knew? 

Desire with ihce still longer to converse 

Induced mc. As new-waked from soundest sleep. 

Soft on the flowery herb 1 lound me latd^ 

In balmy swe^t, which with his beams the Sun 

Soon driedp and on the reeking moisitirc fed. 

Straight toward Heaven my wondering eyes 1 mrned, 

And ga::ed a while the ample sky, till, raised 

By quick insiinetive moil on, up I sprung, 

As thitherward endeavoring, and upright 

Stood on my feet. About me round I saw 

Hill, dale^ and shady woods, and sunny pUins^ 

And liquid lapse of murmuring streams; by ihese^ 

Creatures that lived and moved, and walked or fiew, 

Birdi on the branches warbling: all things smiled; 

Wilh fragrance and witli joy my licart o'erflo^Td. 

Myself I then perused^ and Umb by limb 

Surveyed, and somecimes went, and sometimes ran 

With supple joints, as lively vigour led; 

But who 1 was, or where, or from what cause, 

Knew not- To speak I tried^ and forihwith spake; 

My tongue obeyed, and readily could name 

Wha[e'tT 1 saw- Thou Sun,' said L "hir hghi. 

And thou enhghtcned Earth, so fresh and gay, 

Ye hilis and dales, ye rivers, woods^ and plains. 

And ye that hve and move^ fair creatures, icll, 

Tell, if ye saw, how came 1 ihus, how lierel 

Not of myself; by some great Maker then, 

In goodness and in power prs-eminent. 

Tell mCj how may I know hii^, how adore^ 

From wfiom 1 have that thus I ntove and tive. 

And feel that I am happier than J know!' 

While thus I called, and sirayed 1 knew not whiihetj 

From where I lirst drew air^ and first beheld 

This happy light, when answer none returned^ 

On a green shady bank, profuse of flowers, 

Pensive I sat me down. There gentie sleep 

First found me^ and with soft oppression seized 

My drowsed sense, imtrouhJed, ihough I thought 

aooKviu p-mADiSE lost 351 

I ihen was passing lo my former state 

InsensibEt:, and forthwith to dissolve: 

When suddenly itooJ at my head a Drc.nm, 

Whose inward appariiion gE^ndy moved 

My fancy to believe ! yet had being, 

And lived. Ont came, methoughl, of sh^pe dlvine» 

And stildt 'Thy mansion wants thee, Adjim; rise, 

First Man, of men innumemble ordained 

First fathL?r! called by thee, I come thy guide 

To the Garden of bliss, ihy wat prepared.' 

So sayir^j^, by the band he took me, raised, 

And over tie]ds and waters, as in air 

Smooth sliding without step, last ltd me up 

A woody mountain, whose high top wa^ plain. 

A circuit wide, cndosed, with goodliest trees 

Planitd, with walks and bowers, that whut [ saw 

Of Earth before scarce pleasant seemed. Each tree 

Loaden wiih fairest fruit, that hung to iht; eye 

Tempting, stirred in me sudden appetite 

To pluck and cat; whereat I waked, and found 

Before mine eyes all real, as the dream 

Had lively shadowed. Here had new begun 

My wandering, had not He who ivas my guide 

Up hither from among tlic trees appeared. 

Presence Divine. Rejoicing, but with awe, 

In adoration at his feet i fell 

Submiss, He reared me, and, 'Whom thou sought'st 

Said mildly, 'Author of all this thou seest 
Above, or round about thee, or beneath. 
This Paradise I give thee; count il thine 
To ii]l and keep, and of the fruit lo eat. 
Of every tree that in the Garden grows 
Eat freely with glad heart; fear here no dearth. 
But of the tree whose operation brings 
Knowledge oE Good and III, which I have set. 
The pledge of thy obedience and thy faith, 
Amid the garden by the Tree of Life- 
Remember what I warn thee — ^bun to taste. 
And shun the bitter consequence ; for kt^ow. 

-. r ^ ^. 


The day tUou eaE's[ ihcreoC^ my soTc command 
Traniigresstd^ ineviiaWy thou shak die^ 
From ihat day morEal, and ihts happy &LHc 
ShaJt losc^ expelled from;c into a wcjrJtl 
0£ woe and sorrow/ Sternly he pronounced 
The rigid interdiction, which resounds 
Yet dreadful in mine ear^ though in my choice 
Not to incur; but soon his clear aspoct' 
Returned, and gracious purpose thus renewed: — 
'Not only these fair bounds^ but all the Earth 
To thee and to thy race I give; as lords 
Po^stis it, and all things that therein live, 
Or h^e in sea or ^iir^ beast, fish, and fowl- 
In sign whereof, each bird and beasi behold 
After thtir kinds; 1 bring them to receive 
From ihee iheir names, and pay ihee fealty 
With low subjectioUr Understand the same 
Of iish within their watery residence, 
Noi hither summoned^ since t]\ey cannot change 
Their element to draw ihc thinner air/ 
As thus he spake^ each bird and bcsi^i l>ehold 
Approaching two and two — these co^vering low 
With bUndishmem; each bird stooped on his wing, 
J named ihtm as Ow\ passed, and understood 
Their nature; wiih such knowledge God endued 
My sudden apprehension. Kut in these 
I found not what meihought I wanted still, 
And 10 the fleavenly Vision ihus piesumed: — 

'* *0, by what name — -for Thoti above all these, 
Above mankind, or auj^hi ihan m^inkind higher, 
SLir|>assesL far my naming — how may I 
Adore thee. Author of this Universe, 
And all this good to Man, for whose well-being 
So amply, and with hands so liberal, 
Thou hasE provided all ihinjis? But wiih me 
I see not who p^irtakes. In solitude 
What happiness!^ who can enjoy alone^ 
Or^ all enioying, whai conieniment find?* 
Thus I, presumptuous; and ihe Virion bright, 
As with a stQile more brightened^ thus replied;—* 


P.lR.\DiSK LOST 153 

' cgIIV ihou aoliiudc? Is noi [lie Earlh 
Wiih v.trious livin*^ crcamrcs, and the Air, 
Rcpknlahod, amf u\\ ihcse at ihy comm-ind 
To tome and phy before Thoe? Kno\v'st thou nor 
Their language and tbtir ways? Tlicy iilso kiio\\% 
And reason not cnuomptibly; wIili iKesc 
Find pasTime, and bear rule; thy rt^alni i^ large/ 
So spake the Universal Lord and secrncd 
So ordering. I, uiih leave of spceeh implored, 
And humbie dcprecalion. thus replied: — 

"'Lei not my word? otTenJ ihec, Heavenly Power; 
My Maker, be propitious while I speak. 
Hail thou not made me here ihy substitute, 
And these interior far beneath me set? 
Amon^ unequals what society 
Can i^orE, what harmony or true delight? 
Whii'h must Iw moiual, in proportion due 
Given and received: but» in disparity* 
The one incense* the other still remiss, 
Cannot wl[I suit with either* but soon prove 
Tedious alike. Of fellowship 1 speak 
Such as 1 seek, fit to parsicipaie 
All rational dcEight, wherein the brute 
Cannot iv huinan consort. They reioice 
Eafb wirh iheir kind. Hon wiili lioness; 
Eio ii[[y [hem in pairs thou fiast combined: 
Much less i:3n bird with beast, or fish wiih fowl, 
So well converse, nor with the ox the ape; 
Worse. Then, can man with beast* and least of all.' 

"Whereto the Almighty answered, not displeased: — 
'A nice and subtle happiness, I see, 
Thou to thyself proposesi, in the choice 
Of thy associates, Adam, and wilt lai^tc 
No pleasure, thouf-h in pleasure, solitary. 
What think 'st thou. then, of Me, and this my state? 
.Seem I to thee sufficiently possessed 
Of happiness, or not, who am alone 
From all eternity? for none I know 
Second to me or like, equal much less. 
How have L ihen, with whom to liold converse* 


Save ^vith the creamres which I made, and those 

To me inferior infinite descents 

Bentath uhyi otlier creatures arc to theer' 

"He ceased. I lowjy ;iniivcred:^*To attain 
The highth and depth of thy eternal ways 
All iiuman thoughts come shottj Supreme o£ Things! 
Thou in thyself art perfet, and in Thee 
Is no delicience found. Not so is Man, 
But in [legree^-thc cause oi his desire 
By conversation with his hke to help 
Or solace his delects. No need that thou 
Shouitl'st propagate, alre^idy infinite^ 
And through all numbers ah^olute. though One; 
But Man by number is to maniEest 
His single imperfection, and beget 
Like of his like, his image muhiplied, 
In unity defective; which requires 
Collateral ]ovc» and dearest dimity. 
Thou, in thy secrecy although alone. 
Best with thyself accompanied, leck'st not 
Social communication— yet, so pleased, 
Canst raise thy creature to what highth thou wilt 
Of union or communion, deified; 
I, by conversing, cannot these erect 
From prone, nor in their ways complacence find. 
Thus I emboldened spake, and Ireedom u^cd 
Permissive, and acceptance found: winch gained 
This answer from the grailous Voice Divine; — 

" 'Thus hr to try thee, Adam, 1 was pleased, 
And find thee knowing not <if beasts alone. 
Which thou Isa^t rightly named, but of th) self — 
Eitpressing well ihe spirit within ihee free. 
My image, not imparted to the btuie; 
Whose fellowship, therefore, unmeet for thee, 
Good Reason was thou freely shouldst dislike. 
And be so minded still. I, ere thou spLfk'st, 
Knew it not good for Man to be alone. 
And no such company as then thou saw'st 
Intended thee — for trial only brought, 
To see bow thou couldst judge ot hi and meet. 


What next 1 bring shall please ihee, [v assured. 
Thy iikcncss, thy Bt hulp, ihy 0[her sett, 
Thy wish ex.icily to ihy htart's desire/ 

"He endcJ, or I heard no more; for now 
My eanhly, by his heavenly overpowered. 
Which it had long stood under* sirained lo the highth 
In ihat celestial colloquy sublime, 
As wiih an ub^ifci that c^icels the sQn$u. 
Daz7.kcl and spent, sunk down, and 5ouj;ht repair 
Ot sleep, which insiauily fell on me» called 
By Nattire as in aid, and dosed mine eyes. 
Mine eyes he cfostjch but open left the cell 
Of fancy, my internal sight; by which. 
Abstract as in a trance, meihought I saw. 
Though sleeping, where I Uy, and saw ihe Shape 
Still glorious before whom awnkc ] iiood; 
Who, siooping, opened my left side, and took 
From thence ^ rib, wiih cordia] spirit? warm. 
And life-blood streamirfg fresh; wide was the ^vound. 
But suddenly with fltsh filled up and healed. 
The rib he formed and fashioned with his hands; 
Under hi? forming hands a creature grew, 
Man-like, but ditlerent sex* so lovdy fair 
Thai what seemed fair in all the world deemed now 
Mean, or in her summed up, in hsr contained 
And in ht^r looks which from ihat time infused 
Sweetness into my heart unfek before, 
And inio all things from her air inspired 
The spirit of love and amorous dtlighi. 
She disappeared, and left me dark: I waked 
To Eind her, or for ever to dtjplore 
Her los?, and other pleasures all abjure: 
When, out of hope, behold her not far off, 
Such as I saw her m my dream, adorned 
With what all Earth or Heaven could bestow 
To make her amiable. On she came, 
Led by her Heavenly Maker, though unseen 
And guided by his voice, nor uninformed 
Or nuptial sanctity and marriage rites. 
Grace was in all her sieps, heaven in her eye, 

256 JOHN" MILTON book vi 11 

In every gesture dignity and love. 

I, oveijoyed, coold not forbear aloud: — 

" This turn h^ih made amends; thou hiisi fulEilled 
I'hy ^vords, Creator bourUeous a:id beni^'ii. 
Giver of all things lair — but tairesi ihr? 
Ot aW thy gifts!— nor cnvic^t. I now see 
Bo[ie oi my bone» llcsh ot mv flesh* my Seit 
Before me. Woman i& her njme, oj Man 
Exiracted; for tiii* c3uk he siiall forgo 
Father and motht^r, and to his wit'c adhere* 
And dicy shall be one fleshy one liGartn one 5oul.* 

"She heard me thus; and, though divinely brought^ 
Yet innocence and VLr;^iii modesty. 
Her vJriueT and the conscieni;e ot ht-r worth. 
That would be wooed, and nut un^oaj^hi be won, 
Not obvious, not obtrusive, but retired, 
The most deairable-— or, to say yJI, 
Nature herself, though pure of sinSul thotigln^ 
Wrought in her io, that, seeing me, she turned. 
I followed her; she what was honour knew. 
And with obsequious majesty approved 
My pleaded rcfjison. To the nuptial bower 
1 led her blushing like the Morn; all Heaven, 
And happy consteUaiions, on that hnur 
Shed their selecte^t influence; the Earth 
Gave sii;n of gratulailou* and each hill; 
Joyous the birds; tresh gales and gendc airs 
Whispered il to the wo'xl^* and from their wings 
Flung rose, (lung odours from tlie spicy shrub. 
Disponing, till ihc amorous bird of night 
Sung spousal, and bid hastt: the Evening-star 
On his hilUop m light the bridal lamp, 

"Thus have I told thee all my stare, and brought 
My story to the ^ujn of earthly bliss 
Which I enjoy, an<l must confess to find 
In all thing! else dclighi indeed, but such 
As, used OT notj works in the mind no change. 
Nor vehement desire — these delicacies 
I mean of taste, sight, smell, heibs, fruits, and flowers, 
\^'alks, and the melody of birds: but here, 

BOOK Vili 


Far otherwise, transported I behold, 
Transported louch; here pssion fifil I felt, 
Commotion strange, in all enjoy menc^ el:je 
Sufierior and unmoved^ here only weak 
Against the charm o£ bcatity's powerful glance. 
Or Nniture failed in me, and kfi some part 
Not proof cnonj^h such object to sustain, 
Or, from my side subducting, took perhaps 
More than enough — at least on her Ix'stowed 
Too rnticb of ornament, in outwaid show 
Elaborate, of inward less exaci. 
For well I undcrstanJ in [he prime end 
Of Nature her (he inferior, in ihc mind 
And inward faculties, which most excel; 
In outward also her resembling [ess 
His image who myJt bolh, and less expressing 
The character of ihac dominion given 
Oer other creatures. Yet when I approach 
Her ]oveline5S, so absolute she seems 
And in herself complete, so well to know 
Her ovvn, that what slie wills to do or say 
Seems wisest^ virtuousest, discreeiest, besl. 
All higher Knowledge in her presence falls 
Degraded; Wisdom in discourse with her 
Loses, discounrennnced, and like Folly shewsj 
Audiority and Reason on her wait, 
As one intended first, not after made 
Occasi oil ally; and, lo consum'rnatc all, 
Gieaine^s of mind and nobleness their seat 
Build in her loveliest, and create an awe 
About her, as a guard angelic placed." 

To whom the Angel, with contracied brow:— 
''Accuse not Nature! she hath done her part; 
Do [hou but ihinel and be not difHdenI 
Of Wisdom, ^he deserts thee not, if thou 
Dismiss not her, when most thou necd'sc hei nigh, 
By attribu'iing overmuch to things 
LeiS e>;ce[lcnt, as thou thyself pcrceiv'sl. 
For* what admir'st thou, what transports thee so? 
An outside— fair, no doubt, and worthy well 


258 JOHN MILTON book vui 

Thy cherishing, thy hononrmg, and [hy love; 

No[ ihy subjection. Wcigii with her thyself; 

Tiicn \ aluc. Oft-Eimes noihing profiis more 

Than self-esEccrn, grounilcd on just aiiJ I'Jlhi 

Well managed. Of that skill the more thou kuow'st^ 

The more she will Jicknoivledgc? thee her heail, 

And to reahiies yield all her ^hows^ 

Made so adorn for thy deiii^hi the more^ 

So awful, thjt with honour thou m^y'^t love 

Thy m^ie, who sees when thou jit seen least wise. 

Bui» if the sense of louchj whereby mankind 

\% propagated, seem such dear detighl 

IJeyund all oilier, think the s^me vouisafed 

To cattle and each beast; whieh would not be 

To Uiem made common and divulged^ if aught 

Therein enjoyed were \vorthy to subdue 

The sou! of Man, or p^$ioi] in hint move. 

What higher in her society thou Eind'sc 

Attractive, human, rational, love still; 

In loving thou dost well; in pas&ion not, 

Wherein true Love consists not. Love refines 

The ihoughti, :ind heart enlarges — liath his ieat 

In Reason, and is judicious, is Uig scale 

By which to Heavenly Love ihou inayV ascend, 

Not sunk in carnal pleasure; for which cau^e 

Among ihe beasts no mate for iheo was found." 

To whom ihus, half abashed, Adam replied:— 
"Neither her ouiside formed so fair, nor aught 
In procreation, common 10 all kirtds 
(Though higher of the j-enial bed by far, 
And with mysterious reverence, I deem), 
So much delights me as those graceful acis, 
Those thousand decencies, that daily How 
From all her words and actions, mixed wiih love 
And sweei compliance, which declare unleigned 
Union of mind, or in us both one soul — 
Harmony to behold in wedded pair 
More grateful than harmonious sound [o the ear. 
Yel these subject not; I to thee disclose 
What inwartl thence I feel, not therefore foiled. 

EOOt;vl[J PAEADlSli LOST 259 

Who meet wilh varioni objects, from the sen5e 
Variously repiesentin^p yetp still free, 
Approve ihc best, and tollow what I approve- 
To lave thou blam^si me noi — for Love, ihoii say'st. 
Leads up to Heaven^ is both the way and guide; 
Bear wiih me, then, if Liwful what 1 a^k. 
Love not ihe Heavenly Spirits, and how their love 
Express ihey — by looks anly, or do ihey mi^ 
irradianccj virtual or immediate touchi^'* 

To whom the Angel, widi a smile ihat glowed 
Celestial rosy-red. Lovers proper hue. 
Answered:— "Let it sufiiec thee that thou know^st 
Us happy^ and wiihoni Love no happiness. 
Whatever pure thou in ihe body enjoy^st 
(And pure thou weiE created) we enjoy 
In eminence, and obstacit; find none 
Of membrane, joini, or limb, exclusive bars- 
Easier than air with air^ if Sptriis embrace, 
Total they miMj union of pure wiih pure 
Desiring^ not resirafned conveyance need 
As flesh 10 mix with flesh, or sod wi[h souh 
But I can now no more: the parting Sun 
Beyond [he Earth's green Cape and verdant I^les 
Hesperean sels* my signal to depart. 
Be strong, live happy^ nnd love' but first of all 
Him whom to love is to obey^ and keep 
H[5 great command; rake heed test pai^ion swa^ 
Thy judgment to do aught which else free-will 
Would not admit; ihinc and of all thy sons 
The weal or woe in thee is placed; beware! 
I in thy persevering shall rejoicej 
And all the Blest. Stand fast; lo stand or tall 
Free in thine own arbiirement it Eies^ 
Pcffet wirhin, no ouiward aid require; 
And all tempiation 10 transgress re]>el " 

So saying, he arose; whom Adam thus 
Followed with benediction: — "Since to part, 
Coj Heavenly Guestp Ethereal Messenger^ 
Sent from whose sovran goodness I adore! 
Gentle to me and affable hath been 


Thy condescension, and shall be honoured ever 
With grateful memory. Thou no Mankind 
Be good and friendly stilly and oft return!" 
So parted they, the Angel up to Heaven 
From the thick shade, and Adam to his bower. 


Tilt AM^J^tErJT, — Satan, hiving conipj'.&wl ilic Eiiih. with mcJlnicd puilc re- 
lum^ J^ a mist by ntuht inio Ppradirf; cnier^ into ilic: Scrpeni. sIcepinEr Aibm and 
Eve in ihc niornnifi ro funli to ilipir Idboun, ^iiich \'.\i prujHjses to divide isi 
sevfjfll piau-s, cLich labouiijig ,ipari: Adam ciiniiiiita nut, all^isini; ihc dnn^er lesi ihai 
Hngmy ol whom ihvy were forcwatn*^ should aiiemju her l.mnd alone. Eiif, loth to 
be iliiiUfiht not circumsii^i nr firm enoush. ur^es hei Eoing iip^irl, ihe rather dcsitoUi 
lu mike iriai ot iicr slrpnailJ' Ad,im ai last yields. Tin; Ser;>eni finds htT a!<)ric: his 
subtle apptoach, fitsl E^^-'ffi' tf"^" sjiL'^kirLg, wilh mucii fl-nrery c:<lo]hnp Eve abnvo 
aU oTh^f crca(ure$. Eve, wondering lo hear ihe Scr|>ent sp^'at, asks hf-vf he atEained 
ifs bumjn ajifTch and ^uch underiundin;! not till no^v; die Serptnt answers ThaT by 
lasiinji "E a cetiain Tree in ibe Catden he ariaintd hoih lo speech and roa&on, till 
[hen void of both. Em: requires hlni to bring her to that irce, ^nd finds ii to ha the 
Tree of Knowledge foibidduiii the Serpent, nuw jif^^wn bolder, ivUh many wiles and 
argumcm^ induces her at lenE'h "0 eat. She, pleawd wiib the i^sTc, deliberate^ a 
while whether jo impan thereof lo Ad,im ar rrni; Ji last briny& him ol the ffuit^ re- 
lates what persuaded litr 10 eat thrrwjf. Adam, ai firsi amazed, hui perceiving her 
losi, rtsnlves, ihroueh vehemence ni lnvc, lo perish wiih lii^i^, and. esienuaiing the 
iiEspassn eais also of ihe £ruii. Ihc effrcTs ihctioi in thejn both; they seek CD Cflver 
their QakcdnLJ&s; thtn fal! LO variance and ai:cu&aiion of om; another. 

No MODE of talk where God or Angel Guest 
Wi[h Man> as with his friend, famihai used 
To sil indulgent, and with him paiiake 
Rtiial ri:pst» pcrmittinj; him the while 
Venial discourse iinblamed, J now mti&T change 
Thow noics to tragic — foul disErust, and breach 
Disloyal, on the pare oi man, revolt 
And disobedience; oii the part of Heaven, 
Now alienati?d, distance and distaste, 
Anger and )ust rebuke, and judgment given. 
That brought into this World a world of woe. 
Sin and her shadow Death, and Misery, 
Death's harbinger. Sad laskl yet argument 
Not less hut more heroic than the wrauth 
Of siern Achilles on his foe pursued 
Thrice fugitive about Troy wall; or rage 
Of Turnus for Lavinia disespoused; 


Or Ncptune^s ir&j or Juno's that so long 

Perplexed the Greeks and Cythcroa^s son; ^^ 

Ii answerable style I can obtain / , , **ci^-i^<^^^^ 

Qf my celestial Patrone ss^ who Jcigns Jj i^i/c^v^ jfl-^"^ / 

H er ni;^fu[y vJi^iu-iLcOM UEaimplorcJ , / yjyi^ijf\ ^iJf^'P^''^''^ 

? Tnd dtciatesio mg ^lumhcrinjr ^ or inspires ;*^*^^ * 

Lfliy my u nprcmeduavcd vcric^ "^ 

Smce first tha^ subject for ht^roic song 

Pleased me, long choosing and beginning laie^ 

Not sedulous by nature to indite 

Wars, hitherto the only argument 

Heroic deemed, chief ni^isirie to dissect 

With long and tedious havoc fabled knights 

In batiles feigned (the better forricude 

Of patience and heroic martyrdom 

Unsung), or to describe races and ^^me?, 

Or liking furnittirc, emblazoned shields, 

Impreses quaint, capnrisona and sfceds^ 

Bases and liif^d trappings^ gorgeous knights 

At jou^t and tournamenc; then marshalled feast 

Served up in hall ^vith sewers and sencshals: 

The skill of artifice or office mean; 

Not that which jusdy givea heroic nan:^e 

To person or to poem! Me, of [hese 

Nor skilled nor studious^ higher argumenc 

ReniatnSj suflicient of itself to raiiC 

That name, unless an a^e loo late, or cold 

Climar, or years, damp my intended wing 

Depr*;ssed; and much thoy may if alJ be mincj 

Not Hers who brings it nighdy to my ear, 

The Sun was sunk^ and afier htm the Siar 

Of Hesperus, whose office is to bring 

Twilight upon the Earth, short arbiicr 

Twixt day and nighr^ and now from end to end 

Nfght*5 hemisphere had veiled the horizon round, 

When Satan, who late fled before the threats 

Of Gabriel out of Eden, now improved 

In mediialed fraud and malice, bent 

On Man's destruction, maugre what might hap 

Of heavier on himself^ fearless [eturned. 

262 JOHN MILTON book is 

By night he fled, and at midmght relumed 
From compassing the Earth — cautious of day 
Since Uriels Regent of ihc Sun, descried 
His entrance, and forwarned the Cherubim 
That kept iheir watch. Thence, full of anguish, 

driven J 
The space of seven conlmuea nights he rode 
With darkness— thrice the equinoctial line 
He circled^ (our times crossed [he car of Night 
From pole to pote, iraversing each colure — * 
On the eighth returned, and on the coast averse 
From entrance or cherubic waich by steahh 
Found unsuspected way* There was a place 
(Now not^ though Sin, not Time, fir^t wraught the 

Where Tigris, at the foot of Paradi^Cp 
Into a gulf shot under ground, tiil p:irt 
Kosc up a fountain by the Trte of Life. 
In With the river sunk, and with it rose^ 
Saian^ involved in rising misi; [htn sought 
Where to lie hid. Sea he had searched and land 
From Eden over Pontus, and the? Pool 
M^otis, up l^yond the river Ob; 
Downward as tar Antartic; and, in length, 
Welt from Oronles to the ocean barred 
At Darien, thence to the land where flows 
Ganges and Indus. Thus tl^e orb he roamed 
Wiih narrow search, and with inspection deep 
Considered every creature, which of all 
Most opportune might serve his wiles, and found 
The Serpent subtlest beast of all the licld, 
Ttfim, alter long deSaie, irre^onit^ ~~ 
Of thoughts revolved^ lii& finaJ sentence cho:ie 
Fit vessel, finest Imp of fraud, in whom 
To enter, and his dark suggestions hide 
From sharpest sight; for in the wily snake 
Wh^Ttever sleights none would suspicious mark 
As from his wii and native subdety 
Pfoceedingp which, in other beasts observedi 
Doubt mjght beget of diabolic power 



Active within l>eyond the sense of brute. 
Thus he resolved, but first from inward grief 
His bursting passion into plaints thus poured: — 
^*0 Earthy how like to Heavenj if not preferred 
More (Usdy^ seat worthier of Gods, as built 
With second thouyhts^ reforming w\ui was old! 
For what God, after better, worse would bu[ld[^ 
Terrestrial Hea^^en^ danced round by other Heavens, 
That shine, yet bear their bright oFScious lamp^^ 
Light above ligfUj tor thee alone, as seemst 
In thee concentring all their precious beams 
Of sacred influenccl As God in Heaven 
Is eemrej yet emends to all, so thou 
Centring receiv'sl from all those orbs; in ihee^ 
Not in themselves, all iheir known virtue appcarSt 
Productive in herb, plant, and nobler birch 
Of creatures animate with gradual life 
Of growth, sense, reason, all summed up in .VLin- 
With what dcfighi could I have walked ihee round. 
If r could joy ill aught— sweet interchange 
Of hill and valley, rivers, woods, and plains^ 
Now Und, now sea* and shores with forest crownedj 
Rocks^ denSj and caves! Bui l in none of these 
Find place or refuge; and the more I see 
Pleasures about me^ so much more I feel 
Torment within me, as from the haietui siege 
Of contraries; al] good to nie becomes 
Bane, and in Heaven much worse would be my stale- 
But neither here seek 1, nor in Heaven, 
To dwellj unless by maistring Heaven's Supreme; 
Nor hope lo be myself less miserable 
By what I seek, hut others to make such 
As ly though ihereby worse to me redound. 
For only in destroying I find ease 
To my relentless thoughts; and him destroyed. 
Or won lo what may work his utter loss^ 
For whom all this was made^ all this will soon 
Follow, as to him linked in weal or woe: 
In woe ihejit that destruction wide may range! 
To me shall be Uifi glory sole among 


The Infcrnat Powers, in one day lo have marred 

What hcj Almighly styled, six nigbis and days 

Cominued makings and who knows kow long 

Bislore had been conmvingp though perhaps 

Noi longer ihan since I in one nighE freed 

From servitude Inglorious well nigh half 

The Angelic Nantfj and ihtnner (eft the throng 

Of his sidoierE- He, 10 be avenged, 

And to repair his numbers thus impaired — 

Whether such viriuCj spent of old, now failed 

More Angels to create (if they at least 

Are his created), of to spite us more— 

DtJCermiiied to advance into our room 

A creaiure formed of earth, and him endow^ 

ExaUed from so base original. 

With heavenly spoils, our spoils. What he decreed 

He elTected; Man he made, and for him built 

Magnilicem this Worlds and Earth his seat. 

Him Lord pronounced^ andp O indigniiy! 

Subjected lo his service AngeUvlngs 

And Haming ministerSp 10 wasch and tend 

Their earthly charge. Of these the vigilance 

[ dreads and to elude, thus wrapl in mist 

Of midnight vapour, glide obscure^ and pry 

In every bush and brake, where hap may hnd 

The Serpent sleeping^ in whose mazy folds 

To hide me, and the dark intern I bring* 

O foul deseentl that I, who erst contended 

Wiih Gods to sit the highesE^ am now constrained 

Into a beast, and, mixed with bestial slime^ 

This essence to incarnate and imbrute. 

That to [he highth of Deity a^pircdl 

But what will not ambition and revenge 

Descend lo? Who aspires must down as low 

As high he soared, obnoxious^ first or last. 

To basest things. Revenge, at first though s^^eet. 

Bitter ere long back on itself recoils. 

Let ii; I reck not, so it light well aimed. 

Since higher I fall short, on him who next 

Provokes my envy, this new favourite 



0[ Hcjvtn, ihjs Mjin of Cbv, son ai despite, 
Whom, us the more to spin?, fila M-iker raised 
From du5i: spile iKcn willi spile h best rcpid." 

So saying, ihrongh each thicket, dank or dry, 
Like a blyck mist low-crccprng, he held on 
Iff? midnight search, where soonesi he mijj;hi find 
The Serpent. Hi m fast sleeping soon he foun d, 
In labyrinth of niany a roiiLid ^elf-row led. 
His head ifie mkhi. well stored with subtle wiles: 
Not yet in horrid ihadc or dismal den: 
Nor nocent yet, but on the grassv herb, 
Fe^es jj^u nfeared, he s lept. In at his momh 
The Devil entered, and hjs bruta J ^n so. 
In heart or hea d, tiossessing soon i nspire d 
\ Viih^acl intel ltgentiaf: but hrs~slee p 
Djstufbed n ot. \^jitinti, close ihe a pproach of niorn. 

Now, whcnas sacred light began to dawn 
In Etien on the humid flowers, i[iai breathed 
Their morning incense, when all things that breathe 
From the Earih's great akar send up silent praise 
To the Creator, and his noiinls lill 
With ^rau'ful :jmell, forth came ihe human pair. 
And jtiined ihcir vocal worship w (he quire 
Of creatures wanting voice; that done, panake 
The season, prime for siveetest scents and airs; 
Then com'mune bow that day they best may ply 
Their growing work — for much their work outgrew 
The hands' dispatch of two gardening so wide: 
And Eve first to her husband thus bi:gam^ 

"Adam, well may we labour still to dre^s 
This Garden, still to tend plant, herb, and flower, 
Our plea^tam task enjoined; but, till more hands 
Aid us, the work under our labour grows. 
Luxurious by restraint: what we by day 
Lop overgrown, or prune, or prop, or bind, 
One night or two vvilh wanton growth derides, 
Tending to wild. Thou, therefore, now advise, 
Or hear what to my mind first thoughts present. 
Let us divide our Libaurs^ — thou where choice 
Leads ihee, or where most needs, whether to wind 


The woodbine round ihis arbour^ or direci 
The cbsping ivy where to climb; whik I 
In yonder spring of roses inlcrmtxcd 
Wiih myrtfcc (ind what to r^^dress till noon. 
Fof> whiJe so near C[it:h oEher thus ^[1 J;iv 
Our tasL we choose, what wonder if so nea^ 
Look^ Intervene and amiUs, or abjects now 
Casual discourse dmw on^ which intermits 
Our day^s work^ brought to little^ Ehouyh begun 
Early, and ihtf hour of supjier comes uneiirriedT" 

To whom mild answer Adam ihu^ returned; — 
^"Solo Eve, associate soJc, to mcr beyond 
Comparts above all hving creatures dear! 
Well hast thou moiioned, well thy thoughts 

How \^'e mighi best fullil the work which here 
God hath assigned us, nor ol me shah f>ass 
UnprniseJ; for nuihinj; lovdier can bo found 
In vvomsan dun to study household ;^ood* 
And ^ood works in her husband to promote- 
Yet not so stricdy haEh our Lord [m|>osed 
Labour as to debar us when we need 
Refreshnieni^ whether food, or talk bet^^e*,nii 
Food of die tntndj or this sweei intercourse 
Of looks .lud smiles- for SEniles from recis^n flow 
To bfUEo dcniedj and are of Jove the food — 
Love, not the lowest end o[ human lifc^ 
For not to irksome toil, but lo dchghi. 
He made us, and delight to reason joineii. 
These padis nnd buwcrs doubt not bu; our (Oint 

Will keep from wilderness wirb ease, as wide 
As \vc need walk, till younger hands ere long 
Assist us. But, if much convert perhaps 
Thco satiate, to short absence i could yield; 
For solitude somettmos i& best society. 
And short retirement urges sweet return. 
But other doubt possesses me, lost harm 
Befall thee* severed from me; for thou know'st 
What hath been warned us — ^wliat malicious foe. 



Envying our h,ippine«, and of his own 

Dc^|^iri[|g, seeks ia work us woe and ihame 

Hy sly yisnuU -inJ somewhere nigh ai h^nd 

Waichcs, no douEn, with grtody hope lo lind 

His wish .tnd bc^i advaniage, us niundcr. 

Hopeless 10 circumvcni us joined, where each 

To oiher ■ipcedy aid miijlu IcmJ ai need. 

Whe[her his iirsE design be to withdraw 

Our fcaky from God, or lo di^lurb 

Conjuj-aJ love— ihan which perhaps no bliss 

Enjoyed hy us e^;cites his envy more — 

Or ihis, or worse, leave noi ihc faiihful irde 

That gave ihec being, siill shades ihee and proiects. 

The wife, where danger or dishonour lurks^ 

Safesi and seemliest by her hushand stays, 

Who guards her, or with htr ihc worsr endures," 

To whom ihe virgin majesiy of Eve, 
As one whcj loves, and some unkindness mcets^ 
Wiih sweet austere composure ihu^ replied: — 
"OiTspring of Heaven and Eaiih, and alE Earlh's 
Thai such an Enemy we have, who seeks 
Our ruin, both by ttiee informed I learn, 
And from ihe isaiting Angel overheard. 
As in a shady Monk I stood behind. 
Just ihen returned at shut of evening flowers. 
Bu[ that thou shouldsi my firmness therefore doubt 

To God or ihec, hecjus^we Ija^'o a Toe ^ — 

May tempt ii, I ex|>ecied not to hear. 
1-lis violence thou Eear'st nor, being such 
As we, not capable of death or pain. 
Can ciiher not receive, or can repel. 
His fraud is, then, thy fear; which plain infers 
Thy equal fear that my firm faith and love 
Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced: 
Thoughts, which how l^ound diey harbour in thy 

Adam! miilhoughc of her to thee so dear?" 

To whtim, wiih healing words, Adam replied:— 
^'Daughter of God and .Man, immortal Eve!— 

L h 

268 JOHiV MILTO.V sooKix 

For such thou art, Uom sin and bUme entire — 

Noi diffident af thiic Jo I Ji^^u:iJe 

Thv absence froEii my ^ightp bui 1:0 avoid 

The auempt iiself, intcndt^d by our Foe. 

Tor he who tempts, [hough in vain^ at IcasL asperses 

The [empied with dishonour foul, si^ppos^d 

Kol incorruptible of Uiliht not proof 

Againsi [cmptation. Thou [hystU with scorn 

And anger vvoufcdst resent the ollereJ wrong* 

Though inelTcciual found; misdeem not, the"* 

If such affront I bbour to avert 

From [hec alone, which on u:^ both at once 

The onemy^ though bo]d, will hardly dare; 

Or, daring, first on nie (he assault <ihal| iii^ht. 

Nor thou his niahee and false guile contemn — 

Subtle he needs muii be who could sedute 

Anjj-^L — nor think superfluous oihcrs' ai^l. 

I from ihe influence ol thy looks retreive 

Access in every virtue — in thy sight 

More wise, n^ore waichluL sEronger^ it nei^d ^^'yre 

Of outw^ird strengih; while shamep thou looking on^ 

Shame lo be o\ercome or overreached, 

Would uimosi vigour raiii£^, and misizd unite. 

Whv shouldst not thou like iense within thee teel 

When I am presents :ind ihy irbl cht^sc 

With me, best witness of ihy viriue Ifiedr'" 

So lipake domestic Adam in his care 
And matrimonial love; but Eve, who thought 
Less attributed lo her faicii isicicere, 
Thus her reply with accent sweet renewed: — 

"if this be our condition^ thus lo dwell 
Jn n^irrow circuit siraiiened by a Toe^ 
SubUe or violent^ we not endued 
Single ^vith like defence wherever met. 
How are we happy, stih in ftiar of harm? 
But harm precedes not sin: only our Foe 
Tempting aiTronis us with his foul esteem 
Of our integrity: his foul esteem 
Slicks no dishonour on our front, bu| turns 
Foul on Jiimself; then wherefore shunned or feared 



By us, who ralher double honour gain 

From his surmise proved fiil^c, find peace within. 

Favour from Heaven, our witness, froin i!ie event? 

And wiiai h fait hjjov e, vir tue, unassayed 

Alone, witRouEexterioi help'susiaine^?" 

Let us not then suspect our happy slate 

Left so imperfi^t by [he Maker wise 

As not setuie to sJngJc or combined. 

Frail is our happiness, if rhis be so; 

And Eden were no Eden, ihus exposed." 

To whom thus Adam fervently replied: — 
"O Woman, best are all things as the will 
Of God ordain<?d them; his creating hand 
Nothing impyrfet or deficient left 
Of all [hat he created— much less Man, 
Or au^lu that might his happy state secure. 
Secure from outward force. Within himself 
The danger lies, yet lies within his power; 
Against hi s wJH he c an^ rgcei ve no harm. 
Bui God left free the Will; fori^'ii3t,Qbeys 
HcaserUiS. ki^umi Reaso r|_he niaderiyht, 
But bid her well beware, and still erect, 
LesF, by some fair appearmg good surprised, 
She dictate false, and misinform the Will 
To do what God expressly h3[h forbid. 
Not then mistrusts but tender love, enjoins 
That I should mind thee oft; and mind ihou me, 
Firm we subsist, yet possible to swerve, 
Since Reason not impossibly may meet 
Some specious obfect by the foe suborned, 
And fall into deception unaware. 
Not keeping strictest waich, as she was warned. 
Seek not temptation, then, which to avoid 
Were better, and most likely if from me 
Thou sever not: trial v/\l\ come unsought. 
Would it thou approve thy constancy, approve 
First thy obedience; the other wlio can know, 
Nut seeing thee attempted, who aliesti' 
But, if thou think trial unsought may find 
Us both securer than thus warned thou seem^sl. 



Go; for th^j fgy> not free> ab&en rs thee mo re. 
Go in l Eynauve innQcenc ^lrdy 
OnwKai thou hast of vrnuc; summon all; 
FMJ^oJjQ warJ^ Lhge haii rHonelirs pari: do ihine/* 

So spake tlie Pairiarch ol ManTTind; 5ul Eve 
Persisted; yet submits, though lasi^ replied: — 

''With thy permission, [hen, and ihus forewarned, 
Chiefly by what ihy own lasi reasoning words 
Touched only^ that our trial, when least sought^ 
May find us boih porh:ip& far less prepared^ 
The wilhnger I go, nor much expcci 
A Foe so^Qu d will first the wcal;£i_3£ekl 
'^o'tcnt, the more shall shame him his repulse." 

Thus saylnjj^ irom her huibanj'5 hand her hand 
Sfjtl she withdrew, and^ hke a wood-nymph hght, 
Oread or Dryad, or of Delia^s train, 
Betook her to ihe groves, but Delia's self 
In gatt surpassed and goddes&-hke deport, 
Though not as she with bow and quiver armed, 
But wfih luch gardening tools as An, yet rude, 
CruihJess of fire had formedt or Angeli brought- 
To PaleSj or Pomona, thus adorned, 
Likest she seemed — Pomona when she fled 
Vertumnufr — or 10 C^rcs in her prime^ 
Yet virgin of Proserpina from Jove. 
Her long with ardent look his eye pursued 
Delighted^ but desiring more her stay. 
Oh he to her his charge of quick return 
Repeated; she to him as ofl engaged 
To be returned by noon amid die bower. 
And all things in best order to invite 
Noontide repast, or afternoon's repose- 
O much jJecei ved, imjch ^ij l^gg hap less Eve, 
Cjfjiy presumegjei ^n ! event p crvcj^r 
ThounevcFTrom thai hour in Paradise 
Found'st either sweet repast or sound repose; 
Such ambush, hid among sweet flowers and shades. 
Waited, with hellish rancour imminent. 
To intercept thy wayj or send [hee back 
Despoiled of innocence, of faith, of blics^ 


For now, and 5lnce first break of dawn, the Fiend, 

Mere Serpent in appearance, fortli was come. 

And on Uh quest where likolksl he mighi find 

The only two of mankindn but in them 

The whole included race, his purposed prey. 

In bower Jind Bold he sought^ where any luft 

Of grove or garden-p[ot more plcusiint iay. 

Their Cendance or plantation for delight; 

By ruuntJiin or by shady rivulet 

tie sought them both, but wished his h.ip might find 

Eve separate; he wished, but not with hopQ 

Of what so seldom chanced, when to his wish. 

Beyond hj& hope, Eve separate he spies, 

Veiled in a cloud of fragrance, where she stood, 

Half-spied, so thick the roses bushing round 

About her glowed, oft stooping to support 

Each flower of tender stalk, whose head, though gay 

Carnalion, purple, azure* or specked wiih gold, 

Hung drooping unsu^tained. Them she upstays 

Gendy with myrtle band, mindless the while 

Herself, though fairest unsupported ilower. 

From her besL prop so far, and storm so nl'rh. 

Nearer he drew, and many a walk traverstd 

Of siatelie^t covert, cedar, pine, or palm; 

Then voluble and bold, now hid* now seen 

Among thick-woven arboreis, and flowers 

Imbordered on each bank, the hand of Eve: 

Spot more delicious than those gardens feigr^ed 

Or of revived Adonis, or renowned 

Alcinoiis, host of old Laertes' son, 

Or ihai, noL mystic, where the sapient king 

Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse. 

Much he the place admired, the person more. 

As one who, long in populous city pent, 

Wlierc houses thick and sewers annoy the air. 

Forth issuing on a summer's morn, to breathe 

Among the pleasant villages and farms 

Adjoined, from each thing met conceived delight — 

The smell of grain, or tedded grass, or kine. 

Or dairy, each rural sigh!, each rural sound— 


If chance with nymph-likc step fair virgin pmz. 
What pleasing seemed for her now pleased morej 
She nio^i, and in her look $um5 all delight: 
Such pleasure took [he Serpent 10 behold 
This flowery plat, the ^wect recess of Eve 
Thtis earfy> thus alone. Her heavenly form 
Angelic, but more &oft and feminine^ 
Her graceful innocenci?^ her every air 
Of gesture or leasi acclonT overawed 
His nialice, and with rapine sweet bereaved 
His fierceness of the fierce intent ft brought. 
Thai space [he Evil One abstracted stood 
From his own evil, and for the lime remained 
Stupidly good, of enmity disarmed, 
Of guile, of hate^ of envy^ of revenge. 
Bui the hot hell that always in him burns, 
Though in mid Heaven^ soon ended his delight, 
And tortures him now more, the more he sees 
Of pleasure not for him ordained. Then soon 
Fierce hale he recollects, and all hts thoughts 
Of mischief, graiutating, ihus e>:cites: — 
^Thoughts, whither have ye led me? with what 
Compulsion thus transported to forget 
What hliher brought us? hate, not love, nor hope 
Of Paradise for Hell, here to taste 
Of pleasure, but all pleasure to destroy. 
Save what is in destroying; other joy 
To me is lost. Then let me noc let pass 
Occasion which now &milcs. Behold alons 
The Woman, opportune to all allempis — 
Her husband, tor I view far round, not nigh. 
Whose higher iniellecrual more i shun. 
And strength, of courage haughty, and of limb 
Heroic huilt, though of terrescrial mould; 
Foe not informidable, exempt from wound — 
I not; so much hath Hell debased, and pain 
Infeebled me, lo what I was in Heaven. 
She fair, divinely fair, fit love for Gods, 
Not terrible, though terror be in tovc, 


And beauty, not approached by stronger hatc» 
Hale stronger under show of love well feigned—* 
The way which to her ruin now I tend,'* 

So ^pakc the Enemy of Mankind, enc1osJ:d 
In serpent, inmare bad, and toward Eve 
Addressed his way — not with indented wave. 
Prone on the ground, as since, but on his rear, 
Circufar base of rising folds, that towered 
Fold above fold, a surging maze; his head 
Crested aloft, and carbuncle his eyes; 
Wiih burnished neck of verdant gold, erect 
Amidst his circling spires, that on the grass 
Floated redundjinl, Pleasing was his shape 
And lovely; never since the serpent kind 
Lovelier— not those that in llJyria changed 
Hermione and Cadmus, or the God 
bi Epldaurus; nor to which transformed 
Ammonian jove, or Capitoline, was seen, 
He with Olympias, this with her who bora 
Scipio, the hi^hih of Rome. With tract oblique 
At lirsin as one who sought access hut feared 
To interrupt, sidelong he vvorks his way. 
As when a ship, by skilful steersman wrought 
Nigh river's mouih or foreland^ where the wind 
Veers oft, as oh so steers, and shifts her sail, 
So varied he, and of his tortuous Erain 
Curled many a wanton wreath in sight of Eve, 
To lure her eye. She, busied, heard the sound 
Of rustling leaves, but minded not, as used 
To such disport before her through the field 
From every beasE^ more duteous at her call 
Than at Circean call the herd disguised. 
Hi.\ bolder now, uncalled l>efore her stood. 
But as in gaze admiring, Ofi he bowed 
His turret crest and sleek enamelled neck. 
Fawning, and licked the ground whereon she trod. 
His gende dumb e>:pre55ion turned at length 
The eye of Eve Co mark his play; he, glad 
Of her attention gained, with serpeni'toncue 
Organic, or impulse of voca] air, 


Hi^ fraudulenc templation [hus began: — 

"Wonder not, iovran mistress (i( perhaps 
Thou canst who an sole wonder), much less arm 
Thy looks, ihe heaven of mildnL'Ss^ with disdain, 
Displeased thai I approach tliee thus, and ga^e 
InsaiJate, 1 thus single, nor have feared 
Thy awful brow, more awful thus retired. 
Fairest rcstmbl.ince of thy Maker fair, 
Thee aU things living ga^.e on, dl things thine 
By gift, and thy celestial bcauly adore, 
With ravishment beheld— there best beheld 
Where universally admired- But here » 
In this enclosure wild, these beasts among. 
Beholders rude, and shallow to discern 
Half what rn thee is fair, one man CKcepl, 
Who sees ihec (and what is one?) who shouldst 

be seen 
A Goddess among Gods, adored and served 
By Angels numbedess, thy daily train?'* 

So gtozed the Tempter, and his proern tuned. 
Into the heart of Eve his words made way, 
Though at the voice much marvelhng; at length, 
Not unamazed, she thus in answer spake: — 

"What may this mean? Language of Man pro- 
By tongue of brute* and human sense expressed! 
The firsi at least of these I thought ticnied 
To beasts, whom God on their creation-day 
Created mute to all articulaie sound; 
The latter T demur, for in their looks 
Much reason, and in their actions, oft appears. 
Thee, Scr[jeni, subtlest beast of all the field 
I knew, but not with human votce endued; 
Redouble, then, this miracle, and say, 
How earnest tfiou spcakable of muto* and how 
To me so friendly grown above the rest 
Of brutal kind that daily are in sight: 
Say, for such wonder claims jUenrion due." 

To whom the guileful Tempter thus replied:^ 
"Empress of this fair World, resplendent Evef 


Easy to me it is [r> lell thee all 

What ihoo command'st, and right tliou shouldst 

be obeyed. 
T was at first as other beasts that graze 
The trodden herb, of abject thoughts and low. 
As was my food, nor aughi but food discerned 
Or sex* and apprehended nothing high: 
Till on a day, roving the field, [ chanced 
A goodly tree far distant to behold, 
Loaden wiih fruit of fairest colours mixed* 
Kuddy and gold. 1 nearer drew to gaze; 
When ivoiii the bough5 a savoury odour blown, 
Grateful to appetile, more pleased my sense 
Than smelt of sweetest fennel* or the teats 
Of ewe or goat dropping with miJk at even, 
Unsuckcd of lamb or kid, that lend their play. 
To satisfy the sharp desire I had 
Of lasting those fair Apples, 1 resolved 
Not to defer; hunger and thirst at once, 
Powerful persuaders, quickened at the scent 
Of that alluring fiui[* urged mc so keen. 
About the mossy trunk I wound me ^oon; 
Fofj high from ground, the branches would 

Thy utmost reach, or Adam's; round the Tree 
All other beasts That saw, with like desire 
Longing and envying stood, but coutd not reach. 
Amid the tree now got, where plenty hun^ 
Tempting so nigh, to pluck and eat my fill 
i spared not; for such pleasure till that hour 
At feed or fountain never had I found. 
Sated at length, ere long I might perceive 
Strange alteration in me, 10 degree 
Of Reason in my inward poweis, and Speech 
Wanted not long, though to this shape retained. 
Thenceforth to speculations high or deep 
i turned my ihoughis, and with capacious mind 
Considered all ibings visible in Heaven, 
Or Earth, or Middle, all things fair and good. 
But all that fair and good in thy Divine 


276 JOHN MILTON book iit 

Semblance, and In ihy beauty's hi^avenly ray, 

United I bcheld^no fair to ibinc 

Equivalcnn or second; which compeUed 

Me ihusj ihough importiine perhaps, 10 come 

And ga^rP, and worship thee of rij-ht declared 

Sovran ot creatures, universal Darnel' 

So talked the spirited sly Snake; and £ve, 

Yet more amazed, unwary thus replied: — 
"Serpent, thy overpraising leaves in doubt 

The virtue of that Fruit, in thee first proved. 

But say, where grows the Tree? from hence how 

For many are the trees of God that grow 

In Patadise, and various, yet unknown 

To us; in such abundance lies our choice 

As leaves a greater store of fruit untouched, 
Still hanging incorrupsible, till men 

Grow up to iheir provision, and more hands 
Help to disburden Nature of her hearth." 

To whom the wily Adder, blithe and glad; — 
*'Emj«ess, the way is ready, and not long- 
Beyond a row of myrtles, on a ^at. 
Fa^t by a fountain, one small thicket past 
Of blowing myrrh and balm. If thou accept 
My conduct, I can bring ihee thither soon." 

"Lead, then/' said Eve. He, leading, swifdy rowled 
In tangles, and made intricate seem straight. 
To mischief swift. Hope elevates, and joy 
Brightens his cresi. As wheii a wandering fire, 
Compact a[ unctuous vapour, which the night 
Condenses, and the cold inviron? round, 
Kindled throujjh agitation to a llame 
(Which ofif thoy say» some evil Spirit attends). 
Hovering and blazing with delusive hght. 
Misleads thi^ amazed night-wanderer from his way 
To bogs and mires, and oft through pond or pool, 
There swallowed up and lost, from succour fan 
So glistered the dire Snake, and into fraud 
Led Eve, our credulous mother, to the Tree 
Of Prohibition, root of all our woe; 


Which when she saw, ihu^ to her guide she spake: — 

"Serpent J we might have spared our coming hUher^ 
Fruiiless co me, though fruit be here to excess^ 
The credit o£ whose virtue rest wiih ihee — 
Wondrous^ indeed, if cause of such effects! 
But of this tree we may not taste nor touch; 
God 50 commanded, and kf[ thai command 
Sole daughier of his voicen the rest, we hve 
Law to ourselves; our Reason is our Law*" 

To whom the Tempter guilefully replied: — 
Indeed! Hath God then said that of the fruit 
Of all [hese garden-[rees ye shiill not eat, 
Yet lords declared of all in Earth or Air^" 

To whom thus Eve, yet sinless: — "Of the fruit 
Of each tree in the garden we may eat; 
But of the fruii of this fair Tree, amidst 
The Garden, God hath said^ 'Ye shaU not eat 
Thereof, nor shall ye touch it^ lest ye die/ " 

She scarce had said, though brSef, whesi now more 
The Tempter, but, with ih^w of zeal and love 
To Man, and indignation at his wrongs 
New part pot^ ont and, as to passion moved, 
Fluctuates disturbed, yei comely, and in acE 
Raised, as of some great maicer to begin- 
As when of old some orator renowned 
In Athens or free Rome, where eloquence 
Flourished, since mute^ tn some great cause addressed^ 
Stood in himstlf collected^ while each part, 
Motion, each aci, won audience ere the tongue 
Sometimes in highih began, as no delay 
Of preface brooking through his zeal of right: 
So standing, moving, or to highth upgrown, 
The Tempter, all impassioned, thus began; — 
^'O sacred, wise, and wisdom-gtving Plants 
Mother of science! now 1 feel ihy power 
"Wlihin me clear ^ not only to discern 
Things in their causes, but to trace the ways 
Of highest agents ^ deemed however wise- 
Queen of ihis Universe! do not believe 

278 JOHN MILTON eOoeo: 

Those rigid thrc^la of death. Ye shall not dfe. 

How should yeP By the Fruit? it gives you life 

To knowledge- By the Threatenern^ look on mcj 

Me who liavc touched and lasted^ yet bo[h liv*;, 

And life more perfet have auained than Fate 

Meant me^ by venlunng^ higher than my lot. 

Shall ihai be shut lo Man which to the Ecast 

Is open? or will God incense his ire 

For such a petty trespass, and not praise 

Raihtr your dauntless viriue, whom the pain 

Of death deriouncedj whatever thing Death he, 

Deterred not from achieving^ what might lead 

To happier life^ knowledge of Good and Evil? 

Of goodj how just! of evil — if what is evil 

Be realj why not known, since easier shunned? 

God, therefor&j cannot hurt ye and be just; 

Not just, not God; not feared then, nor obeyed; 

Your fear itself of death removes the (ear. 

Why, then, was this forbidi^ Why but to awe. 

Why but to keep ye low and ignorant^ 

His worshipersP He knows that in the day 

Ye eat tlieroof yonr eyes, that seem so clear, 

Yc( are bui dim, shall perfcdy be then 

Opened and cleared, and ye shall be as Gods, 

Knowing both good and evil, as they know* 

That ye should be as GodSp since 1 as Man, 

Internal Man, is but proporEion meet — 

I^ of bruit?, human; ye^ of human, Gods* 

So ye shall die perhaps, by putting off 

HumaOj to put on Gods — death to be wished^ 

Though threatened, which no worse ilun this can 

And what are GodSj that Man may not become 
As they, participating jjodlike food? 
The Gods are first, and that advantage use 
On our belief, that all from ihem procecds, 
I question it; for this fair Karth T see. 
Warmed by the Sun, producing every kind; 
Them noihfng. If they all chings, who enclosed 
Knowledge of Good and Evil in ihis Tree, 


Thar whoso ear$ thereof forthwith attains 
Wisdom without their leave? anJ wherein lies 
T!ic offence, that ihoufJ thus attain to know? 
What can your knowledge hurt him» or thii Tree 
Impart a^jfinat his will, i£ all be his? 
Or is it envy? and can envy dwell 
In Heavenly breasts? These^ Ehe^e and many more 
Causes import your need of this fair Fruit. 
Goddess hmnaneT rtach» then, and freely Easte!" 

He ended; and his words» replete with guile. 
Into her hearC too easy entrance won. 
Fixed on the Fruit she gazed, which to behold 
Might tempt alone; and in her cars the sounJ 
Yet rung of his persuasive words, iinpregned 
With reason, to her seeming, and wiih truth. 
Meanwhile the hour ot noon drew on. and waked 
An eager appeUEe. raised by the smell 
So savoury of that Fruit, which with desire, 
Inclinable now grown to touch or taste» 
Solicited her longing eye; yet first, 
Pausing a while, thus to herself she mused? — 

"Great are thy virtues, doubtless, best of Fruits, 
Though kept from Man, and worthy to be admired, 
Who$e laste, too long forborne, at Arst assay 
Gave elocution to the mute, and taught 
The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise. 
Thy praise he also who forbids thy use 
Conccnis not frum US, naming thee the Tree 
Of Knowledge, knowledge both of Good and Kvil; 
Forbids us then Xo taste. But his forbidding 
Commends thee more, while it infers the good 
By thee communicated, and our want; 
For good unknown sure is not bad, or, had 
And yet unknown, is as not had at all. 
In plain, then, whnt forbids he but to know? 
Forbids us good, forbids us to be wisel 
Sucfx prohibitions bind not. Bur, if Death 
Bind us with after-bands, what profits then 
Our inward freedom? In the day we eat 
Oi thi$ fair Fruit, our doom is we shall diel 

28o JOHN MILTON book IX 

How <Iies the Serpent? He hatK eaten, and lives, 

And knows, and spciiks, and reasuns, and discerns. 

Irrational tilt liien. For us alone 

Was death invented? or to us denied 

This intellectual food, for beasts rewrved? 

For beasis it seems^ yet thai; one bejst which first 

Hath tasted envies not, but biiags with joy 

The good befallen him, author unsuspect. 

Friendly to Man, far from deceit or gjilc. 

What fear I, thenP rather, what know to fear 

Under this ignorance of Good and Evil, 

Of God or Death, of law or penalty? 

Here grows the cure ot all, this Fruit divine^ 

Fair to the eye, inviting to the taste, 

Of virtue to make wise. What binders, then. 

To reach, and teed at once both body and mind?" 

Solving, her rash hand in gyJl hou^ CXC- P 

ForthTe achinff to the Fniit, she plucked, she eat . 
Ea rtJTlcir the wounds a nd Nature j|r oai_hgr seat^ 
Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe 
That all was lost. Bac k to the th icket slunk 
The auilty Serjient, anJ wdl m[gh Oor~E ve, 
Tntenniow~o?iI7^ Tier taste, naught else 
Regarded; such delight till then, as seemed. 
In fruit she never lasted, whether true, 
Or fancici! so through expectation high 
Of knowledge; nor was Godhead from iier thought. 
Greedily she ingorged without restraint. 
And knew not eating death. Satiate at length. 
And higlitcned as with wine, jocond and boon, 
Thus to herself she pleasingly began: — 

*'0 sovran, virtuous, precious of all trees 
In Paradise! of operation blest 
To sapience, hitherto obscured, infamed. 
And ihy fair Fruit let hang, as to no end 
Created^ but henceforth my early care. 
Not without song, each morning, and due [iraise, 
Shall tend thee, and the fertil burden ea^ 
Of thy full branches, offered free to all; 
Till, dieted by thee, I grow mature 

£0OK [X 


In knowledge, as the Gods who all things know^ 
Though others envy what ihcy cannot give — 
for, iiaJ die gift been cheirs, it liad not here 
Thus grown! Experience, next to thee I owe, 
Best guide: not following ihee^ I had remained 
In ignorance; chou open'sc Wisdom^s way. 
And giv'sE access, thoiigh secret she retire- 
And I perhaps am secret: Heaven is high — 
High^ and remote to see from ihence disttnct 
Bach ihing on Earth; and other care perhaps 
May have diverted from continual waich 
Our great Forbidderj safe widi all his Spies 
About him. But to Adam in what sort 
Shall I appear? Shall I to him make known 
As yet my change, and give him to partake 
Full happiness with me^ or rather not, 
But keep the odds of knowledge in my power 
Without copartner? so ly add what wants 
In female sex, the more to draw hh love. 
And rendei jtie more equal, and perhaps — 
A thing not undesirable — someume 
Superior; for, inferior^ who h free? 
This may be well; but what if God have seen. 
And death eniue? Then 1 shall be no more; 
And Adam, wedded to another Eve^ 
Shall live with her enjoying, 1 extinct! 
A death to ihinki Confirmed, then, I re^nlve 
Adam shall share with me in biiss or woe. 
So dear I love him that with him all deaths 
I could endurfip without him Hv£ no Ufe/^ 

So saying, from the Tree her step ^he turned. 
But jirst low reverence done^ as to ihe Power 
That dwelt widiirij whose presence had infused 
Into the plant sciential sap, derived 
From neclar, diink of Gods. Adam the while. 
Waiting desirous her return, had wove 
Of choicest Qowers a garland, to adorn 
Her tresses^ and her rural labours crown^ 
As reapers oft are wont their harvest<|ueen. 
Great joy he promised to his thotiglits, and new 


Solace in her returiij so long delayed^ 

Yel oh his hearlj Jivlne of something iH, 

Misgave him. He the faltering measure felt, 

Aiid ionh to meet her wenr, the way she took 

That morn when first they parted. By [he Tree 

Of Knowledge he must pass; there he her mer. 

Scarce frocn the Tree returning; in her hand 

A bough o{ l^trcit fruit, I hat downy smiled^ 

New gathered^ and ambrosial smeU diilused. 

To hini ihe hasted; in her face excuse 

Came prologue, and apology to prompt^ 

Whichj with bland words at will, she thus addressed:^ 

"Hast thou not wondered, Adam, at my stay? 
Thee I ha^e missed, and lhoLi[;ht it long^ deprived 
Thy presence — agony of love till now 
Not feit^ nor shall be twice; for never more 
Mean I to lrj\ what nti^h untried i sought. 
The pain of absence from ihy sight^ But strange 
Hath been the eause^ and wonderful to hear. 
This Tree h not, as we are rold, a Tree 
Of danger tasted^ nor to evil unknown 
Opening the way^ but of divine eilect 
To open eyes, and make ihem Gods who laste; 
And hath been tasted 5ueh. The Serpent wi^e, 
Qr not restrained as w^e, or not obeying, 
Hath eaten of the Fruity and is become 
Not dead, as we are threatened^ hut thenceforth 
Endued with hum^n voice and humsm sense, 
Reasoning to admiration, and with me 
Persuasively liath so prevailed that I 
Have also tasied, and have also found 
The effects to correspond — opener mine eyes, 
Dim erst, dilated spirits, ampler heart. 
And growing up to Godhead; which for thee 
Chiefly I soujihl^ without thee can dcspise, 
For bhssj as thou hast partj to me is bhss; 
Tedious, unishared with thee, and odinus soon» 
Thou, therefore, also laste^ that equal tot 
May join us, equal joy, as equal love; 
Lest, thou not tastings different degree 



Disjoin us^ and I (hen too laic renounce 
Dcily for tKee, when fate will not permit." 

Thus Eve with counienance blithe her story told; 
But in her check disicmpcr flushing glowed^ 
On ihe oEher slJe, Adam^ soon as he heard 
Th e fatal trespass done by Eve^ ama/, cd, 
Aston ied stood and LiLaak^ while horror chil l 

Ran^ihraugh _hi5._iejns, a nd all hJs joint^^g lgj^CiL 
From his slack hand the garland wreathed for Eve 
Down dropt^ and all th& faded roses shed. 
Speechless he ^Eood and pale, [ill thu^ at length 
First to himself he inward silence broke: — 

*^0 fairest of Crcjilcon^ last and h^st_ 
Of all God's works^ creature in whom excelled 
Whatever cnn to sight or thought be formedj 
Holy, divine, ^ood^ amiable, or sweet! 
How ari ihou In^r! how on a sudden lost. 
Defaced^ deflowered, and now to death devoid 
Karher^ how hast thou yielded to transgress 
The strict forbiddancei how to violate 
The sacred Fruit forbidden? Some curbed fraud 
Of enemy hath beguiled thee, yet unknown^ 
And me with thee hath ruined; for with thee 
Certain mv resoluTion is to die- 
How caiTTTive without thee? iiow forgo 
Thy $weet converse, and love so dearly joined^ 
To live again in these wild wood^ forlorn; 
Should God create another Eve^ and I 
Another rib afT&rd, yet loss of thee 
Would never from my heart. No> no! f feel 
The link of nature draw me: flesh of fleshp 
Bone of my bone thou arc^ and from thy state 
Mine never shall be parFed, bliss or woe " 

So having said^ as one from sad dismay 
Recomfortedj and, after thoughts disturbedp 
Submitting to what seemed remediles^^ 
Thus in calm mood his words to Eve he turned; — 

"Bold deed thou hast presumed, adventrous Eve, 
And peril great provoked, who thus hasx dared 
Had it been only coveting to eye 


"Tliat sacred Food, sacred to abstinence- 

Much more to taste it, under ban to touch. 

Bill past who can recall, or done undo? 

Not God Omnipotent, nor Falc^ Yet so 

Perhaps thou shall not die; perhaps the fact 

h not so hainous nou' — foreEasied Fruit, 

Profaned firsl by the Serpent^ by him first 

Made common and unhallowed ere our ia$ie, 

Nor yet on him found deadly. He yet lives- — 

Lives, as thou saidst, and gains to live, as Man, 

Higher decree of life: inducement stronj; 

To us, as likely, tabling, to attain 

Pro|ioriional ascent; which cannof be 

But to be Gods, or Ang?ls, Demi-gods. 

Nor can J think that God, Creator wi^e. 

Though threatening^ will in earnest so destroy 

Us, his prime creatures^ dignified so hii^h, 

Set over all his works; which, in our f^a[l» 

For u^ created, needs with us must fail, 

Dependent made- So God shall uncreate, 

Be frustrate, do, undo, and labour lose — 

Not well conceived of GotI; who, though hi'i power 

Creation could repeat, yel would be loth 

Us to abolish, test the Adversary 

Triumph and say: Tickle their state whom God 

Most favours; who can please him long? Me first 

He ruined, now Mankind; whom will he next?* — 

Matter of scorn not to be given die Foe, 

However, I with thee have fixed my lot, 

Certain to undergo like doom. If death 

Consort with thee, death is to me as life; 

So forcible within my heart I feel 

The bond of Nature draw me to my own— 

My own is diee; for what thou art is mine- 

Our state cannot be severed; we are one. 

One flesh; 10 lose thee were to lose myself." 

So Adam; and thus Eve to him replied: — 
"O glorious trial of exceeding love, 
Illustrious evidence, example highl 
[ngaging me to emulate; butj short 


Of thy perEcciiotij how shall I attain^ 

A<iamP from whose dear side I boast me sprung^ 

And gladly of our union hear thcc speak. 

One heart, one wul in bodi; whereof good proof 

This day affords^ declflring ihee reioKed^ 

Ranher than deaths or aughi ihan death iii^orc dread, 

Shall separate uSp linked in love so dear. 

To un derg o wiih meone_^uiltj one crimej 

Tf any be, ot tasting this fa ir Fniit ; 

Who5e virtue (for of good siitl good proceeds, 

Direct, or by occasioh) huh presented 

This happy trial of [hy love^ which else 

So eminendy never h:iJ been known^ 

Were it I thought death menaced would ensue 

This mv attemptj 1 would sustain alone 

The worstj and not persuade thee — rather die 

Deserted rhan ohiige ihce wiih a fact 

Pernicious 10 thy peace, chiefly assured 

Remarkably so bte of ihy so irue. 

So faithful Eove unec^^ualled. But I feel 

Far otherwise ihe e^en^ — not deaih^ but hfe 

Augmenledj opened eyes, new hopes, new joys, 

Taste so divine that what of sweet bc^fore 

Hath louched my sense flat seems to this and harsh. 

On my experience, Adam^ freely raste, 

And fear of death deliver to the winds/' 

So sayingt she embraced him^ and for joy 
Tenderly wept, much won that he his love 
Had so ennobled as of choice to incur 
Divine displeasure for her sake, or death- 
Tn recompense (for such compliance l^d 
Sueh recompense best rneriis), from the bough 
She ^ve him of that fair enticing Fruit 
With liberal hand. He scrupled not to cat, 
Against his belter knowledge* not deceived, 
But fondly overcome with female charm, 
Ear ih tre mbled from _her entrails, as aj^a in 
Tn_pangs, and Nature gave a secon d gr oan; 
Sky loured, a nd^j riutterinj; thund^r^ some sad drops 
Wept^ai ^omj ileiing 0^ the rnor[at Sin 


286 JOHN MILTON book ix 

Original; while Adai^ took no ihoughc, 
Tafing bi^ Rllt nor Eve to iterate 
Her former trespass feared, the more to soothe 
Him with her fcoved society; that no^. 
As wiih new wine jnyw^ted^ 
They swim in mirths and fancy that they feel 
Divinity within ihem breeding ^vings 
Wherewith to ^mrn the Earth. But that false Fruit 
Far other operation first displayed^ 
Carnat desire inflaming. He on Eve 
Began to cast lascivious eyes; she him 
As wantonly repaid; in lust they bnrn^ 
Till Ad^m thus *gan Eve to dalHaiiL:e move: — 

^'Eve, now I see thon art exact of taste 
And elegant — of sapience no small pru 
Since to each meaning savour we applv. 
And palate call judicious. I the praise 
Yield thee; so well this d.iy thou hast p;irveyed- 
Much pleasure we have lost^ while we abstained 
From this delightful Fruit, nor known til! now 
True relishj la^tcng- If ^uch pleasure be 
Jn [hinjis to us forbidden, it might be wI^IuhI 
For ihis one Tree had been forbidden ten* 
But come; sn well refreshed^ now lei us play, 
As meet is, after such delicious f^ire; 
For never did ihv beautv, since the dav ! 

r r J ■ 

I saw thee first and wedded ihee, adorned 

With afl perLections. so enflame my sense ^ 

With ardour to enjoy thee, fairer now "^ 

Than ever — bounty of this virtuous Tree!*' ! 

So saitl he, and forbore not glance or toy i 

Of amorous intent, well understood I 

Of Eve, whose eye darted contagious liren J 

Her hand he seized, and to a shady bank. i 

Thick overhead with verdacit roaf imbowered. 
He l^d her, nothing loth; flov/ers were the couch^ 
Pansies^ and violets, and asphodel. 
And hyacififh — Earth^s freshest, softest lap. 
Titere they iheir fill of love and lovers disport 
Took laigely, of their mutual gilt the seal^ 





The solace of their sin, lill Jewy sleep 

Oppri:S5ed Uietrii wearit^d wiih their amorou? play. 

Scion ;ts ihc lorce oi lli^t fallacious Fruil, 
'rh:it with exhilarating v^ipour bUnd 
Abuiic iheir spirits liad played^ and inmo^i po^vcrs 
Made err, was now tixhaletl, and jjro^ser sleeps 
Bryd of unkindly fumes* with conscious dreams 
Incumbered, now had left ihem, up ihcv rose 
As from unrest, and* uach Uie oilier vieiving. 
Soon found ihcir eyes how opened^ and their minds 
How darkened. Innocence, that as a veil 
Had i[([idowed ihem frnrn knowing ill, was gone; 
Just conlidcnce* and native righteousness, 
And honour, from about them, naked left 
To guilly Shame: he covered* but his robe 
Uncovered more. So rose (he Danite strong, 
Merculean Samson, from the harlot-lap 
Of Philjstean DaJilah, and waked 
Shorn of his sirtn|;Lh; thi^y destitute and bare 
Of all iheir virtue. Silent, and in face 
Confounded^ long tliey sat* as scruckeii mute; 
Till Adam. thou;^h not les^ than Eve abashed. 
At length gave utterance to these words constrained; — 

"O Eve, in evil hour ihou didst ^ive ear 
To that false Worm, of whomioever taught 
To counterfeit Man's \oice — true in our fall* 
False in our promised rising; ; since our eyes 
Opened we find indeed, and find we know 
Both good and evil* gooti lost and evil got: 
Gad Fruit of Knowledge, if this he to know, 
Which leaves u^ naked thus, of iionour void, 
Of innocence, of faith, ot purity, 
Our wonted ornaments now soiled and stained. 
And in our faces evident the signs 
Of foul concupiscence; whence evil store* 
Even shame, the last of evils; of the first 
Be sure then. How shall T behold the face 
Henceforth of God or Angel, er.'il with joy 
And rapture so oft beheldp Those Heavenly Shapes 
Will dazzle now ihi^ earthly with their blaze 


288 JOHN MILTON book ex 

Insufferably brighE. Oh, might I here 
In solitude live Sflvajie, in some glade 
Obscured, whtre highest woods, ImpenerrjbJe 
To siar or sunlight, spread [heir umbra^^e broad, 
And brown as evening. Cover me, ye pines! 
Ye cedars, with innumerable boughs 
Hide me, where [ may never see them morel 
Bui ler us now, as in bad plight, devise 
What best may, for the present, serve Co hide 
The pans of each other ih;iC seem mo:^t 
To shame obno^rfotis, and unsecmhcsi seen — 
Some tree, whose broad sniootlj leaves, together sewed. 
And girded on our loins, may cover round 
Those middle parts, thai this new comer. Shame* 
There sit not, and reprnach us as unclean. " 
So counselled he, and both logeiher went 
Into the thickest wood. There soon thev choose 
The fig trt(> — not [hat kind for Ituii renowncdj 
But such aSj at this day, lo Indiana known. 
In Malabar or Dt^c.m spreaJ:* her arms 
Braunchinjr so bfoad and lon^ ihat in the ground 
The bended twigs lake rooi, and daughters grow 
About (he moLhcr trce^ a pillared shad^ 
Hi^h ovcrarcbedj and echoing wjilks herwe*?n; 
There oti the Indian herdsman, shunning hea^. 
Shelters in cool^ and [ends his pasturing herds 
At loo]>holes cut ihrough thi[:kesc shade. Tho^e leaves 
They galhert^d^ broad as Amazonian large. 
And with wha( skill ihey together sewed, 
To gird their waist — vain coveringp it lo hide 
Their guik and dreaded shame! O how unlike 
To that first naked gloryt Such of lace 
Columbus found ihe American, so gtrt 
W[[h feathered cincture, naked else and wilJ^ 
Among the trees on isles and woody shores^ 
Thus fencedp and, as they thought, thesr shame in part 
Covered, buc not at resi or ease of mindp 
They sat ihem down to weep- Nor only tears 
Rained at their eyes, but High winds worse within 
Began to rise, high passions — in^er, hate^ 




Mistni^i^ suspicion, discord — ■and shook sore 
Th&ir inward state of mind, calm region once 
And ful! of peace, now tost and tarbulent: 
For Understanding ruled nolj snd the Will 
Heard not hor lore, both in subjection now 
To seniual ApiHJtite, «'ho, from ben4?3th 
^^'jrph]^; "^er sovran Rea son, c]aimt?d 
Superior sway. From thus drstcmf>ercd breast 
Adam, estranged in look and altered style, 
Speech inicrmitleJ thus to Eve renewed;^ 

"Would ihou hadst hearkened t o my^vprds. and stav ed 
With me, a$ I be sought ihee, whenthatstranize 
Deifre of viandering, iliis unhappy morn, 
1 knoiv not l^'flence possessed iheef We had then 
Remained siill happy — not, as now, di:^poilcd 
Of all our yood, shamed, naked, miserabk'! 
Let none hcncefonh seek needless cause to approve 
The faith they owe; when earnestly tlicy setk 
Such proof, conclud<^ they then begin lo fail." 

To whom, soon moved with touch of blamL\ ihiXi 
"What words have passed thy lips, Adam severe? 
ImpuLst thou that 10 my default, or wilE 
Of wandering, as thou call'st it, s^hich who knows 
Bui mij;ht as ill have happened thou being by. 
Or to thywlf perhaps? Hadsi thou been there, 
Or here the attempt, thou eouldsi not have discerned 
Fraud in the Serpent, speaking asTic^ spate; 
No ground of enmity between us known 
Why he should mean me ill or seek to hjrm, 
M'as I to have ntver parted from thy side? 
As good have grown there siilL a Elleless rib. 
Being as 1 am. why didst not ihou, the Headj 
Command me absolutely not to go, 
Going into such danger, as thou saidst? 
Too facile then, thou didst not much j^ainsay, 
Nay. didst permit, approve, and fair dismiss, 
Hadsi thou been firm and fixed in thy di5seni. 
Neither had I transgressed, nor thou wiih me. " 

To whom, then first incensed, Adam replied; — 


*7s this the love, is iliis ihe recompense 

Of rntne to thee, ingraiefti! Eve, expressed 

Immuiable ^vhen thou wcrt lose, not 1 — 

Who might have livcd^ and joyed immartal bliss, 

Yet willingly chose ra ther death with the e? 

And am IlTow upbraided as the cau^e 

Of thy transgressing? noL enough severe, 

It seems, in thy restraintl What cauJd I more? 

I warned ihee, I admonis hed th ee, torecold 

The dange r^ and t he lurking Enemy 

That ]ayiri wait; beyonif tliis had been force. 

And force uporTIree wIlfTiatKEere no place. 

But confidence then bore thee on, secure 

Either to meet no danger, or 10 find 

Matter of glorious trial; and perhaps 

1 also erred in overmuch admiring 

What seemed in thee so perfet that I thought 

No evil durst attempt thee* Bui 1 rue 

Thai ^rfQT jiQw. which 15 become my crime. 

And ihou ihe accuser. Thus ii shall befall 

Him who^ to worih in women overirustingp 

Lei5 her will rule: restramt she will noE brook; 

Andj left to herself^ if evil thence cnsuc^ 

She first his weak indulgence will accuse." 

Thus they in mutual accusation spent 
The Iruitless hours^ bui neither self-condemning; 
And of their vain contest" appeared no end. 


Thi- AftCL^tENTr — Man's transgrc^ion Itjir^^vn^ the iruardian Angela for^alr^ Paradisej 
and return up l<3 Hoavtn to a|iprovc lh<:it ^'igilnincc, ^nd are a(>provcd; GcmJ declaring 
thai tlic crtiriince ol S^iT-in i:tiuld nut be by them prevented. He send^ hh S^ii To 
judiit ihc rranii£Tt'5sor5; who dC5CtndSi and yivcj ^Aitnce aecofdinElys thtiin in i>icj', 
elotlies them both, and r^.i^end^. Sin nnd Death, sitting LJIi then at Lhc gates of HeUn 
lyy wondrous ^yn^psiiiay feetin^ the ^uccesi^ oi Satan in Lhis new World, and the ^m 
t^' Man th«rt ■;c>rTitniticdH rc^nUe co &it no longer ctinfined in HclK btn to fotln^ 
Sjtan, their sire, up Lo the place oi M^n: to make the way easier from Hell to this 
Wi;rld TO and do, thiry i^ave a broad highway or bridge over Chjo^, according; to 
ihti Track ihai Satan lirs^ made; thcni prc|jai"ing (or Eardi, rliey meet hir^^ proud of 
his success^ feturnin]^ to tlelh thc^li' itiutual ^ratiila[ion. S;it3n arrives :^t Pan- 
demonium; in full as^^mbiy relates, with bc^ahtin^h his success against Man: ]jiste4jd ol^ 
jp(>lau^ is L-ntertaincd ^viih a t^neral hi^s by all ht& ^tudltn^e, ir^nsformed^ with 
him^^if alsOt sutldcniy into Scrpcncsi accordm^ to hi^ doom given in Paradise; thcnj 


delude with a shew f>f ih? Fr>rl]](!cltn Trtt sprinirinir up before ihem, they^ precdily 
reaching to take ot the Fruity thcw ditjc and l>iuer ai.tie&. fhe procttdiOK* ^^ ^Ln Pn<l 
Death: G(xi forttellj The Rnii victory" of his Son over them, and che renewing of all 
thin^L buc, for clie pr^eiUp ccunmsnds hig An^li tu make several alterations in the 
tleavens and Elemenii. Adam, more and mr>;t percvi^-idfi his f^Hcrt condicton, 
heavity be^vails, rejects the iiondolement oE Eve; she persists, and ^t lenj^th appeases 
him: thenj to evade the cuf^e likely to fjll on their olT^priai^^^ proposes tfj Adam 
vi^jkni ways; wbich he ^tiproves not, IrtJtk cunccivinp beTter hope, puti. her in mind 
of the late promise made them, that her seed should be rtvcrri^ed on the Serpents 
and exhorts her, with IiLtIt to seek peace of die offended Deiiy by rcp^.'Jiranc:e and 

Meanwhile ihe hainous and despiteful act 

OE Satan done in Paradisej and how 

HPj in the Serpent, had perverted Eve, 

Her husband she, to taste the fatal Fruit, 

Was known in Heaven; for what can scape the eye 

OE God all-seeingj or deceive his heart 

Omniscient? who, in all ihitigs wi^e and just, 

Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind 

Of Man, with strength cnlire and free will armed 

Complete to have discovered and repulsed 

Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend. 

For scii] they knesVj and ought to have still remembered, 

The high injiincciar; not to taste that Fruit, 

Whoever tempted; which they not obeymg 

Incurred (what coufd they lessP) the penalty, 

And, manifold in sin, deserved lo fall. 

Up [nto Heaven from Paradise in haste 

The Angelic Guards ascended, mute and sad 

For Man; for of his state by this they knev/. 

Much wondering how the subtle Fiend had stolen 

Fntrnnce unseen. Soon as the unwelcome news 

From Earth arrived at Heaven -gate, displeased 

All were who heard; dim sadness did not spare 

That time celestial visages^ yet, mixed 

Wiih ptiy, violated not their bliss. 

About the new-arrived in multitudes, 

Tile Ethereal People ran, to hear and kno^v 

How all befell- They towatds the Throne supreme. 

Accountable, made hasie, to make appear. 

With righteous plea, iheit utmost vigilance, 

And easily approved; when the MosE High, 


Eicrnal Father, Irom his secret Claud 
Amidst^ in thunder uttijred eKus hia voice:^ 

"Assembled Angels, and ye Powers returned 
From unsuccesstu! charge, be not tlismayed 
Nor troubled at these tidings from the Earth, 
Which your sincerest care could not prevent, 
Kare[old 50 hitely vvhat xvould come 10 pass, 
When first this Tempter crossed the gulf from Hell. 
1 told ye ihen lie should prevail, and speed 
On his bad errand — Marx should be seduced, 
And flattered out of all, believing lies 
Aj,'aii]St his Maker; no decree of mine, 
Concurring to necessitate his falli 
Or touch with lightest moment of impulse 
His free will, to her own inclining left 
In even scalt. But fallen he ia; and now 
What rests, but that the mortal sentence pass 
On his transgression. Death denounced that day 
Which he presumes already vain and void, 
Because not yet inflicted* as he teared, 
by some immediate stroke, but soon shall hnd 
forbearance no acquittance ere day end. 
[ustice shall not return, as bounty* scorned, 
|iu[ whom send I to judge them? whom but ihee, 
Vicegerent Son? To thee I have transferred 
All judgment, whether in Heaven, or Earth, or Hdl. 
Easy it may be seen thaE I imend 
Mercy colleagut: with justice, sending thee, 
Man's Friend, his Mediator, his designed 
iloih Ransom and Redeemer voluntary, 
And destined Man himself to judge Man fallen," 

So spake the Father; and. unfolding bright 
Toward the right hand his glory, on the Son 
Bla?,ed forth unclouded deity. He fuU 
Resplendent all his Father manifest 
Expressed, and thus divinely answered mild:— 

"Father Eternal, thine is to decree- 
Mine Ijoih in Heaven and I^arth 10 do thy will 
Supreme, that thou in me. thy Son beloved, 
May'st ever rest well pleased, I go lo judge 


On E^Tih these thy transgrtssors; but thou knovv'st^ 
Wlioover jucJgcdj the worsi o[| me must lighi| 
When lime ihull be; for so I undertook 
Before ihcCp and, not repenting^ this obtain 
Of rtghi^ iha[ I may mittgaie ihcir doom 
On me derived- Yei [ sh^l] temper su 
Justice wiih mercy as may ihusiratc most 
Them fully satisfied, and thee appease. 
Attcndatycc none shall iieeti, nor train^ i.shcre none 
Are to behold ihe judgment but the iitdi;ed. 
Those two; the third best absent is condemned^ 
Convict by l^ighjj and rebel to all law; 
Conviclioii 10 the Serpen none belongs " 

Thus saying, from his radtant Seal he rose 
Of high collaieral glory. Him Thrones and Powers, 
Princedoms^ and Dominaiions mljiEstrantj 
Aecompanied to Heaven-gntep from whence 
Eden and all [he coast in prospect lay^ 
Down he dt^Kended sirai^hr; the speed of Gods 
Time counts nol> though with swifiest minutes winged. 

No^v was the Sun in western cadence low 
From noon, and penile airs due al iheir hour 
To fan the Earth now waked, and usher in 
The evening cool^ when he, from wrauth more cool. 
Came, the mild Judge and Intercessor both. 
To sentence Man. The voice of God they heard 
Now walktng in the Garden, by soft winds 
Brought to iheir ears, while day decImeJ; ihey heard, 
And from his presence hid themselves atnong 
The Ehlekest trees^ both man and wilej ttll Godj 
Approaching^ thus to Adam called aloud: — 

"Where art Lhou, Adanij wont with joy to meet 
My comingj seen far off? I miss thee here. 
Not pleased thus onteriained, with solitude, 
Where obvious duty erewhite appeared unsought^ 
Or come 1 kss conspicuous, or whai change 
Absents chee^ or what chance deiains? Come forth!" 

He camcj and wich him Eve^ more loih^ though first 
To oEfendp discountenanced boEh^ and discomposed. 
Love was not in ihcfr looks, either to God 


Or to cacti othcrj but apparent guilt, 

And sham^p and perturbation^ and despaifj 

An^jer^ and obstinacy, and ha[t;, and guile* 

Whence Adam, faltering long, thus 3n$xvered brief: — 

'*I heard ihee in the Garden, and, of thy voice 
Afraidj being nakcd^ hid myself/* To whom 
The gracious Judge^ witbout revile^ repbcd: — ^ 

''My voice ihou ok hast heard, and ba$L not loaredj 
Bui sEill rejoiced; bow is it now become 
So dreadful Eo ibce? Tbat thou art naked \vbo 
Hath [old [hee? Hast tbuu eaieii ot the Tree 
Whereof I gave tbee charge thou $houldsi not eat?" 
To whom tho5 Adam, sore beset, replied: — 

''O Heaven! in evil siratt this day I siand 
Before my Judge— either to undergo 
Myself the total crime, or to accuse 
My other sc^lf, the partner of my life, 
Who$e failings while her fai[b [o me rE^mains^ 
T should conceal^ and not expose to blame 
By my complaint. But strict necessity 
Subdues me, and calamitous constrain^ 
Leit on my head both sin and punishmeur, 
However insupportable, be all 

Devolved; though, should I hold my ptace^ yet ihou 
Wouldsi easily detect what I conceal- 
This Woman J whom ihou mad'st to be my help^ 
And gav'^t me as chy perEet gift, so good, 
So fii^ so accepl^ble^ so dSvine, 
That from her hand I could suspect no Lll^ 
A]id wliat she did, whatever in itself. 
Her doing seemed to justify the deed — 
She gave me ot ihe Tree, and I did eai/^ 
To whom the Sovran Presence ibus replied: — 

"Was she thy God^ thai her thou didst obey 
Before his voice? or was she made thy guide, 
Superior, or but equals that to her 
Thou didat resign thy nianhoodj and ihe pEace 
Wherein God set ibee above her^ made of shoe 
And for thee, whose perfection far excelled 
Hers In alJ real dignity? Adorned 


She \V3% rndecfl, and lovely, to attract 
Thy love, not th^ subjection: and her gifts 
Were such a^ under government wcK seemed^ 
Unseemly lo bear rule; which was thv part 
And person, hadst tliou known thyself arighi/' 

So havini; ^aid^ he thus to Eve in fcw;^ 
"S:iyi Woman» what is this which thou ha&i done?" 

To whom sad Eve, with shame ni^h overwhelmed, 
Conte^sing soon* yet not be^ori^ her |udge 
Bold or loquacious, lhu5 abashed replied: — 
'The Serpent me begailed, and 1 did eai." 

Which when [he Lord God heaFd^ without delay 
To judgment he proceeded on the accused 
Serpent, though bruie. unable eo transfer 
The guili on him who made him insirumeni 
Of mischief, and polluted from the end 
or his creation— justly ihen accursed, 
As vitiated in nature. More to know 
Concerned not Nfan (since he no further knew)» 
Kor altered his offence; yet God at last 
To Satan, first in sin, hi^ doom applied. 
Though in mysterious terms, judged as then best; 
And on the Serjjent thus his curse let fall: — 

''Because ihou hast done this, thou art accursed 
Above all cattle, c3ch beast of the field; 
Upon thy belly grovelling thou shalt go. 
And dust shalt cat all the days of thy life. 
Between thee and ihe Woman I will put 
Enmity, and between thine and her seed; 
Her seed shall bruise thy head, thou bruise his heel " 

So spake ihis oracle — then verified 
When Jesus, son of Mary, second Eve, 
Saw Satan fall like lightning down from Heaven, 
Prince of the Air; then, rising from his grave, 
Spoiled Principalities and Powers, triumphed 
In open shew, and, with ascension bright, 
Captivity led captive through the Air. 
The realm itself of Satan, long usurped, 
Whom He shall tread at last under our feet, 
Even He who now foretold his fatal bruise, 


And to the Wom:in thus his sentence turned:^ 

'Thy sorrow I will greatly muUiply 
By thy conception; children thou shall hr!ng 
in sorrow forth^ and to thy husband's will 
Thine shall submit; he over thee shall rule.'' 

On Adam last ihus judgment he pronounced: — 
"Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife^ 
And eaten of the Tree concerning which 
I charged thee, saying, Thou shah not eat theveoj. 
Cursed is the giound for thy sake; thou in sorrow 
Shalt eat thereof all the days of thy life; 
Thorns also and thisiles it shall bring ihee forth 
Unhid; and thou shalt eat the heib of the held; 
In the sweat oi thy face thou shalt cat bread, 
Till thou return unto the ground; [or thou 
Out of the ground wast taki^n: know ihy birth. 
For dust thou art, and shalt to dust reiurn." 

So judged he Man, both Judge and Saviour sent, 
And the instani stroke of death, denounced that day» 
Removed far olf; then, pitying how they stood 
Before him naked to ihe air, that now 
Must suiter change, disdained not to begin 
Thenceforth the form of servant to assume- 
As when he washed his servants' feel, so now, 
As Father of his family, he clad 
Their nakedness wiih skins of beasts, or slain, 
Or, as the snake, wiih youthful coat repaid; 
And ihought not much to clothe his enemies. 
Nor he their ouc\vard only with ihe skins 
Of beasls, bul inward nakedness, much more 
Opprobrious, with his robe of righteousness 
Arraying, covered from his Father's sighL 
To him with swift ascent he up returned. 
Into his blissful bosom reas^umed 
In glory as of old; 10 him, appeased, 
Alf, though albknowing, what had passed with Man 
Recounted, mixing intercession sweet. 

Meanwhile, ere tbus was sinned and judged on Earth, 
Within the gales of Hell sat Sin and Death, 
In counterview within ihe gales, that now 


Stood open wide^ beEching outrageous flame 
Far inio Chaos^ since the Fiend passed through^ 
Sin opening; who chu$ now to Death began: — 

*'0 Son, why sic we here^ each other viewing 
Idly, while Satan^ our great author, thrives 
In other worlds^ and happier ieat provides 
For us, his offspring dear? It cannot be 
But that success attends him; if mishap 
Ere ti^is he bad returned, with fury driven 
By his Avengers, since no place like tbia 
Can fit his punishment, or their revenge* 
Me thinks I feel new strength within me rise^ 
Wings growings and Jomtnion given me large 
Beyond this Deep— whatever draw^ me on^ 
Or sympacby, or some connaiur^l force, 
Powerful at greatest distance to unite 
With secret amity things of Hke kind 
By secrctest conveyance. Thou, my shade 
Inseparable, must with me along; 
For Death ftom Sin no power can separate. 
But, lest the dtfftcuhy of passing back 
S(ay bis return perhaps over this gulf 
Impassable, impervious, let us try 
(Adventrous work, yet to thy power and mine 
Not unagreeable!) to found a path 
Over this Main from HeU to that new World 
Where Satan now prevails— a monument 
Of merit high to all ibe infernal Host, 
Easing their passage bence, for intercourse 
Ot transmigration, as ibeir lot shall lead. 
Nor can I miss [be way, so strongly drawn 
By this new-felt attraction and instinct/* 

Whom thus the meagre Shadow answered soon:—* 
*^Go whitber fate and inclination strong 
Leads thee; 1 shall not lag behind, nor err 
The way, tbou leading: such a scent I draw 
Of carnage, prey innumerable, and taste 
The savour of deaib from all things there ibac live. 
Nor shall 1 do the work thou enterprisest 
Be wanting, but afford tbee equal aid*" 



So saying, with dclighi he snul^cd the smell 
Of mortal change on Earth. As when a flock 
Of ravenous fowl^ though many a league remote^ 
Ayainst the day oi batUe, to a field 
Where armies lie encamped come flying, lured 
With scent ol: living carcases designed 
For deaih the following day in bloody fight; 
So scented the grim Feature^ and upturned 
His nosirfcl wide into the murky air. 
Sagacious of his quarry ^om so far. 
Then both, from out Hell-gates, into the waste 
Wide anarchy of Chaos, damp and dark. 
Flew diverse^ and^ wiih power (their po^ver was gfeat) 
Hovering upon the waters, what they met 
Solid or shmyj as in raging sea 
Tossed up and down, together crowded drove> 
From each stde shoaling, towards the month of Hell; 
As when two polar winds, blowing adverse 
Upon the Cronian 6ea, lojjelher dfive 
Mountains of ice, that s(op the imagined way 
Beyond Peisora eastward to the rtch 
Cathaian coast- The aggregated soil 
Death wiih his mace petrihc, cold and dry, 
As with a trident smote, and fixed as firm 
As DeloSj floating once; the rest his look 
Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move. 
And with asphaltic slime; broad as ihe gale, 
Deep 10 the roots of Hell the gathered beach 
They fastened, and the mole immense wrau^hl on 
Over the foaming Deep htgh-arched, a bridge 
Of kngih prodigious, jocning to the wall 
Immovaht^ of this now Tencelesi World, 
Forfeit to Deaih — from hence a (>a^^:iiie broad, 
Smooth, easy, inoftensive, down to HelL 
So, if great things to small may be compared, 
Xer>Ecs, ihe libcny of Greece to yoke, 
From Susa, his Mcmnonian palace high. 
Came lo the sea, and, over Hellespont 
Bridging his way, Europe wkh Asia joined, 
And scourged with many a stroke the indignant waves^ 



Now had they bioughi ihe work by wondrous arl 
Pontifical — a ridge of pendent rock 
Over the vexed Abyss^ following the track 
Of Satan^ to the self-same place where he 
First lighted from his wing and landed safe 
From out of Chaos — to the outside bare 
Of ihts Tound World- With pins of adamant 
And chains they made al! fast, too fast they made 
And durable; and now m hide spa^e 
The confines met of empyrean Heaven 
And of [his Worlds and on the left hand Hell, 
Wiih long reach interposed; three several ways 
In sight ol each of these three places led. 
And now their way to Earth they bad descried, 
To Paradise first tending, when^ behold 
Satan, in likeness of an Angel blight 
Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering 
His zenith, while the Sun in Aries rosel 
Disguised he came; but dio^e his children dear 
Their parent soon discerned, (hough in disguise- 
He, after Eve seduced, unmindcd slunk 
Into the wood fast by, and^ changing shape 
To observe the sequel, saw his guiletul act 
By Eve, though all unwceiing^ seconded 
Upon her husband — saw iheir shame than sought 
Vain covertures; but, when he saw descend 
The Son of God to judge them, terrified 
He fledj not hoping to escape, but shun 
The present — fearing^ guiltyj what his wrauth 
Might suddenly inflict; that past, returned 
By night, and, listening where the hapless pair 
Sat in their sad discourse and various plaint, 
Thence gathered his own doom; which understood 
Not instant, but uf future time^ with joy 
And tidings fraught, to Hell he now returned, 
And at the brink of Chaos^ near the foot 
Of this new wondrous pontifice, unhoped 
Met who to meet him came^ his ol^spring dear. 
Great }oy was at iheir meeting, and at sight 
Of that stupendious bridge his joy increased. 



Long he admiring sioodp lill Sin^ his lair 
Inchaniing daughierj thus the silenc^^ broke: — 

"O Paronl, rhese are thy magnific deeds^ 
Thy trophies! which thou view's! as not ihitie own^ 
Thou art their Author and prime Architect, 
For I no sooner in my heart divined 
(My heart, which by a secret harmony 
SiilJ moves with thine^ joined in connexion sweet) 
Thai thou on Earth hadst prospered, which thy look^ 
Novi' also evidence^ bui straight 1 felt — 
Though distant from Lhee woiJds beiwt?en, yet feU— 
ThaE I must after thee with this thy son; 
Such fatal consequence unites us three. 
Hell could no longer hold us in her bounds^ 
Nor this unvoyageable gidl obscuie 
Detain from following thy illustrious track. 
Thou ha-'>l acbievod our liberty^ conlined 
Wiihin Heil-gaies till now; ijiou us impowered 
To fortify thus far, and overlay 
With this portentous bridge the dark Abyss* 
Thine now h all this World; thy virtue hath won 
What thy hand? bui[ded not; ihy wisdom gained, 
With odds, what war hath lost, and fully avenged 
Our foil in Heaven, Here ihou shah MonLirch reignj 
There didst not; there let him still victor sway^ 
As battle hath adjudgtdj from this new World 
Reiiringt by his own doom alienated, 
And henceforth monarchy wiih thee divide 
Of all things, parti]d by the empyreal bounds, 
His quadrature, from ihy orbicular World, 
Or try ihee now more dangerous to his Throne-" 

Whom thus the Prince of Darkness answered gUd:^ 
"Fair daughter, and ihou. son and grandchild both, 
High proof ye now have jjivcn to be the race 
Of KSatjn (for l glory in the name^ 
Antagonist of Heaven^s Almighty King), 
Amply have merited of me, of all 
The Infernal Empire, that so near Heav&n*s door 
Triumphal with triumphal flct have met, 
Mine with this glorious work, and made one realm 


HcTI :ind ihfs World — one rcaJnip one contintznt 
Of easy thorouErhlnrc. Ther^^fore, while [ 
Descend ihrough Darkness, on your ronJ svlih case^ 
To my associate Powers, them to acquamt 
With these successes, and with ihem rejoice 
You two ihis w.iy, among ihose numerous orbs^ 
All yours, righi Jo^vn to Paradise descend; 
There dwell and reign in bliss; thence on the Earih 
Dominion exercise and in ihe air^ 
Chiefly on Man, sole lord of aW declared; 
Him hrsi make 5iire your thrallj and lastly kilL 
My substitutes I send ye^ and create 
Pleni potent on Earthy of matchless might 
Issuing from me. On your joint vigour now 
My hold ot (his new kingdom all depends, 
Through Sin to Death exposed by my explair. 
If your joint power prevail, Lhc affairs of HcU 
No dciritnent need fear; go, and be strong-' 

So ^-tying, he dismissed them; they with speed 
Their course through thickest constellations held. 
Spreading [jieir bane; the blasted stars looked wan, 
And planetSj planct-strook, real eclipse 
Then suflered. The other wny Satan went down 
The causey lo Hell-^te; on either side 
Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed^ 
And with rebounding surge the bats assailed, 
That scorned hts indignation* Through the gate, 
Wide open and unguarded, Satan passed, 
And all about found desolate; for those 
Appointed to sit there had left their chargCj 
Flown to the upper World; the rest were all 
Far to the inland retired, about the walls 
Of Pandt^monium, city and proud seat 
Of Lucifer, ^o by allusion called 
Of that bright star to Satan paragoned. 
There kepi their watch the legions, while the Grand 
To council sat* solicitous what chance 
Might intercept their Emperor seni; 5o he 
Departing gave command^ and they observed- 
As when the Tartar from his Russian foe^ 

302 JOHN MILTON book x 

By Astracan, over the snowy plains* 
Retires, ur Bactrian Sophi, from the horns - 
Of Turkish cresceni, leaves all waste beyond 
The realm of Aladule, in his retreat 
To Tauris or Casbecn; so these, ihe late 
Heaven-banished host, Icfi desert utmost Hell 
Many a dark league, reduced in careful watch 
Round their Metropolis, and now expecting 
Each hour iheir great Adventurer from the search 
Of foreign worlds. He through the midst unmarked, 
In shew plebeian Angel militant 
Of lowest order* passed* and, from the door 
Of that Plutonian hall, invisible 
Ascended his high Throne, which, under &t;iie 
Of richest texture spread, at the upper end 
Was placed in regal lustre. Down a while 
He sat, and round about him saw, unseen. 
At last, as from a cToud, his fulgent head 
And shape srar-bright appeared, or brighter, clad 
With what permissive glory since his fall 
Was left him, or false glitter. All amazed 
At that so sudden blaze, the Stygian throng 
Bent their aspect, and whom they wished beheld. 
Their mighty Chief returned: loud was the acclaim. 
Forth rushed in haste the great consulting Peers, 
Raised from their dark Divan, and with like joy 
Congratulant approached him, who with hand 
Silence, and with these words attention* won: — 
"Thrones, Dominations* Pclncedoins, Virtues, 
Powers! — 
For in possession such, not only of right, 
1 call ye, and declare ye now, returned. 
Successful beyond hope, to lead ye forth 
Triumphant out of this infernal Pit 
Abominable, accursed, the house of woe* 
And dungeon of our tyrant! Now possess. 
As lords, a spacious World, to our native Heaven 
Litde inferior, by my adventure hard 
With peril great achieved. Long were to tell 
What I have done, what suffered* with what pain 



Voyaged the unreal, vast, unbounded Deep 

Of horrible confusion- — over ;vhicK 

By Sin and Death a broad way now jji paved, 

To expedite your glorious march; but I 

Toiled out my uncouth passage, forced to ride 

The untractable Abyss, plunged in the womb 

Of unoriginal Night and Chaos wild. 

That, jcafous of their secrets, (lercely opposed 

My journey strange, with clamorous uproar 

Protesting Fate iupreme- ihence how I found 

The new-created World, v/hkh lame in Heaven 

Long had foretold, a fabric wonderful, 

Of absolute perfection; therein Mao 

Placed in a Paradise, by our cKile 

Made happy. Him by fraud I have seduced 

From his Creator, and, the more to increase 

Your wonder^wiih an apple! He. iher[]at 

Offended— H'orth your laughter! — hadi given up 

Both his beloved Man aixd all his Wortd 

To Sin and Death a prey, and so to us, 

Without our hazardj labour, or alarm. 

To range in, and ro d^vell, and o\'er \Ean 

To rule, as over all he siiouUI have ruled. 

True is, me also he haih (udged; or rather 

Me not, but the br;ite Serpent, in who^e shape 

Man J deceived. That which to me belongs 

Is enmiiy, \\'hich ho will put l>etween 

Me and Mankind: I am to bruise his heel; 

His seed — ^vhen is noc sel — shall bruise mv head! 

A world who would not purchase with a bruise. 

Or much more grievous pain? Ye have the account 

Of my performance; what remains, ye Gods, 

But up and enter now into tuU bliss?" 

So having sa id, a while he stood, expecting 
Their universal sht^y^Tnd [iigfT~^pg^<i> ^ 

To fill his ear; when, contrary, he hears. 

On all sides, from innumerable tongues 

A dismal universiil hiss, the sound 

Of public scorn. He wondered, but nor long 

Had leisure, wondering at himself now more. 


304 JOHN MILTON book x 

His visage dr=iwn he feh to sharp and spare, 

His arms clung to his ribs^ his legs entwining 

Each other t till, supplan tgdj down he Idl, 

A monsirous serpent on'hib beMv prone, 

KeluctH^ni^ hut tn vain; a greaEer power 

Now n]]cd him* punished in the shape he sinned, 

According to his doom. He would have spoke^ 

But hiss for hiss returned with forked tongue 

To forkt^ tongue; for now were all transformed 

Alike, to serpents all, as accessories 

To his bold riot. Dreadful was ihc din 

Of hisiiny through the hal[j thick-s wanning now 

With complicated monsters^ head and lail^ — 

Scorpion^ and Asp^ and Amphisb[ena dire^ 

Cerastei horned, Hydrus, and Ellops drear. 

And Dipsas (not so thick swarmed once the soil 

BedropE with blood of Gordon, or the isle 

Ophiu^); hut still jjreatest ihe midst. 

Now Dragon gro^^n, larger th^-in whom the Sun 

Ingendered in the Pythian vale on sUmc, 

Hu^e Python; and his power no less he seemed 

Above the rest still to relain* They all 

Him followt^d, issuing forth to the opeia ficld^ 

Where all yet left of that revoked rouip 

Heaven-fallen t in station stood ur juai array^ 

Sublime with expectation when to see 

In triumph issuing forth their glorious Chief* 

They saw^ but other sight instead — a crowd 

Of ugly serpents! Horror on ihem fell^ 

And horrid sympathy; for what they saw 

They felt themselves now changing. Down their armSp 

Down fell hoih spear and shield; down they as fast^ 

And the dire hiss renewed, and the dire form 

Catched by conragion, like in punishment 

As in their crime. Thus was the applause ihey meant 

Turned to exploding hiss^ triumph to shame 

Cast on themselves from their own mouths. Theie 

A grove hard by^ sprung up with this their change. 
His will who reigns above^ to aggravate 


Their penancCj l^dcn with fair fruit, like that 

Which grew irt Paradise^ the bait of Eve 

Used by ihe Tcinpler. On ihal prospcci sirange 

Thtir carnesi eyes they lixet]> imiiginLng 

For one forbidden tree a multitude 

Now fi^en, lo work them furdt^r woe or shame; 

Yet, parched with scalding thirst and hunger fierce 

Though [o delude them sent, could noi absiairtj 

But an ihey ro^vled in heaps^ and, up th{^ trees 

Oimbin^, hJi thitker Than the snaky ]ocks 

Thai curled ^(ega:ra- Greedily they plucked 

The fruiiagc fair 10 sight, like that which grew 

Near tUm bilumlnous lake where Sodom flamed; 

ThiSj more delusive^ not the iouchp but taste 

Deceived; they fondly thinking to allay 

Their appyiiie with gust, instead o£ fruit 

C!:hewed bitter ashes, wliich [he oflended taste 

With ^paltering noise rejected. Oft they assayed, 

Hunger and Ehirst constraining^; drugged as oEt^ 

With hatefnlest disrehsh wrhhed their jaws 

With sooE and cinder tilled; so oft ihcy fell 

Into the same iUusion^ not as Man 

Whom they triumphed' once lapsed- Thus were they 

plagued J 
And, worn with famine^ lc>ng ^Jid ceaseless hiss, 
Till their fosi shape^ penniuedj diey resumed — 
Yearly enjoined^ some say, to undergo 
This annual humbling certain nun^bered days^ 
To dash their pride, and joy for Man seduced. 
However, some tradition ihey di^per^ed 
Among the Heathen of their purchase got^ 
And fabled how the Serpent, whom they called 
Ophion^ with Eurynome (the wide- 
Encroaching Eve perhaps), ha^i first the rule 
Of high Olympusj thence by Saturn driven 
And Ops, ere yet Dict<ean Jove was born* 
Meanwhile in Paradise the Hellish pair 
Too soon arrived — Sin, there in power before 
Once actual, now in body, and to dwell 
Habitual habitant; behind her Deaih* 

306 JOHN MILTON hook 

Closp following p^cc for pace* not mounted yet 
On his pale horw; IQ whom Sin thus began:^ 

"Second of Sai:in sprung, aU'Conqutrini; Death! 
What think'it thou o\ our empire tiow? ihough earned 
Wiih travail difiic:ult. not better far 
Than still at Hell's dark threshold to have sat watch. 
Unnamed, undreaded, and thyself half-starved ?" 

Whom thus the Sin-born Monster answered soon;— 
"To me. who with eternal famine pine* 
Alike is Hell, or Paradise, or Heaven- 
There best where mo^t with ravin 1 may meet: 
Which here, ihough plenteous, all coo little seerns 
To stuff this maw, ihis vast imhide-bound corpse " 
To whom the incestuous Mother thus replied;^ 
"Thou, therefore, on these herbs, aitd fruics, and flowers. 
Feed fu?t; on each beast next, and fish, and fowl- 
No homely morsels; and whatever thing 
The scythe of Time mows down devour un spared; 
Till 1, in Man residing through the race. 
His thoughts, his looks, words, actions, ail infcctj 
And season him rhy last and sweetest prey." 

This 5aid, they both betook them several ways, 
Both to (iescroy. or unimmortal make 
All kinds, and for destruction to mature 
Sooner or later; which the Almighty seemi^, 
From his transcendent Scat the Sainis among. 
To those brij;ht Orders uttered thus his voice;— 

"See with what heal those dogs of Hell advance 
To waste and havoc yonder World, which 1 
So fair and good created, and had still 
Kept in that state, had not the folly of Man 
Let in these wasteful ftiries, who impute 
Folly LQ mc (so doth the Prince of Hell 
And his adherents), that with so much ease 
1 suffer ihem to enter and possess 
A place 50 lieavenly, and, conniving, seem 
To piatify my scornful enemies, 
That laugh, as if, trans[iorted with some iiL 
Of passion, 1 to them had quilted all. 
At random yielded up to their misrule; 


And know not ihur [ called and dtew ihcm thitkcr, 

My Hell-hounds, ro lick up the draf! and (jlth 

Which Man's polluting sin wiih taini haih ahed 

On what was pure; til!, crammed and gorged^ nigh burst 

Wi[h sucked and gluticd ofTal, at one sling 

Of thy victorious arm, wdl-plcasing Son, 

Uorh Sin and Deaths and yawninjj Grave, aL Ij^t 

Through Chaos hurkd^ obstruct the mouth of Hell 

For ever, and seal up his ravenous )aws^ 

Then Heaven and Earth, rene^vcd, shall be made pure 

To sanctity that shall receive no stain: 

Till then the cur^i,' pronounced on bo[!i precedes." 

He ended, anil the Heavenly Audience loud 
Sunj; HaUeiuiah, as the sound o^ seas, 
Through multitude thai sung: — "Jusr are thy ways. 
Righteous are thy decrees on all thy works; 
Who can esienuate ihec? Ne:fi, to the Son, 
Destined restorer of Mankind, by whom 
New Heaven and Earih shall to the ages rise. 
Or down from Heaven descend." Such was their song, 
While the Creator, calling forth by name 
His mighty Angels, gave them several charge, 
As sorted best with present things. The Sun 
Had lirsF his precept so to rnove, so shine, 
Ai might affect the Earth with cold and heat 
Scarce tolerable, and from the norih to call 
Decrepit winter, from the south lo bring 
Solstitial ?>ummer*s heat. To the bianc Moon 
Her office they prescribed; to the other five 
Their planetary motions and aspects', 
in sextile, square, and trine, and oppjsite^ 
Of no>:ious efficacy, and when to join 
In synod unbcnign; and taught the fixed 
Their influence malignant when to shower — 
Which of thi?m, rising with the Sun or falling. 
Should prove tcmpesiuous. To the winds they set 
Their corners, when with bluster to confound 
Sea^ air, and shore; the thunder when to roll 
With terror through the dark aeria! hajL 
Some say he bid his Angels turn askance 

308 T*^^^ MILTON BOOK X 

The polc^ of Earth [wicc ten degrees and more 

From the Sun's axle; they wiih labour pushed 

Oblique [he ceniric Globe: some say the Sun 

Was bid lurn reins from the equinoctial Toad 

Like distant bre^dfh — to Taurus with the syvcn 

Atlantic Sisters, and the Spartan Twins, 

Up lo the Tropic Crab; thence down amain 

Bv Leo. 3nd the Virgin* and the Scales^ 

As deep as Capricorn; to bring in change 

Of seasons to each clime. Else had the spring 

Perpetiiiil smiles on Earth wiih vernani llowers, 

Equal in days and nights, except to those 

Beyond the [lolar circles; to them day 

Had unbeiii^hicd shon, while the low Sun, 

To recompense his distance, in their sii-hl 

Had rounded still the horizon, and not known 

Or eaiC or west^ — which had forbid the snow 

From cold Esiotiland, and 5outh as far 

Beneath Majrcllan. At that tasted l\uit. 

The Sun, as from Thyestean banquet, turned 

His course intended; else how had the world 

Inhabited, though sinlesSj more than now 

Avoided pinching coM and scorching heat? 

These changes in the heavens, though slow^ produce*^ 

Like change nn sea and land — sidereal blasts 

Vapour, and mist, and exhalation boE» 

Corrupt and pestilent. Now from tlie north 

Of Norumbega, and the Sarnoed shore, 

Bursting their brazen dungeon, armed with ice, 

And snow, and hail, and siormy gtist and Haw, 

Boreas and Ca^cias and Argestes loud 

And Thrascias rend the woods, and seas upturn; 

With adverse blasts upturns them from ihe south 

Notus and Afer, black with thundrous clouds 

From Serraliona; thwart of ihese, as fierce 

Forth rush the Levant and the Ponent winds, 

Eurus and Zephyr, with their lateral noise» 

Sirocco and Libecchio. Thus began 

Outraije from lifeless things; but Discord first, 

Daughter of Sin, among the irrational 



Dcflch introduced through fierce antipaihr- 
Bcast now wlih beast 'gan warj and fowl with fowlj 
And fish wiih Rsli^ To yra^c ihe herb all leaving 
Devoured each other; nor stood much in awe 
Of Man^ bui fled hiiTjj or with counienanct S^ini 
Glafiid on him passing. These wore from wtihout 
The j^rowing miiierlcs; ^vhich Adam saw 
Ahcatiy in part, though hid in j^looniieic shade^ 
To sorrow abandoned, but worse ti:\i within, 
And^ in a troubled sea of passion tost, 
Thu$ 1:0 dislnarJen sought with sad LTomplaim:^ — 

''O miserable of happy! Is this ihe end 
Of this new ylorious Worlds and me so late 
Tlie glory of ihaL glory? wbo now, become 
Accursed of blessed, hide mc froni [he face 
Of tjod, wlioni to bohoUi \iys ih^n my highth 
Of happiness' Yet well, if here would end 
The incseryl I deserved it^ and would bear 
My own deJervings. IJui this wtll tiol serve: 
All [bat ! eat or drmk, or sball beget, 
h propagated curse* O voice, once htard 
Dehgliiiijllyj 'Emreas^ ni^d muitiply/ 
Now death to hear! for what can 1 cncrease 
Or multiply but cursts on my head? 
Whoj of all aijes 10 succeed, but^ feeling 
The evil on him brought by me, will curse 
Mj head? 'lU fare our Ancestor impuref 
For this we may thank Ad:iml' but his ihanki 
Shall be the execration. So, besides 
Mine own that hide upon jne, all from nic 
Shall with a herce reflux on me redound — - 
On mcj as on iheir natural centre, light; 
Heavyp ihough in their place. O fleeiing joys 
Of Paradise^ dear bought with lasting woe^l 
Did 1 request thee. Milker, from my clay 
To mould me Man? Did I solicit thee 
From darkness to promote mc, or here place 
In this deltcious Garden? As my will 
Concurred not to my bcing^ it were but right 
And ec^ual ic reduce m^i iq my dust. 



Desirous to resign and render back 

All I received, unable lo perform 

Thy leims lOo hard, by wltich I was to hold 

The good I sought not. To the loss of ihai, 

Sufficient penalty* why hast thou added 

The sense of endless woe4? 1 iit-'xpUcable 

Thy justice seems. Yet, to say truih, too late 

T ihus coniesi; then should have been refused 

Those terms, whotcverj when ihey were proposed. 

Thou didst accept ihem: wilt ihou enjoy the j-ood. 

Then cavil the condiiion^^ And, though God 

Made ihcc without thy leave, what if thy son 

Prove disobedient, and, reproved, retort, 

'Wherefore did^t thou beget mc? I sought it not!' 

Wouldst thou admit for hia contempt of thee 

That proud excuse: yet him nol thy deciioo, 

Bui natural necessity, begot. 

God made ihee of choice his own, and of his own 

To serve him; thy reward was of hia ^race; 

Thy punishment, then, justly is at his will. 

Be it so, for T submit; his doom is fair^ 

That dust I am, and shall to dust return. 

O welcome iiour whenever! Why delays 

His hand to execute what hi 4 decree 

Fixed on this dayp Why do I overlives' 

Why am I mocked with death, and lenglhened out 

To deathless pain^ How gladly would I meet 

Mortality, my sentence* and be earth 

InaensibJel ho\v glad would lay me down 

As in my mother's lap! There I should resc, 

And sleep secure; his dreadful voice no more 

Would thunder in my ears; no fear of worse 

To me and Id my offspring would torment me 

With cruel expectation- Yet one doubt 

Pursues me still — lest all I cannot die; 

Lest tliat pure breath o£ life, the Spirit of Mao 

Which God inspired, cannot together perish 

With this corporeal cTod, Then, in the grave, 

Or in some other dismfil place, who knows 

But 1 shall die a living death- O thought 



Horrid^ if true! Yet wliy? Tt was but breath 

Ot life that sinned: what dies but what hat! life 

And sinr The body properly haih neiiher. 

Ali of jne^ then, shafi die: let this appease 

The doubi, lince human reach no further knows- 

For^ ihoujjh the Lord of alt be infinite. 

Is hii wrauih ahor^ Be ii* Man Is not so. 

But moftal doomed. But can he exercL^e 

Wrauth without end on Man^ whom death must end? 

Can he make deathless death? Thai were to m;ike 

Strange contradiction; which to God himself 

Impossible is held, as argumont 

Of weakness, noi of power. Will he draw out^ 

For anger's sake^ liniie lo infinite 

In punished Man, tcj satisfy his vigour 

Sjlj&fied never.^ That were to exti^nd 

His sentence bcvond dusi and Nature^s law; 

By which all causes else according siill 

To the reception of iheir mailer act, 

Not to the extent ot their own sphere- But say 

That deaih hi^ noi one stroke, as I supposed^ 

Bereaving sense, but endless misery 

From ihis day onward^ which 1 feel begun 

Both in me and without me, and 50 lasc 

To |>erpetuity Ay me! that fear 

Comes ihundering hack wiih dreadful revolution 

On my defenceless head! Both Death and 1 

Am found eternal, and incorporate boih: 

Nor f on my part single; in me all 

Posterity stands cur-ved. Fair patrimony 

That I must leave ye, sonsi Oh, were I able 

To waste it all myaelfj and leave ye none! 

So disinheritedn how would ye bless 

Mej now your curse! Ah, why should all Mankind^ 

For one man's fault, thus gutltless be condemned? 

If guiltless! But from me what can proceed 

But a|] corrupl^ — I^Jlh mind and will depraved 

Not to do only, but to will the same 

Wiih me.* How can they, ihen^ acquitted stand 

In sight of God? Him^ after all disputes^ 




312 JOHN MILTON book x i 

Forced I absolve. All my evasions vam 

And reasonings, though through ma^es, lead me still 

But to my own conviction: Hrst and last 

On me^ me only^ as the source and spring 

Of all corruption, all the blame lights dui^- 

So might the wrauthi Fund wishi could^st thou 

That burden^ heavier than the Earth to bear — 
Than all the world much heavier^ though divided 
With that bad Woman? Thus, wh;H thou Je^ir'sC, 
And what thou fear'sc, alike destroys all hopt? 
Of rcfug^j and concludes thee mLscrable 
Beyond all past example and future' — 
To 5aE3n only hlce, both crime and dooni- 
O Conscjencel into what abyss of feors ' 

And horrors hast thou driven me; out a( which j 

t find no way^ from deeper to deept^r plungedT^ I 

ThLis Adam to himself lamented loud ] 

Through the still night— not now, as ere Man feU^ 
Wholesome and cool and mild, but with black air 
Accompanied, wich damps and dreadlul gloom; 
Which to his evil conscience represented 
All things with double terror. On the ground 
OiHs[retched he lay, on the cold grousid, and oft 
Cursed his creation; Death as oft accused 
Of lardy execution, since denounced 
The day of his ofience. "Why comes not Death/' 
Said hcj "widi one thrice-acceptable stroke 
To end me I' Shall Truth fail to keep her word^ 
Justice divine not hasten to be just? 
But Death comes not at call; Justice divine 
Mends not her slowest pace for prayers or cries, 
O woods^ O fountains^ hillocks, dalesj and bowers! 
With odier echo late J taught your shades 
To answer, and resound far other song" 
Whom thus afflicted when sad Eve beheld j 
Desolate where she sat^ approaching nigh, 
Soft words to his fierce passion she assayed; 
But her, with stern regard, he ihus repelled: — 

"Out of my sightj thou Serpent! That name best 



BefiLJ theet with him leagued, thyself as falre 
AnJ hateful: noihmg wants^ bun that thy shape 
Like hisj and colour serpentinen may shew 
Thy inward fravid^ 10 w\irn all citaturcs from thee 
Hencctorihn lest that too heavenly form, pretended 
To helhsh falsehooilj snare Ehem. ISut for ihte 
I had periisiLzd happy, had not thy pride 
And wandering vanity, when least was safe^ 
Rejected my forewarning^ and distiacned 
Not to b& irusted — longing [0 be seen^ 
Though hy the De^il himself; him overweening 
To overreach; but, with the Serpeni mye[ingj 
Fooled and beguiled; by him ihou^ I by thee, 
To trust thee from my sidt:, imagined wise, 
Con^Lani, mature, proof against all as^aulls^ 
And nnderstood not all was but ji she^Vs 
Rather ihjn solid virtue, all hut a rib 
Crnoked by nature — bent, as now^ appi^ar?, 
More to the part sinister — from me drawn; 
Well if thrown out, as supernumerary 
To my just number foundJ O^ why did God 
Creator wise, that peopled highest Heaven 
With Spirits mastulLnc, create at last 
This [loveliy on Earth, this fair dek^t 
Of Nature, and not fill i\\^ World at once 
With men as AngeU^ wlihout feminine^ 
Or find some other way to generate 
Mankind? This mischtef had not then befallen. 
And more ihai shall hefatl^ — innumerable 
Disturbances on Eardi through female snare^j 
And strait conjimciion wiih this sex. For eiiher 
He never shall find out fit mate, but such 
As some misfortune brings him, or mistake; 
Or whom he wishes most shall seldom gain^ 
Through her per^ersene^s^ but shall sec her gained 
By a far worse, or, if she lave, withheld 
By parents; or his happiest choice too late 
Shall meet, already linked and wedloek-bound 
To a fell adversary, his hate or shatne: 
Which infinite calamity shall cause 


To liuman life, and household peace confound.'* 

He added not, and from het turned; but Eve, 
Not 50 rcpoEsedi with tears that ceased not flowing, 
And iresscs all disordered* at his feet 
Fell humble* and, imbracing them, besought 
His peace, and thus proceeded in her plaint:— 

"Forsake me not thus, Adam! witness Heaven 
What love sincere and reverence in my heart 
I bear thee, and unweeEing have olTended, 
Unhappily deceived! Thy suppIJant 
I beg* and clasp thy knees; bereave me not 
Whereon I live, thy gentle looks, thy aid. 
Thy counsel in this uttermost distress, 
My only strength and stay. Forlorn of thee. 
Whither shall 1 beuke me, where subsisi? 
While yet we live, scarce one short hour perhaps, 
Between us two let there be peace; both joining. 
As joined in injuries, one enmity 
Against a Foe by doom express assigned U5. 
That cruel Serpent. On me exercise not 
Thy hatred for this misery befallen— 
On me already lost, me than thyself 
More miserable. Both have tinned; but thou 
Against God only; I against God and thee^ 
And to the place of judgment will return, 
There with my cries impor'iune Heaven, that alt 
The sentence, from thy head removed, may light 
On me, sole cause to thee o£ all this woe. 
Me, me only, just object of His ire." 

She ended, weeping; and her lowly plight. 
Immovable till peace obtained from fault 
Acknowledged and deplored, in Adam wraught 
Commiseration. Soon his heart relented 
Towards her, his life so late, and sole delight. 
Now at his feet submissive in distress — 
Creature so fair his reconcilement seeking, 
His counsel whom she had displeased, his aid. 
As one disarmed, his anger all he lost, 
And thus with peaceful words upraised her soon^ — 

"Uowary, and too desirous, as before 


So now» of svhat ihou know^si not, who desir'st 

The punishment all on ihyselfl Absl 

Bear thine own first, ill able to sustain 

His full wtauth whose thou feel'sc as yet least part, 

And my displeasure bear'st so iJL If prayers 

Could alter high decrees, I to that place 

Would speed before thee, and be louder heard, 

Thai on my head all might be visited. 

Thy frailty and iniirmer sex forgiven^ 

To me commiiicd^ and by me exposed. 

But rise; let us no more contend, nor blame 

Each other, blamed enough elsewhere, but strive 

Jn oflices of love how we triay Ugiiten 

Each other's burden [i\ our share of woe; 

Since this day's death denounced, if aught f see, 

Will prove no sudden, but a slow-paced evil, 

A long day's '^y'ng* to augment our pain, 

And to our seed (O hapless seed!) derived," 

To whom thus Eve, recovering heart, replied: — ■ 
*^Adam, by sad experiment f know 
How Tittle weiglit my words with thee can find, 
Found so erroneous, thence by just event 
Found so unfortunate. Neveriheless, 
Restored by thee, vile as J am, to place 
Of new acceptance^ hopeful to regain 
Thy love, the sole contentment of my heart, 
Living or dying from ihee I will not hide 
What thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen. 
Tending to some relief of our extremes, 
Or end, though sharp and sad, yet tolerable. 
As in our evils, and of easier choice. 
If care of our descent perplex us most, 
Which must be born to certain woe, devoured 
By Death at last (and rniserable it is 
To be Id others cause of misery. 
Our own begotten, and of our loins to bring 
Into this cursed world a woeful race, 
That, after ^vreiched life, must be ai last 
Food for so foul a Monster), in thy power 
It lies, yet ere conception, to prevent 

3l6 JOHN MILTON book i 

The race unblcst, to being yet unbegoC 
Childless ihou an; childless remain. So Death 
Shall be deceived his glut^ and with us Uvo 
Be forced to sacisty his ravenous maw. 
But, a thou judge it hard and difficult, 
Convefsing, looking, loving, to abstain 
From love's due riieSj nupcial imbraces s^^'eet, 
And with desire lo lanjjuish without hope 
Before ihc present object languishing 
With Uke desire — which would be misery 
And torment less ihan none of what we dread- 
Then, both our seK'ts and seed at once to free 
From what wc fear for both* let us make short; 
Let us seek Death, or, he not tound* supply 
With our own hands his olTice on ourselves. 
Why stand we longer shivering under fears 
Thai shew no end but tieath, and have the power. 
Of many ways to die the shortesr choosing^ 
Destruction with destruction to destroy?" 

She ended here, or ^ehcnient despair 
Broke ofT the rest; so much oL death her thoughts 
Had entertained as dyed her cheeks wiih pale. 
Bui Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed^ 
To belter hopes his more attentive mind 
Labouring had raised, and ihus to Eve replied: — 

"Eve, thy contempt of life and pleasure seems 
To argue in thee ^cjmething more sublime 
And excellent than what ihy mind contemns: 
But self 'destruction therefore sought refutes 
Thai excellence thought in thee* and implies 
Not ihy contempt, but anguish and regret 
For loss of hfe and pleasure overloved. 
Or, if ihou covet death, as utmost end 
Oi misery, so thinking to evade 
The penalty piot\ounced, doubt not but God 
Hath wiseher armeil his vengeful ire than so 
To be forestalled. Much more 1 fear lest death 
So snatched will not exempt us from the pain 
We arc by doom to pay; rather sudi acts 
Oi contumacy will provoke the Highest 



To make death in us live. Then let us seek 
Some safer resolution — which meihirLks 
\ have in view^ calling lo mind with hetcl 
l^irt of our scniencc^ ih.iC ihy seed shall bruise 
The Serpent's head- Piteous amends! unices 
Bt? meant whom I conjecture, our grand foe, 
Satan^ who in the Serpeni luth conlriveJ 
Against us this deceit. To crush his head 
Wouid bo revenge indeed — which will he losr 
By deaih brought on oursclvesj or childless days 
Resolved as thou proposesT; 5o our foe 
Shall icape his punishment orclained, and we 
Instead siiall douhk ours upon our htads^ 
No more be mentionod^ then^ of violence 
Agalnsi ourseh'cSs and wilful barrenness 
That cuts us o(T from hopej and savours only 
Rancour and pride, impatience and despiie^ 
Reluctance against God and his just yoke 
Laid on our necks, Rcmembt^r wlih ^hai mild 
And gracious iem|>er he hoih heard ancT judged, 
Without wrauih or reviling. We oxpectt^d 
fnimediate dissolution^ whtch we ihouj^ht. 
Was meani by death that day; when^ lo! to tneft 
Pains only in child-bearing were foretold, 
And bringing forih^ soon recompensed with |oy, 
Frnii of thv womb. On me the curse a^lof^ 
Glanced on the ground. With labour I mu-^T earn 
Mv bread; what harcn? Idleness had been worse; 
My labour will sustain me; and^ lest cold 
Or heat should injure us^ his Iimdy care 
Haih^ unbesought, provided, and his hands 
Clodied U5 unworthy, paying while he judged, 
How much marCj if we pray him* will his ear 
Bo open^ and his heart to pity incline^ 
And leach us further by what means to shun 
The inclemeni seasons^ rain^ ice, hatl^ and snowl 
Which now the sky^ with various face^ begins 
To shew us in ihis moumainj while the winds 
Blow moist and keen, shattering the graceful locks 
Of these fair spreading trees; which bids us seek 


Some better sTirotid, some bcttcrr warmth to cherish 

Our Umbs benumbed — ore ihis dturn^l star 

Leave cold the night, how we his gathered beams 

l^edecteti may with msitter sere foment. 

Or by colhsEon of two bodies grind 

The air ^nrm to fire* as Jate the clouds^ 

Justling^ or pushed with winds^ rude iti their shocks 

Tine the slant hghtning, whose ihwaii flame, driven 

Kindles ihe gummy bark of fir or pine, 
And sends a comfortable heal fram Tar^ 
Which might supply ilie Sun, Such fire to use, 
And what may else be remedy or cure 
To evils which our own misde^d^ have wrought, 
He will instrucl us praying, and of grace 
Beseeching him; so as we need not fear 
To pass conimodiously this life, sustained 
By him with many comforts, till we end 
In dust, our ftnai rest and native home, 
What better can we do than^ to the place 
Repairing where fie judged us, prosirJte fall 
Before him rcvcreni, and [here confess 
Humbly our faults, and pardon beg, WLih tears 
Watering the ground, and with aur sighs ihe air 
Frequenting, sen[ from heans conCrile, in sign 
Of sorrow unfeigned and humiliation meek? 
Undoubtedly he will relent, and turn 
From his displeaiure* in whose look st^rene. 
When angry most he seemed and most severe. 
What else but favour, S^race, and mercy shon?*' 

So spake our Filthier penitent; nor Eve 
Felt Ics5 remorse* They, forthwiij; to the place 
Repairing where he judged them^ pro^traie fell 
Before him reverent, and both confessed 
Humbly their faults* and pardoEi begged^ with tears 
Watering the: ground, and with iheir sighs [he air 
Frequeniingj sent from hearts contrite, in sign 
Of sorrow unfeigned and humiliation meek. 



Thl AhGLMEVT.— Thf Son of CJod |>rcy.'nts to hit FJTh*ir ihc prayers ^t r>kir Jsrst 
ji,irtnis n^jw rt;]crH]rtyH ^ntl mttrtedci fcir them. Gt>d acirepts ihem. hut t!cL"liii'« 
that liiu'-' niu?t Hij lon>!L"r Jibitli^ in Purjtlisc; H?ncls Mkhjtl with :i bjnd ul ChLVubim 
m c!i^|H^^so;^!> thciTiH bkii lirit Ui reveal lo Ai,i^n\ fulurt thm^i: Michaefs comins ^\owu. 
Adartt ^ho^b Uf Kve cLTtaln cjminous ^iyn-^i he dj^ierns Msi:Uid'i sippnjHKb; ^""^5 f>iJi 
tt> mccl him: tht- Ani?.^l denounces thtir departure- livt^'i lanient^ition, Adjim ple:id5, 
hut subn^ic^r the Anpvl Icjds hitii u|] to a hiiiti bill; t-e^i Ix-^nrc htni in ^i^iojl ^vhat 
^hall hapjwil lill the Tliwdr 

Thus thcy^ in lowlicsi plight, rcpenuint ^lood 

Praying; (or from tht= Mercy-i^eat alx>vc 

Prevenienr gr:icc cleivccnding hfld removed 

The stony from their hearis^ and m:iJe ncv^^ flosh 

Regenerate grow insieadp [hat sighs now breaihed 

Unuaerable, which the Spirit of prayer 

In^pirt-d^ and winged for Heaven with ^peediur Biglu 

Than loudest oraioryr YeC their port 

No[ oi mean suiiors; nor tmportani less 

Strtmed thefr [M^iition ihan when the ancient ?aif 

In fables oldt feis ancient yet than ihcse, 

Deucalion and chaste Pvrrha, 10 restore 

The race of mankind druwiied^ before the shrine 

Of Themis srood devout. To Heaven their prayers 

Flew up, nor missed the w:iy^ by envious winds 

Blow^n vagabond or frustrate: in tliey passed 

Dimcnsionless ihrouj^h heavenly door$; then, d^d 

Wiih incense, where the Golden Aliar lumed^ 

By Their grcai Intercessor, came in sight 

Before the Father's Throne. Them the glad Son 

Presenting thus to intercede began: — 

*^Seet Father^ what first-fruits on E^irth are sprung 
From ihy implanted grace in M^vt — these sighs 
And prayers, which in ihis golden censor, mixed 
With incense^ I, thy priest, before thee brings 
Fruils of more pleasing savour, from ihv seed 
Sown with contrition in his heart, ihan those 
Which, his own hand manuring, all the trees 
Of Paradise could have produced, ere fallen 
From innocence- Now, therefore* bend thine ear 
To supplication; hear his sighs^ though mutc^ 


UnskiKul with what words to pray, let me 
Interpret for him, mc his Advocate 
And propitbiion; all his works on me. 
Good or not ^od, iiigrafi; my mcrii iho^c 
Shall perleii and for these my dc^aih shah pay* 
Accept me^ and in me from these receive 
The smdl of peace toward Mankind; let him live, 
Before ihec reconciled, at least his days 
Numbered^ (hough sad^ till dcaihj hfs doom (which I 
To mi[tj>"atc thus plcnd^ t^ol to reverse). 
To bctler life shall yietd him, where with me 
All my redeemed mny dwell in joy and bliss^ 
Made one with me, as I with ihco am one*" 

To whom ihe P^iLhtir^ without ctoud. serene:— 
"All thy re^juest lor Man, accepted Son, 
Obiain; all thy request was mv decree- 
But lonj^er in thai Paradise to dwell 
The law \ t^ave lo Nature him forbids; 
Those pure immortal elements, that kcio^v 
No gross, no unhannonious mixiure foul. 
Eject himp tainted now, and puigc him oilp 
As a distcmpcrp gross, to air as gross^ 
And mortal food, as may dispose him bust 
For dissolution wrouj;h[ hy sln^ thjii (irst 
Distempered all ihing-^. and of incorrupt 
Corrvipicd. I, at firsi, with iwo fair jjllis 
Created him endowed — with Happincs> 
And Immortality; [fiat fondly lo^i. 
This oiher served Inn lo eternize woc^ 
Till I provided Death: so Death Uxomes 
His Hnal remedy, and, after hfe 
Tried in sharp tribulation^ and refined 
By faith and taithful works, lo second life, 
Waked in the renovation of the just. 
Resigns him up ^vith Heaven and Earth rcnewed- 
Bu[ let us call lo synod atl the Blest 
Through Heaven's wide bounds; from them I will not 

My judgments — how with Mankind f proceed^ 
As how with peccant Angels late ihev sawp 




And m their slate, though firm, stood mon: confirmed " 

He cndedp ami Ehe Son gave signal high 
To the bright Minister that watched- He blew 
His trumpet^ heard in Oreb since perhaps 
When God dtst^enJetl, and perhaps once more 
To sound iit gencrril doom. The angehc blast 
Filled all the regions: from their blissful bowers 
Of amarantin shade, fountain or spring, 
By [ht waiecs of Itfe^ i-vherc cr they sale 
In fdlowihip^ of ]oy, the Sons of Light 
Hasicdj resorting to the summons high^ 
And took [heir seats, till from his Throne supreme 
The Almcghiy ihus pronounced hts sovran will: — 

"O Son^j likt? one of us Man Es become 
To know both Good and Evilj since his :aste 
Of [hat dcft:ndcd P'rtaic; bui lec him boast 
His knoAvledfje of good lo^t and evil got^ 
Happier had it suiliccd htm to hjvc known 
Good by itself and evil not a[ all- 
He sorrows now, repents, and prays contrite — ■ 
My motions in him; longer ihan chey move, 
H!5 heart I know how variable and vaici, 
Seli-!ef[. Lest, therefore, his now bold^;f fiand 
Roach a[so of the Trte of Life, and eat. 
And live for ever, dream at least to live? 
For ever, to remove him I dccFt<i^ 
And send him from ihc Garden forihj to till 
The ground whence he was taken, fitter soiL 
Mic:hae|, ibis my behest have thou in charge; 
Take to thee from among the Cherubim 
Thy choice of flaming witrriors, lesl the Fiend, 
Or in behajf of Man, or to invade 
Vacan[ possessions, some new trouble raise; 
Haste iheCj and from the Paratiise of G<jd 
Without remorse drive out t\w sinful pair, 
From hallo^^'ed ground the unholy, and denounce 
To them, anti to their progeny, from ihence 
Perpetual banishment. Yet, lest they faint 
At the sad sentence rigorously urged 
(For I bd^old Lliem sufteoed, and w^ith Ceais 

322 JOHN MILTON book xi 

Bewailing ilieir excts&)» all terror hide. 

If pjiiently ihy biddiiij- they obey, 

Dismiss them not disconsoUte; reveal 

To Adam what shall come in tuture days» 

As I ihall ihee enlighten; mtcimix 

My covenant in the Woman's seed renewed. 

So send them foith^ though sorrowings yet in peace; 

And on the east side o£ the Garden place, 

Wheie entrance up from Eden easiest climbs^ 

Cherubic watch, and of a Sword the flame 

Wide-waving, all approach far olT to fright, 

And guard all passage to the Tree of Life; 

Lest l^aradise a receptacle prove 

To Spirits foul, and all iny trees their prey, 

M'iih whose stolen fruit Man once more to delude." 

He ceased, and the Archangelic Power prLp.ircd 
For swifi descent; with him the coliori briglit 
Of watchful Cherubim. Four faces each 
Had, like a double Janus; all their shape 
Spangled with eyes more numerous than those 
Of Argus, and more wakeful than to drowse, 
Charmed with Arcadian pipej the pastoral reed 
Of Htifmes, or his opiate rod. Meanwhile, 
To re^alute the World with sacred light. 
Lcucoihea waked, and with fresh dews imbalmed 
The Earth, when Adam and first matron Eve 
Hitd ended now their orisons, and found 
Strength added from above, new hope to spring 
Out of despair^ py, but with fear yet linked; 
Which thus to Eve his welcome words renewed: — 

"Eve, easily may faith admit that all 
The good which we en^oy from Heaven descends; 
But that from us aught should ascend to Hea\en 
So prevalent as to concern the mind 
Of God high-blest, or to incline his will, 
Hard lo belief may seem. Yet this will prayer, 
Or one short sigh of human breathy upborne 
Even to the seat of God. For, since I sought 
By prayer the offended Deity Co appease. 
Kneeled and before him Jiunibled all my heart, 


Methnti^ht I saw him placable and mild, 
Bending his enr; persuasion in me grew 
That I was heard with favour; peace reiurned 
Home 10 my brea^tj and to my memory 
Hi^ promise that thy seed shall bruise our Foe; 
Which, then not minded in dismay, yi:t now 
Assures me that the biileroess of death 
Is past, and we shall live. Whence hail to thee! 
EvG rightly called, Mother of ;x!l Mankind, 
Moihor of all things living, since by thee 
Man is to live, and all things live for Man/' 

To whom thus Eve with sad demeanour meek:—* 
*'lU-worthy I such tide should belong 
To mc transgressor, who, for thee ordained 
A help, became thy snare; to me reproach 
Rather belongs, distrust and all dispraise. 
But infinite in pardon was my Judge, 
That I* wiio first brought death on all, am graced 
The source of life; ne>:t favourabie thou, 
Who highly thus to entitle me vouisafstj 
Far other name deserving. Rut the field 
To bbour calEs us, now wiih sweat imposed. 
Though after sleepless night; for see[ the Morn, 
All unconcerned with our unrest, begins 
Her rosy progress smiling. Let us forth, 
T never from thy side henceforth to stray. 
Where'er our day's work lies, diough now enjoined 
Laborious, till day droop. While here we dwell. 
What can be toilsome in these pleasant walks? 
Here let us live, though in fallen state, content-" 

So spake, so wished, much-humbEed Eve; but Fate 
Subscribed not. Nature first gave signs, impressed 
On bird, beast, air — air suddenly eclipsed. 
After shore hlush of morn. Nigh in her sight 
The bird of Jove, stooped from his aerie lour. 
Two birds of gayest plume before him drove; 
Down from a hill the beast that reigns in woods> 
First hunter then, pursued a gentle brace. 
Goodliest of all ihe forest, hart and hind^ 
Direct to ihe eastern gate was bent their flight. 


324 JOHN MILTON book xl 

Adam observed, and^ wjih his eye ihe chase 
Pursuing, not unmoved to Eve thus spake: — 

"O Eve, some furder change awaiw us nighp 
Which Heaven by these mute signs in Nature shews, 
Forerunners of his purpose, or to warn 
Usj hitply too secure of our discharge 
From penally because from death released 
Some days: how long, and what till then our life, 
Who knows, or more tlian this, that we are dust, 
And thither must return, and be no moreP 
Why eTse ihis double object in our sighi, 
Ot flight pursued in the air and o'er the ground 
One way the self-same hour: Why in the cast 
Darkness ere day*s mid-courie, and mornlnj; liyht 
More orient in yon western cloud, that draws 
0"t*r [he blue iirmament a radiant white. 
And slow descends^ with something Heavenly frausjht-- 

He erred noi; for^ by thisj the Heavenly bands 
Down from a sky of jasper lighted now 
In Paradise, and on a hill made halt — 
A glorious ApparitLon, hat] not doubt 
And carnal fear that day dimmed Adam's eye. 
Not that more glorious, when the Angels met 
Jacob in Mahanaim, where he savir 
The field pavilioned with his guardians bright; 
Nor that which on die flaming Mount ap|>earod 
In Dothan^ covered with a camp of fire^ 
Against the Syrian king, who, to surprise 
One man, assassin-like, had levied war. 
War unproclaimed- The princely Hierarch 
In their bri^hc stand ihere left his Powers lo seize 
Possession of (he Garden; h*^ alone, 
To find where Adam stiehered, took his way, 
Not unperceived of Adam; who to Eve, 
While the great Visiiant approached, thus spake; — ^ 

"Eve, now expect great tidings^ which^ perhaps^ 
Of us will soon determine^ or impose 
New lavi^s to be observed; for I descry. 
From yonder blading cloud that veifs the hill, 
One of the Heavenly hoiL, and, by his gait. 


None of ihc meancsi — ^ome great PoiesiiaCe 

Or of [he Thrones above, such majesty 

Invests him coming; yet not tcrriblcj 

Thai I should fear, nor soctably mild, 

As Jiaphaelj thai f should much couiide, 

But sofemn and sublime- whom, not to ofTend, 

WUh reverence I must meet, and thou retire/' 

He ended; and the Archangel soon drew nigh, 
Non in his shape ceFc^tial^ but as man 
Clad to meet man. Over his lucid arms 
A military vest of purple Elowedj 
Livelier than Melibcean^ or ihe grain 
Of Saira^ worn by kinj^s and heroes old 
In time of truce; Iris had dipr the vvoof, 
His starry helm unbuckled shewed him prime 
In manhood where vonih ended; by his side. 
As in a glistering zodiac, hung the sword^ 
Satan's dlt^ dread^ and in his hand the spear- 
Adam boued [ow; he, kingly, from his itate 
Inclined nol, but his coming thus declared: — 

"Adiim, Heaven's high behest no preface needs, 
SulHcieni that thy prayers arc heard, and Deaths 
Then due by sentence when thou didst transgress^ 
Defeated of his seizuic many days^ 
Given iliee of grace, wherein thou may^st repent, 
And one bad act with many deeds well done 
May'st cover- WelE may then thy Lord, appeased. 
Redeem thee quite from Death^s rapacious d^iiuj 
But longer in this Paradise to dwell 
Permits not. To remove Ehce I am come^ 
And send thee from the Garden forth, to till 
The ground whence thou wasi lakeji, fitter $oil " 
He added nor; for Adam, at the news 
Hearl-strook, with chilHng gripe of sorrow stoodj 
That all his senses bound; Eve^ who un^en 
Yet all had heard^ with audible lament 
Discovered soon the place of her retire: — - 

"O unexpected stroke^ worse than of Death! 
Must I ihus leave ihec. Paradise? thus leave 
TheCj native soil? these happy walks and shades, 

326 JOHN MILTON book xi 

Fit ^aunt of Gods^ whore I had hope lo spend, 
Quiet^ thoujih sad^ the re&piie oi ihat day 
Thai musi be morial 10 us both? O flowers, 
Thai never will in oihcr climaic grow, 
My early visiiaiionj and my la^t 
Al even^ which I bred up wiih tender h*ind 
From Ehc ftrst o|>eniny bud, and gave y<* nain^s^ 
Who now ihall rear ye to ihe Sun^ or rs^nk 
Your iribcs, and water from the ambrosial fount? 
Thee, Jastly, nuptial hower, by me adorned 
Wiih whai 10 sight or smell was swecl^ froin thee 
Haw ihall I part, and whiiher \varid*^r down 
Inio a lower worlds to this obscure 
And wild? How shall we breathe in other air 
Less pure, accustomed to immorial fruiisT* 

Whom thus the Angel intt^rrupted mild: 
"Lament not, Eve^ but patiently resign 
What justly ihoc hasi lost; nor wt diy heart. 
Thus over-fondj on thxit which is nor ihine* 
Thy going is not lonely; wiih thee goes 
Thy husband; him to follow thou an bound; 
Where he abides, think there thy native soiL" 

Adam, by this from the cold sudden damp 
Recovering, and his scattered spirits reiurnedj 
To Michatl thus his humble words Liddressed: — 

"Celestial, whether among the Thrones, or named 
Of them the highest — for such of shape may seem 
Prince above princes — gently haat thou told 
Thy message J which mfght else in teliing wound. 
And in performing end us. What besides 
or sorrow, and dejection, and despair^ 
Our frailtv can sustain, thy tidings bring — 
Departure from this happy p]ace, our sweet 
Recess, and only consolation ieft 
Familiar to our eyes; all places else 
Inhospiiable appear^ and desolate^ 
Nor knowing us, nor known. And, if by prayer 
Incessant I could hope to change the wiJl 
Of Him who all things can^ I would not cease 
To weary him wi[h my assiduous cries; 




But prayer agairisi his absolute deuree 

No more avaik [han hrt^acK ajjainsE ihc wind. 

Blown itifling back on him ihiii breathes it forth; 

Therefore to his grciti bidding I submii. 

This rnosn afflicts me — ihat^ deparlirii; hence^ 

As from \\h tacc I shall be hid, deprived 

His blessed countenance. Here I could (requenl^ 

Willi worship, place by place where ho voutsated 

Pf&^encc Divine, and to my sons relate^ 

'On [his mount He appeared; under this iree 

Stood vcilble; amoni; the^c pines bis voice 

I heard; here with htm at this fountain ulkcd/ 

So many grateful aUars I would rear 

Of grassy Eurf, and pile up every stone 

Of lustre from ihe brooks in memory 

Or monument 10 ages, and ihcreon 

Offer sweet-smelling gums^ and fruits, and flowers* 

In yonder nether world where sball 1 seek 

His bright apj^arances^ or footstep uacc? 

Fotj though I fled him angry, yetj (ecalled 

To life prolonged and promised raccj I now 

Gladly behotd though but his utmost skirts 

Of j^lory, ani\ far off his step^ adyre/' 

To whom thus Michael^ with regard In^nignn — 
**Adam^ thou know'st Heaven his, and al! the Earthy 
Not ibis rock only; hh omniprt^sence fills 
Land, sea, and air, and every kind that live^, 
Fomented bv his virtual power and warmed. 
All tfie Karih he gave tbee to possess and rule. 
No despicable giii; surmise noCj then. 
His presence to lhc$e narrow bounds confined 
Of Paradise or Eden. This had been 
Perhaps thy capital seatj from whence had spread 
All generations, and had hither comc^ 
From all the ends of the Earthj to celebrate 
And reference thee their great progenitor* 
But ihts pre-eminence thou hast lost, brought down 
To dwell on even ground now with thy sons: 
Yet doubt not but in valley and in plain 
God IE, as here^ and will be found alike 

3^8 JOHN MILTON book xi 

Present, and of his presence manj a sign 
SijIJ following thee, still compassing thee rounti 
With goodness and paternal love, bis face 
Express, ant! of his steps the track olivine* 
Which [hat thou may 'si believe^ and be confirmed 
Ere thou from hence depart^ know I am sent 
To shew thee what shaii come in future davs 
To [hee aEiJ lo thy oflspring, GooJ wjib bad 
Expect to hear, supernal grace contending 
WiEh sinfulness of men — thereby to learn 
True paiiencCj and to temper joy with fear 
And pious sorrow, equally inured 
By moderation cjiher state to bear^ 
Prosperous or adverse: so shalt thou lead 
Saft^si iby life, and besE prepared endure 
Thy mortal passage when it comes. Ascend 
This hilt; let Eve (for I have drenched her eyes) 
Heie sleep below while thou to farcsighn \^^ak*si, 
Ai once tiiou slept^st while she to life was formed," 

To whom dius Adam gratefully replied: — 
"Ascend; I follow ihee^ safe Guide, the path 
Thou Icad'st me^ and to the hand of Heaven submiEj 
However chastening— ^to the evil turn 
My obvious breasi, arming to overcome 
By suHering, and earn rest from labour won, 
[f so I may attain," So both ascend 
In the Visions of God, Ii was a hill, 
Of Paradise ihe highesc^ from whose top 
The hemisphere of Earth is clearest ken 
Stretched out to the amplest reach of prospect lay* 
Not higher that hill^ nor wider looking ground^ 
Whereon for dilTereni cause ihe Tempter set 
Our second Adam, in die wilderness, 
To shew him all Earth^s kingdoms and their glory- 
ViEis eye might there command wherever stood 
Ciiy of old or modern fame, die seat 
Of mightiest empire, from the destined walls 
Of Cam[>£tfUj seat of Cathaian Can^ 
And Samarchand by Oxu^j Temir's throne, 
To Paquin^ of Sina?an kings, and thence 


To Agra and Lahor of Great Mogul, 

Down 10 ihe golden Chersonese, or where 

Tl^c Persian in Ecbatan sat, or since 

In Hispah^m, or where the Russian Ksar 

[n Mosco, or the SuUan in Rizancc, 

Turchesian-horii- nor could his eye not ten 

The empire of Negus lo hJ5 utmost port 

F.icoQOy and ihe less maritime kings, 

Moml>iiza, and Quiloa, and Mehnd^ 

And Sofata (ihou^hi Oph[r)f to the realnt 

Of CongOj and Angola fardc^t south, 

Or [hence from Niger flood to Atlas nionntj 

The kingdom? of A}mani;ofj Fck and Sus, 

Maroceoj and AlgLcrs, and Tremisen; 

On Europe ihcncc, and v^herc Rome was lo ^^^'ay^ 

Tht world: in spirit perhaps he aho saw 

Rich MexicOj ihe seat of Moniexume, 

And Cu^co in Peru, the richer scat 

Of Atahahpa, and yet unspoiled 

Guiana, whose greai ciiy Geryon's sons 

CaH El Dorado. But to nobkr sights 

Michael Ironi Ad am' 5 eyes ihe film removed 

Whieh thaE false fru[t that promi6^?d dearer sight 

Had bred; ihen purged with euphrasy and rue 

The vijhUai nerve, for he had much lo see. 

And from the well ot life ihree drops insiilled. 

So deep ihc power of these ingredients piercedj 

Even to the inmost seat of mental sight. 

That Adam, now enforced to close his eyes, 

Sunk downy and all his spirits became intranced. 

Bui him [he gentle Angel by the hand 

Soon raised, and his attention thus recalled: — - 

"Adam, now ope thine eves, and first behold 
The cffecii which thy original crime hath wrought 
In some to .spring from thee, \^^ho never touched 
The excepted Tree, nor witli the Snake conspired^ 
Nor sinned thy sin, yet from I hat sin derive 
Corriiption to bring forth more violent deeds," 

His eyes he opened^ and beheld a field, 
Pan arable and liithj whereon were sheaves 


Ncw-reaptdj the other pari sheep-walks and folds; 
r [he mi<Jsi an aUar as the Jandmark scoodj 
Rijsuc^ ot grassy sord. Thiiher anon 
A sweaty reaper from his tiLlagc brought 
Firs[-frmtSj the green ear and the yellow sheat, 
Unculled, as came to hand. A shepherd next. 
More ineckj came with the tirsdings of his flock^ 
ChoicesE and best; then, sacrificmg, laid 
The inwards and dieSr fat, wiih incense airewed, 
On the clef[ wood^ atid all due rites performed. 
His offering soon propitious fire Erom heaven 
Consumed, with nimble glance and grateful steam; 
The other^E not, for his was not sincere; 
Whereat he inly raged^ and, a^ Ehey talked^ 
Smote him into the midriff with a sione 
That beat out life; he fell, and, deadly palf. 
Groaned out his soul, v/liii gushtng blood elTused^ 
Much at that sight was Adam in his heart 
Dismayed, and ihns in haste to the Anj^d cried: — 

"O Teacher J some great mischief haih b<;f allien 
To ihai meek man, who weH had sacrificed; 
Is piety thus and pure d^voiion paid?" 

To whom Michatl thus, he al:^ moved, replied: — 
"These two are brethren, Adam, and to come 
Out of thy loins. The unjust the just hath slain> 
For envy that his brother^ ofTerinp; found 
From Heaven acceptance; but ihe bloody fact 
Will be avenged, and the othcfs faith approved 
Lose no reward, though here thou see him die^ 
Rowitng in dust and gore." To which our isire: — 

"AlaSj both tor die deed and for the cause! 
Bui have I now seen Dea[h? Js this the way 
I must return to native dustP O sight 
Of terror, foul and ugly [o behold ! 
Horrid to thinks how horrible to feel!" 

To whom thus Michael: — '*Deai:h thou hasi seen 
In his first shape on Man; but many sha|>es 
Of Death, and many are the ways thac lead 
To his grim cave^^all dismal, yet to sense 
More terrible at the entrance than within. 


Sompj as thou saw'si, by vlaltni slroke shall J[e, 
By fiiCj flootJj famine; by intemperance more 
In meats and drinks, which on the Earth shall bring 
Diseases dirCj of which a monstrous crew 
Before [heo shall appear^ thai ihou may'st know 
What misery ihe inabstlnence of Eve 
Shall bring on men/' Immcdtaicly a plaee 
Before his eyes appeared^ sad^ noisomCp dark; 
A ]ar,ar-hou5e it seemed^ wherein were laid 
Numl^rs of all diseased — atl maladies 
Of ghasdv spasm, of racking lorture. qu^ilms 
Of heart-sick sij^ony, all feverous kin(.!s. 
Convulsions^ epilepsies^ tierce caLirrhs, 
Intestine stone and ulcert colic pangs, 
Diemoniac phrtn/.y* moping meianchyly, 
And moon-S[ruck madness, pining atrophy^ 
Marasmus, and wide- wasting pes L Hence, 
Dropsies and asihrrias^ and jolnc-rackin^; fhcuins* 
Dire was the lo^aing^ deep the jjroans; Despair 
Tended the sick^ busiest from couch to cou.:h; 
And over them [rtumphani Deaih his dart 
Shook, but delayed to strike, though oft invoked 
With vows, as their chief good and final hope. 
Sight so deform what heart of rock could long 
Dry-eyed behold? Adam could not, but wt[^tj 
Though not of wv>man born: compassion tjuelled 
His best ot nian, and gave him up to tears 
A apace, till firmer thoughts leMrained excess. 
And, scarce recovering; words^ hiJ plaint renewed: — 

^'O miserable Mankind, to what fall 
Degraded, to wh;*t wretched state reserved! 
Better end here unborn. Why is life given 
To be thus wrested from us? racher why 
Obtruded on us thus? who, if we knew 
What we receive would either not accept 
Life offered, or soon beg lo lay it down, 
Glad l[> be so dismissed in peace- Can thus 
The image of God in Man, created once 
So goodly and ercctp though faulty since, 
To such unsightly sufferings be debased 

33^ JOHN MILTON book xr 

Under inhuniEin pains? Why should not Man, 

KeF^inin^ still divine sin^ilicude 

In parij trom such dtEormilics Ik free. 

And for his Maker's imaj^e'sake exempt?" 

"Their Maker's image/' answered MichacK 'ihen 
Forsook ihenij when themselves they vilihcd 
To iserve ungoverned Appetiie, and look 
His image whom ihey served — a brulish vice, 
Induciivc mainly Lo ihe $m of Eve- 
Therefore so abject is their p;inEshmcntj 
Disfiguring" not Cod's likeness,bui thdr own; 
Or, if his likenes^^ by themselves defaced 
While they jierveri pure Nature's heahhtul rules 
To loathsome sickness — worthily^ since they 
God's image did not reverence in themselves-'^ 

*'I yield i[ just," said Adam, "and submit. 
But is there yet no other way^ besides 
These painful passages, how \vc may come 
To death, and mix with our connaiural dustP" 

*'Thcre is,^^ said Michael, "if thou welt ob5e^^■e 
The rule of Not too muih, by temperaniie taught 
In what thou eat'st and drink*si, seeking from ihence 
Due nourishmentj not gluttonous delight^ 
Till many years over thy head return- 
So may'st thou live^ till, likt ripe fruit, ihou drop 
inio thy mother's lap, or be with ease 
Gathered, not harshly plucked, for death mature. 
This is old age; but then thou must outlive 
Thy youth, thy strentjtK, ihy beauty, which will change 
To wiUiered^ weak, and |irey; thy senses then, 
Obluse, alt taste o5 pleasure must forgo 
To what ihou hast; and, for ihe air ot youth. 
Hopeful and cheerful, in [hy blood will reign 
A meJanchc-ly damp oi cold and dry, 
To weigh thy spirits down, and last consume 
The balm of hfeJ' To whom our Ancestor; — 

**Henceforth I fly not deaih, nor would prolong 
Life much — bent rather how I may be quit. 
Fairest and easiest^ of this cumbrous chargej 
Which I must keep till my appointed day 


Of fendcriQg up, and patently attend 
My dissolution/' Michael replied: — 

''Nor love [hy life^ nor hate; bur what thou liv'st 
Live ^^'tllj how long or shori pcrmii to Heaven, 
And now prepare [liee Jor another sight." 

He looked, and 5.iw a spacious pUin, whereon 
Were tents of various hue: by some were herds 
Of tutlle (jra^-inji; oihers whence? the sound 
Of instruments that msde melodious chime 
Was heard, of harp and organ, and who moved 
Their stop? and diocds was i^eicn: his vobnt touch 
Instinct through all proporcions low and hi^h 
Fled and pursued transverse (he resonant Euguc* 
In other part stood one who, at the forge 
Labouring^ tvi o massy tlods of iron and brass 
Had melted (nliedier found tvhcrc casual lire 
Hiid wasted woods, on mountain or In vale, 
Down 10 il\^ veins of earthy ihenc^ gliding hot 
To some ca^e\ mouthy or whether washed by stream 
From underground); (he Ikjuid ore he drained 
liilD III mouMs prepared; from \^'hich he formed 
First hU own tools^ then what might else be wrought 
Fusil or i;r3ven In metal, Atier these, 
But on the hither side^ a different sore 
From tht high neighbouring bills^ which was their scat, 
Down to the plain descended: by their guise 
Just men they seemed, and all their study bent 
To worship God arigh^^ and know his work^ 
Not hid; nor those things last which might preserve 
Freedom and peace to men, Thev on the plain 
Long had not walked when from the tents behold 
A bevy of fair women, richly gay 
In gems and wanton dress! to ihe harp they sung 
Soft amorous ditties^ and in dantc came om 
The men, though grave, eyetJ them, and let their eyes 
Kove wiihoui rein^ till, in the amorous net 
Fa5i caught, they liked, and each his liking chose- 
And novi^ of love ihey ireatt lill the evening-5tar, 
Love's harbinger, appeared; then, all in heat, 
They light the nuptial torch^ and bid invoke 

334 JOHN MILTON book xi 

Hymen^ then first lo marriage rites invoked: 

Wiih fea^E and mu^ic all the tenti resound. 

Such happy interview, and fair event 

Of love and youth not Joai, son^s, garlands, Howcrs, 

And charming symphonies, attached the heart 

Of Adam, soon inclined to admit delight, 

The beni o£ Nature; tvhich he thus expressed: — 

''True opener of mine eyes, prime Angel blest, 
fttuch better seems this vision, and more hope 
Ot peaceful days portends, than those two past: 
Those were of hate and death, or pain much worse; 
Here Nature seems fulfilled in all her entls," 

To whom thus Michael: — 'J^^^fi^^ ^"^^ what is best 
By pleasure, though to Nature seeming meet, 
Created, as thou art, to nobler end, 
Holy and pure, conformity divine. 
Those tents thou saw'st so pleasant were the tents 
Of wickedness, VL'herein shall dwell his race 
Who slew his brother; studiuus they apptar 
Of arts that pohsh life, inventors rare; 
Unmindful of their Maker, though his Spirit 
Taught them; but ihey his gift^ acknowledged none. 
Yet they a beauteous offspring shall beget; 
For that fair female troop thou saw'st, that seemed 
Ol goddesses, so blithe, so smooth, so gay, 
Yet empty of all good wherein consists 
Woman's domestic honour and chief praise; 
Bred only and comjileted to the taste 
Of lustful appetence, to sing, to dance, 
To dress, and troll the tongue, and roll the eye; — 
To the^e that sober race of men, whose lives 
Religious tided them the ^ons of God, 
Shall yield up all their virtue, all iheir fame, 
Ignobly, to the trains and to the smiles 
Of these fair atheists, and now swim in joy 
(Erelong to swim at large) and laugh; for which 
The world erelong 3 world of tears must weep* 

To whom thus Adam, ot short joy bereft: — 
"O pity and shame, that ihey who to live well 
Entered so fair should tuxn aside to Head 


Paths indirect, or in the midway fatni;! 
But stiU I see the tenor of Man's woe 
Holds on i|je same, from Woman to begin," 

"From Man's eHeminate slackness k begins" 
Said ihe Angd, "who should belter hold his place 
By wisdom, and superior gifts received, 
Bui now prepare thee for another scene/' 

He looked^ and iaw Hude tcirilory spread 
Before him — towns, and rural works bdween^ 
Cities of men with lofty gates and lowers. 
Concourse in aims, lierce faces chrtateninj^ war^ 
Giants of mighty bone and bold emprise* 
Part wield their arms, part curb the foaiiiing steedj 
Stngle or in array of batde ranged 
Both horse and foot, nor idly mustering stood. 
One way a band select from forage drives 
A herd of beeves^ fair oxen and fair kinc, 
From a fan mcadow-g rounds or fleecy flock, 
Ewes and their bleatcnf; lambs, ov^r die plairip 
Their booty; scarce with life the shepherds fly^ 
But call in aid^ whieh makes a bloody fray: 
Wich cruel tournament the squadrons join; 
Where cattle pastured late, now scattered lies 
With carcasses and arms the ensanguined field 
Deserted- Others to a city strong 
Lay siegej encamped^ by battery, scale^ and mine^ 
Assaulting: others Erom the wall defentl 
With dan and javelin, stones and sulphurous fire; 
On each hand slaughter and gig:indc deeds. 
In other parts the sceptred haralds call 
To council in the city-gates: anon 
Grey-headed men and grave, with warrior& mixed. 
Assemble, and harangues aie heard; but soon 
In factious opposition, till at last 
Of mtddle age one rising, eminent 
In wise deport^ spake much of right and wrongi 
Of justice^ of rehgion, truth, and peace^ 
And judgment from above: him otd and young 
Exploded, and had seized with viotent handi. 
Had not a cloud descending snatched liiru thence^ 

33^ JOHN MILTON book xi 

Un^&jji amiJ the throng. So violence 

Proceeded J 3iiid oppression^ and sword-law^ 

Through all the pEain^ and refuge none was found- 

Adam was all in tears, and to his guide 

Lameming lurned tull sad: — -"Oht ^vhai are these? 

Dca[h*5 miniiten, not men! who thus deal death 

Inhumanly to meOp and multiply 

Ten thousandfold the sin of him who slew 

His brother; for of whom such massacre 

Make ihey but or ihcir brethren, men of mcnP 

But who was ihat just man, whom had not Heaven 

Rescued, had in his righteousness been lost?"* 

To whom thus Michael: — 'These arc the product'^ 
Of those ill-mated marriages thou saw'51, 
Where good with bad were niaichcd; who of themselves 
Abhor to join, and, by imprudence mixed^ 
Produce prodigious births of body or mind* 
Such were these Giant?, men of hl^h renown; 
For in those days mighL only shal] be admired^ 
And valour and heroic virtue called* 
To overcome in battle, and subdue 
NationSj and bring hume spoils widi infiniie 
Manslaughter, shall be held the highest pitch 
Of human glory, and, for glory done^ 
Of uiumph to be styled great conquerorSj 
Patrons of mankind, gods, and sons of gods — 
Destroyers righdier called, and Plagues of men* 
Thus fame shall be achieved^ renown on eanhj 
And what most merits fame in silence hid. 
But he^ the seventh from thee, whom thou beheld'st 
The only righteous in a world perverse. 
And then; fore hated, therefore so besel 
Wiih foes^ for daring single to be just^ 
And utter odious truth, that God would come 
To judge them with his Saints — him ihc Most High, 
Uapt in a balmy cloudy with winged steeds^ 
Did, as thou saw' si, receive, Co walk wtih God 
High in salvaiion and the climes of bli^s^ 
Exempt from deaih, to shov/ thee whai reward 
Awaits the good^ the rest what punishment; 


Which now direct ihine eyes and soon behold " 

He [ookedp and saw [he face of things quiie changed. 
The brazen Lhroai of war had ceased to roar; 
All now WHS turned lo jollity and game^ 
To luxury and rioiy fesisi and dance. 
Marrying or prostitutingj as befell, 
llapc or adultery, where passing fair 
Aliured them; thence from cup5 to civil broils- 
At Icngih a reverend Sire among them came. 
And of their doings great dislike declared, 
And lestijitd against thctr waySn He oft 
Frequented ihcit as^emblie^s nlicreio met^ 
Tfiumphi or festivals^ and to them preached 
Conversion and repentance, as to souls 
In prison^ under iudgtrienti imminent; 
Rui a]l in vain. Which when he saw^ he ceased 
Contending, and removed his tents far olf; 
Then, from ihe n^ouniain hewing timber tall, 
Bt=gan 10 build a Vessel of huge bulk, 
Measured by cubiip length, and brcadih, and highth, 
Smeared round with pitchy and in ihe side a door 
Contrived^ and of proviilons laid in lari^e 
For man and btast: when lo! a wonder strangel 
Of every beast, and btrd^ and insect small 
Camt sevens and pairs^ and entered in^ as laught 
Their order; last, the Sire and his three sons, 
WiUi their four wives; and God made fast [he door^ 
Meanwhile the South-wind rose^ and, with black wings 
Wtdt^-hoveringj all [he clouds together drove 
From under heaven- tiie hills to their supply 
Vapour, and exhalation dusk and moist p 
Sent up amain; Lmd now th^2 thickened sky 
Like a dark ceifing stood; down rushed the raia 
Impetuous, and continued till the earth 
No more was seen. The floating Vessel swum 
Uplifted, and secure with beaked prow 
Rode tilting o'er the weaves; all dwellings else 
Flood overwhelmed, and them with all their pomp 
Deep under water rowled; sea covered sea. 
Sea without shore: and in their palaces^ 

338 JOHN MILTON book si 

Where luxury ktc reigned, sea-monsters whelped 

And siabkd: of mankind^ %o numerous laic. 

All lefl in one small bottom swum imbarkcd. 

Hmv didsi ihou grieve thcn^ Adam^ to behold 

The end of all thy offspringj end so sad. 

Depopulation! Thee anoiher Hood, 

Of tears and sorrow 3 flood [ht:e also drowned^ 

And sunk thee as thy sons; tdl, gently reared 

By the Angel, on thy feet thou stood'st al U^I, 

Thoujjh comfonUi^j us when 3 father mouins 

Hii children, all in view destroyed at onee^ 

And scarce to the Angel uttcr*dst tEius thy plamt: — ^ 

"0 Vtsions ill foreseen! Better had I 
Lived ignoranc oE future — so had borne 
My part of evil only^ each day's for 
Enough to bear- Those now [hat were dispensed 
The burden of many ages on me light 
Ae once> by my foreknowledge gaining birdi 
Abor[i\ep to torment me, ere iheir being* 
Wiih thought that they must be. Let no man seek 
Henceforth to be foretold what shall befall 
Him or his children — evil^ he may be sure, 
Which neither his foreknowing can prevent, 
And he the fusure evil shall no less 
In apprehension ihan in substance feel 
Grievous to bear. Bur that care now is past; 
Man is nol whom to warn; those few escaped 
Famine and anguish will at !asi con^ume^ 
Wandering that watery desert, I ha^l hope, 
When violence was ceased and war on Earih, 
All would have then gone well, peace would have 

Wiih length of happy days [he race of Man; 
But I was far deceived^ for now I see 
Peace lo corrupt no less than war to wifste. 
How comes ic dius? Unfold, Celestial Guide^ 
And whether here the r*ice oE Man will end/' 

To whom thu$ Michael: — "Those whom lasi thou 


in triumph and luxurious weakh are ihey 


hooK \t PAH^VDISE LOST 339 

Fjfsr seen in aci^ of powers eminent 

And great exploitSj but of true virtue void; 

WhOj fi^ivlng spilt much bloody and done much waste. 

Subduing nauans, and achieved thereby 

Fame in the world, liigh titles, and rich prey, 

Shall change their course to pleasuFe^ cn^c^ and sloth, 

Surfeitj and lust^ lili wantonness and pride 

Jtaise cut oi friendship hostile deeds in pcace- 

The conquered, also^ and enslaved by w*ir, 

Shal)^ with their freedom lost^ all virtue lose^ 

And fear of God — from whom their piety fc^igned 

In sharp contest of baule found no aid 

Against invaders; therefoie, cooled in ?.eal, 

Thenceforth shall practise how to live secure, 

Worldlvj or dissolutCp on what their lords 

Shall leave them to enjoy; for The Earth ihall Iw^ir 

More than enough^ that temperance m:iy be Iritd, 

So all shall turn degenerate^ all depraved^ 

Justice and temperance* trutli and faiih, forgot^ 

One man excepc, the only son of hajht 

in A dark age^ against example good, 

Against allurement^ custom^ and a world 

Oflcnded. Fearless of reproach and scorn> 

Or Violence, he of their wicked ways 

Shall them admonish, and before ihem set 

The paths of righteousness, how mucli more safe 

And full of peace, denouncing wraulh to come 

On their impenitence, and shall return 

Of them deridedj but of God observed 

The one just man alive: by his command 

Shall build a wondrous Ark^ as thou bt?held'st> 

To save himself and household from amidst 

A world devote to universal wrack. 

No sooner he, with them of man and beast 

Select for life, shall in the ark. be lodged 

And sheltered round, but all the cataracts 

Of Heaven set open on ihe Earth shall pour 

Rain day and night; all fountains of the deep. 

Broke up, shall heave the ocean to usurp 

Bejond all bounds, liU inundation rise 


340 JOHN MTLTON book xi 

Al>ove the highest hills- Then shall this Mount 
Ot Paradise by might oi waves be moved 
Oui of his place, pushed by the horned flood. 
With all his verdure spoiled, and trees adrift, 
Down the great River to the opening Gulf, 
And there cake root, an island sak and bare, 
The haunt of seals, and ores, and ^ea-mews" clang- 
To teach thee that God at'tributes to place 
No sanctity, if none be thither brought 
By men who there frequent or therein dwell. 
ALid now what furder shall ensue bcliold." 

He looked, and saw the Ark hull on the flood. 
Which now abated; for the douds were Hed, 
Diiven by a keen North-wind, that, blowing dry, 
"Wrinkled the face of Deluge, as decayed; 
And the dear sun on his wide watery ^lass 
Gazed hot, and of the fresh wave largely drew, 
As after thirst; which made their flowing shrink 
From standing Jake to tripping ebb, that stole 
With soft foot towards the deep, who now had stopt 
His sluices, as the heaven his windows shut. ' 
The Ark no more now floats, but seems on ground, 
Fast on the tap of some high mountain fi^ed. 
And now the tops of hills as rocks appear; 
With clamour thence the lapid currents drive 
Towards the retreating sea their furious tide. 
Forthwith from out the ark a Raven flies. 
And, after him, the surer messenger, 
A Dove, sent forth once and again to spy 
Green tree or ground whereon his foot may light; 
The second time returning, in his bill 
An oliverleaf he brines, pa cific sign. 
Anon dry ground appears, and from his ark 
The ancient sire descends, with ah his train; 
Then, with uplifted hands and eyes devout, 
Grateful to Heaven^ over his head beholds 
A dewy cloud, and in the cloud a Bow 
Conspicuous with three listed colours gay. 
Betokening peace from God, and covenant new. 
Whereat the heart of Adam, erst so sad. 


Grcally rejoiced; and ihus his joy brake forth: — 

"O ihou^ who future things canst represent 
A$ present^ Heavenly Insiructorj 1 revive 
At [his last iigh[, assured th^H Mnn shall live, 
With all [he creatures, and iheir seed preserve. 
Far lyss I now bnien[ for one whole world 
Of wicked sons destroyed ihan 1 rejoice 
For one man found so pcrfci and so just 
That God vou[safes to raise another world 
From him, and ail his angcf to forgeC- 
But say what mean ihose coloured sireaks in Heaven: 
Distended as the brow of God appeased? 
Or serve they as a flowery verge to bind 
The fluid skirts of that same waiery cloud, 
Lest i[ aj-ain dissolve aiid shower the Earih?" 

To whom the Archangel; — "Dcxtrously [hou aim'st. 
So wilhngly doth God remit his ire: 
Though late repenting him of Man depraved. 
Grieved at his hearu when, looking down, he saw 
The wiiole Harlh filled with vrolenec, and all llcsh 
Corrup[ing each their way; yet, those removed, 
Such grace shall one (use man hnd in his sight 
ThaL he relents, not [o hlot out mankind, 
And makes a covenant never to destroy 
The l£arih again by fJood, nor let the sea 
Surpass his bounds, nor rain lo drown the world 
With man therein or beast; but, when he brings 
Over [he Earth a cloud, will therein set 
His [riptc-coloured bow, whereon to look 
And call to mind his Covenant. D^y and night, 
Seed-time and harvest, heat and hoary frost, 
Shall hold their course, till fire purge al] things new 
Both Heaven and Ear[h, wherein the just shall dwell," 


Tir£ Argutjext. — The Ane^l Micfa.iei continue^^ from tiip Ploocl^ to relate wh^t 
shall juccM^f; ihtfi, \n clit (ncntiyn of Abraham^ comta by dt^rLTi to explain who 
ihjT Setd of the Woman shall be which was ]>romJii:d Adam and Evt in the Fall: 
his incarnation, dcarh, resurrection, and i3.:tn5ion; die state oi ihe Church til! his 
$Cf:and co^rLint^ Adat^i^ grcntly sati^lied and recomion<:d by thei-e rtlaiions and 
promi&e&h descends the hilL with Mithaeli wsktns Eve, who all ih\i while had slcpc* 


but with ;renile dreams t:ompn5';d lo i|Tik:inc$^ of mind and Mibmii^ion. Michael in 
I'nhcr hand Il^iI^ jhciii out oi Paradise, itie (icr>' Svnd wavins behind iIkhIh and ihs 
Cliefubini taking ihtit siaiinna n> ^uard ihe platc- 

A? one who» in his journey, baie^ at noon, 

Though bene on speed, so here the Archangel paused 

Betwixi the world destroyed and world restored, 

[f Adam aught perhaps might interpose; 

Then, with [ransition sweet, new speech resumes: — ■ 

"Thus ihou hast seen one world begin and end. 
And Man as from a wcond slock proceed. 
Much ihou liasE yet lo see; but I perceive 
Thy mortal £ij;ht to fail; objects divine 
Must needs impair and weary human sense. 
Henceforth what is to come 1 will relate; 
Thou, therefore, give due audience, and attend. 

"This second source oE men, while yet but lew, 
And white the dread ot iudjjmeni past remains 
Fresh in their minds, fearing the I>eity, 
With some regard to what is just and riiiht 
Shall lead their hves, and multiply apace, 
Lalwurifig the soil, and reaping plenteous crop, 
Corn, wine and oil; and, from the herd or Hock 
Oft sacrificing bullock, lamb, or kid. 
With large wine-oHerings poured, and sacred Eeast, 
Shall Sfiend their day? in joy unblamed, and dwell 
Long time in peace, by families and triber;, 
Under paternal rule, till one ^hall rise. 
Of proud, ambitious heart, who. not content 
With fair equality, fraternal state. 
Will arrogate dominion undeserved 
Over his brethren, and quite dispossess 
Concord and taw ot Nature from the Earth^ 
Hunting (and men. not beasts, shall be his jjamc) 
With war and hostile snare such as refuse 
Subjection to his empire tyrannous. 
A migtity Hunter thence he shall be styled 
Before the Lord, as in despite of Heaven, 
Or from Heaven claiming second sovraitCy, 
And from rebellion shall derive his name, 
Though of rebellion others he accuse. 


He, with a crew, whom like ambition joins 

With him or under him to tyrannize, 

Marching from Eden towards ilie west, shall find 

Tht Plain, wherein a black bituminous gUT^je 

Boils ouE frum under ground, the mouth of Hell. 

Of brick, and of that sruiT, they ca^I to build 

A city and tower* who^e top may reach to Heaven; 

And ge[ themselves a name, lest far dispurstid 

In foreign lands, their memory be lo^i — 

Kc^-ardless whelhtT gnod or evil fame. 

But God, who oft descends to visit men 

Unieen, and through their habitations walks» 

To mark their doing^j them beholding soon, 

Comes down to sec their city, ere the Tower 

Obsiruct Heaven-towers, and in derision sets 

Upon their tongues a various spirit, to rase 

Quite out iheir tiadve language, and, instead^ 

To sow a jangling noise of words unknown- 

ForUiwith a hideous gabble rises loud 

Among the buildefs; e;jch to other calls. 

Not undcrsto'xl — lifl, hoarse and all in r^ge, 

As mocked they storm. Great laughter was in Heaven, 

Afid looking down to see the hubbub strange 

And hear ihe Jin- Thus was the building left 

Kidifulous, and the work Cnnfuiian named/* 

Whereto thus Adam, [aiherly displeased: — 
"O execrable son, .^o to aspire 
Above his brethren, to himself assuming 
Authority usurped, from God not given! 
He gave us only over beast, fish, fowl, 
Dominion absolure; that right we hold 
By his donation' but man over men 
He made noc lord — such title to him:ielf 
Reserving, hum:fn left from human free. 
But this Usurper his encroachment proud 
Stays not on Man; to God his Tower intends 
Siege and defiance. Wretched man! what food 
Will he convey up thitlier, to sustain 
Himself and his rash army, where thin air 
Above the clouds will pine his entrails gross, 


JOHN MILTON book xu 

And famish him of breath, if not of bread?" 

To whom thus Michact:- — ^"J^stly thou abhorr'st 
That son, who on the quiet state of men 
Sucli trouble brought, aflecUng to subdue 
Rational liberty; yet know wjihal. 
Since thy original lapsQ, true liberty 
Is lost» which ahvjys with ri^ht rizji^on dwclb 
Twinned, and irom her halh no dividual hcmg. 
Reason in Man obscured, or not obeyed, 
Immediately inordinate desires 
And ujjstart passions catch the government 
From Reason, and to servitude reduce 
Man, till then free. Therefore, since lie |n:rmiLS 
Within himself unworthy powers to reign 
Over free reason, God, in judgmeni just, 
Subjects him from without to violent lords, 
Who oft as undeservedly enthral 
His outward freedom. Tyranny niusi be* 
Though to the tyrant thereby no excuse. 
Yet sometimes uaiion^ will decline so low 
From virtue, which is reason, that no ^vrong. 
But ju^nicc and some fatal cur^e anntwed. 
Deprives ihen^ of their outward liberty, 
Their inward lost: witness the irreverent son 
Of him who built ihe Ark, who, for ihi- shame 
Done to his father, heard this heavy cuiic, 
Sfrcan^ of servants, on hLs vicious race. 
Thus will this ktler, as the former worlds 
Slill tend from bad lo worse, till God at last, 
Weatied with tlicir init^uiiies, withdraw 
His presence from among them, and avert 
His holy eyes, resolving from thcnceloidi 
"l"o leave them to their own polluted w^^ys^ 
And one peculiar nation to select 
From all tile rest, of whom lo be invoked — 
A nation ^rom one faithful man to spring. 
Him on this side Euphrates yet residing, 
Bred up in idol-worshi|> — Oh, that men 
(Canst thou bclievei') should be so stupid grown. 
While yet the patriarch lived who scaped the Flood, 


As 10 forsako the living CoJ, and [all 
,To w orship their own work in wood :tnJ 5pj]c 
For irodsl^ — yet hini God the Mo^c Hiyh vouisafes 
To call by vision from his father's houit;^ 
Hij kindred, and false yods into a tand 
Wliich he will ihew him, :ind from hian will raise 
A mifjhiy nation^ and upon h[ni shower 
His btrnedicrion so that in his seed 
AJl Kaiions ihall Eic hlesL He straight obeys^ 
Not knowing to what land, yet Rrm Iw^llt^vcs. 
I see hinij hur ihou canst not, with what faith 
He StEivcs his god-^j hli; friends^ and naiive soiU 
Ur of CEialdxa, parsing now thc^ ford 
To Haran- — aficr him a cumbro;i5 rrain 
Of herd:; and llotks^ and numerous servitude — 
Not wandering poor^ hut iruitin^ all his wealth 
With God. who called him^ in a Umd unknown 
Canaan he now aiiains; I 5cc his lean 
Pitched al>auc Sechemj a»d the neighbouring plain 
Of Moreh- There, by promise, he receives 
Gift to his progeny of all ihat land, 
From Hamath northward lo the Desert south 
(Thin^js by ihcir names 1 a^^t diough yet unnamed), 
From Hernion ease to the yrcat western sea; 
Mount Hermon^ yonder sea^ each ptace behold 
Til |>ros[>ectj as I point them: on the shore^ 
Mount Carmel; here^ the double-founied sireanij 
Jordan, [me Mmit eastward; but hi:* sons 
Shall dwell to Senir, that, long ridge of hiUs- 
This ponder, that all nations Ql ihe Earth 
Shall in his seed be blessed. By that seed 
li meant thy great Deliverer^ who shall bruise 
The Serpent's head; whereof to ihee anon 
Plainlier shati be revealed- This patriarch blest, 
Who m faiihfiil //^raAd?™ due umeshall call, 
A son^ and ot his son a grandchild, lea ves , 
Like him in faith, in wisdom, and renown- 
The grandchildp with twelve 5ons fncreasedi departs 
From Canaan lo a land hereafter called 
Egypt, divided bv ihe river Nile; 

34^ JOHN MILTON book xv 

See where it flows, disgorging at seven mouths 

Into the sea. To sojourn in iliat land 

He comes, invited by a younger son 

Iji time of dearth — a son whose woitEiy deeds 

Raise him to lie the second in [ realm 

Of Phnrjioh. There he dleii, and leaves his race 

Growing inio a nation, and now grown 

Suspected to a sequent l^ing, who seeks 

To stop their overgrowth, as inmate guests 

Too numerous; whence of guests he makes them slaves, 

InhospltJibly, and kills their infant males: 

Till, by two brethren (tho^e two brethren call 

Moses and Aaron) sent from God to claim 

Hi,s people from cnihnilment, they return, 

With glory and spoii, bflck to their promised land. 

But first the lawless tyrant, who denies 

To know their God, or message to regard, 

Mu^E lie compelled by signs and judgments dire: 

To blood unshed the rivers must be turned; 

Frogs, lice, and flies mu^t a\\ hi? palace fill 

With loathed intrusion, and flU all the land; 

His cattle must of rot and murrain die; 

Botches and blains mu^t all his flesh imboss. 

And all his people; thunder mixed with hail. 

Hail mixed with lire, must rend the Egyptian sky, 

And wheel on the earth, devouring where it rolls; 

What ic devours not, herb, or fruit, or grain, 

A darksonic ctoud of locusts swaTming down 

Must cat, and on ihe ^found fea^e nothing green; \ 

Darkness musl overshadow alt his bounds, 

Palpable darkness, and blot out three days; 

Last, with one midnight-stroke, all the fiF^t-boin 

Of Egypt must lie dead. Thus with ten wounds 

The iUver-dragon tamed at length submits i 

To let his sojourners depart, and oft 

Humbles his stubborn heart, bur still as ice 

More hardened after thaw; till, in his rage 

Pursuing whom he late dismissedj the sea 

Swallows him with his ho^t, but them lets pass. 

As on dry land, between two crystal walls, 



BOOK ^11 


Awed by the rod of Moses so to stand 


Divided till his rescued gain dieir shore: 

Such wondrous power God 1.0 his Saint will lend, 

Though present in his Angei, who shall ^n 

Before them in a cloudy and pillar of fire — 

By day 3 cloud, by ni^ihi n pillar of fire — 

To guide them in iheir jouriwy, and remove 

Hehind them, while the obdurate Uing pursues. 

AU night he wiU pursue, but his approach 

Djirkfie^s defendi between irll morning' watch; 

Then through the fiery pillar and the cloud 

Ciod looking forth will trouble all his host, 

And crJi'-e iheir chariot- wheels: when, by command, 

Mosei once more hi^ poti;i\t rod extends 

Over the sea; ihe ka hh rod obeys; 

On their imb^tiled ranks the waves return. 

And c^crwhclm their w:ir. The race elect 

Safe to\\ ards Canaan, from the shore, advance 

Through the \^'iU] Desert— noi the readiest way, 

Lest, entering on the Canaaniie alarmed, 

War terrify ihem inc>;per^ and fear 

Return them bacL to Egypt, choosing rather 

Inglorious life 'v[[h servitude; tor lite 

To nuble and ignoble is more sweet 

Untrained in arms, where rashness leads not on. 

This also shall they gain by their delay 

In the wide wilderness: there ihev shall lound 

Their government, and their great Senate choose 

Through the twelve Tribes, to rule by laws ordained, 

God, from ihe Mount of Sinai, whose grey top 

Shall tremble, he descendinjj, will himself, 

In thunder, lightning, and loud trumpet's sound, 

Ordain them law,s^part, such as appertain 

To civil justice; part, religious rites 

Of sacrifice, informing ibem, by types 

And shadows, of that destined Seed to bruise 

The Serpent, by what means he shall achieve 

Mankind's deliverance. But the voice of God 

To mortal ear is dreadful: they beseech 

That Moses might report to them his will, 



And terror cease; he grams what ihcy besought, 
In5triictc<J that to God is no access 
Wkhout Mediatofj whose hijsh office now 
Moses in figure bcars^ to introJuce 
One greater, of whose day he shall foretell. 
And all the Prophets^ in ihcir age, the times 
Of greiit Messiah shall ship. Thus laws and rites 
Esiahlishcd, such delight hath God in men 
Obedient lo his will that he vouisafes 
Among them to set up his Tabernacle — 
The Holy One wiih mortal m&Ji 10 dwelL 
By his prescript a sancluary is (ramed 
Of cedar, overlaid with gold; therein 
An ark, and in the Ark his testimony, 
Tlie records of his covenant; over these 
A mercy-seac of gold, between the wings 
Of two bright Cherubim; before him burn 
Seven lamps, as in a zodiac representing 
1*he heavenly fires. Over the teni a cloud 
Shall rest by day^ a fiery gleam by night. 
Save when they journey; and al lengUi they come, 
Conducted by his AngeL lo the land 
Promised to Abraham and his seed. The rest 
Were long lo tell — how jnany battles fought; 
How many kin^s destroyedj and kingdoms won; 
Or how the sun shall in m]d-heaven stand siijl 
A day pndre, and night^s due course adjourn, 
Man's voice commanding, 'Sun, in Gibeon siand, 
And thou. Moon, in the vale of Aialon, 
Tiil /jjflf/ overcomcf* — so call the third 
From Abraham^ son of Isaac^ and from him 
His whole descent, who thus shall Canaan win/* 
Here Adam interposed: — ^"O sent from Heaven, 
Enlightener of my darkness, gracious things 
Thou hast revealed, those chieflv which concern 
Just Abraham and bis seed. Now first I find 
Mine eyes true opening, and my heart much eased, 
Erewhile perplcKcd with thoughts whai would become 
Of me and all mankind; bu! now I we 
His day, in whom all nations shall be blest^— 


Favour unmerited by me, ufio sought 

Forbidden knowledge by forbtddeu mcans- 

This yec i apprefiend not — wby to tbose 

Anionji whom God will dcign to dwell on Earth 

So m;my ^nd w various hisV5 nrc given. 

So [nany laws argue so many sins 

Among [hem; how can God with such reside?' 

To whom ihu:i Michaeli — "Doubt not but that siQ 
Will reign among them, as ot ihce begoi; 
And therefore wa^ [jw given them^ lo evince 
Their natural praviiy, by siirring up 
Sin :i^ainsi Law to Hi^ht, diar, when ihcy see 
Law can discover sin, but not remove, 
Save by tho^e shadowy expiations weak. 
The blood of bulls and gCkUs, ihey may conclude 
Some blood more precious musi be paid lor Man, 
Just tor unjuis^ that in such righteousness^ 
To them by faidi imputedj tbey may find 
Justification towards God^ and peaco 
Of conscience, which Lhe law by ceremonies 
Cannui appease, nor man the moral part 
Perform, and not performing cannot live- 
So Law appears imperfcci, and but given 
With purpose to resij^n them, in tull time, 
Up to a better coxenant^ disciplined 
From &hadowv tvpes to truth, from flesh to spiritt 
From imposition of strict laws to free 
Accepiance of large grace, from servile fear 
To Hlial, works ot law to works of faith. 
And therefore shall not Moses, though of God 
Highly belo^ed^ being but the minister 
Of Law, his j>eople into Canaan lead; 
Gul Joshua, whom the Gentiles jesus call, 
His name and office (taring who shall queJl 
The adversary Serpent, and bring back 
Through the world's ^vilderness long-wandered Man 
Safe to eiernal Paradise of rest* 
Meanwhile ihey^ in [heir earthly Canaan placed^ 
Long lime shall dwell and prosper, but when sins 
National interrupt iheir public peace, 


Provokmg God to raise them enemies — 

Fiom whom as oft he save& them penitent. 

By Judges firsii then under Kings; of whom 

The 5fc5Condp boih Cor piciy renowned 

And puissant dccds^ a promise shall receive 

Irrcvocablcp that his regal ihrone 

For ever shall endure. The like shall sins; 

All Piopfiecy — that ot the royal stock 

Oi David (so I name this king) shall ri^i^ 

A son^ the Woman's Seed to ihee forecoldp 

Foretold to Abraham as in whom shall trust 

All iiaiionsj and to kings foretold ol kings 

The lasi, tor ot his reign shall be no end. 

Bui tirsi: a long succession must ensue; 

And his next son^ for wealth and wist.iom famed^ 

The clouded Ark o£ Cod, till ihen in terns 

\V;(fidt^fing^ shall in a glorious Temple enshrine* 

Such follow him as shall be registered 

Part good^ part bad; of bad the longer scroll: 

Whose foul idobirics and oihcr faults. 

Heaped to the popular sum, will so incense 

God> a^ to leave ihem, and expose [heir lanJ^ 

Their cUy, his Temple, and his holy Ark, 

With all his sacred things, a scarn and prev 

To that proud ciEy \^'hose high walls thou sa^\'sc 

Left in contusion^ Babylon ihence called, 

Thert in captivity he lets them dwell 

The space oi: seventy years; then brings them back, 

Reme [liber ing mercy^ and his covenant sworn 

To David, siablished as the days of Heavcn- 

Keiurned trom Babylon by leave oi kings. 

Their lords, whom God disposed, the house oi God 

They first re-edify, and for a while 

In mean estate live moderale, till, grown 

In wcaltii and multitude, factious they gro^v- 

But first among the priests dis^nsion spriniis — 

Men who atccnd the aUar^ and should mosE 

Endeavour peace; iheir strife poliution brings 

Upon the Temple itselt; at last they seize 

The sceptre^ and regard not David's sods; 



Then lose it lo a ilr-inger, ihat ihe true 

Anoimcd King Messiah might be horn 

Barri^d o£ his right. Yci ai his binh a Scar, 

Unseen before in htaven, proclaims him comcj 

And j!""^" the ea^icfn iayt^ uho inquire 

His place, to offer incense, myrrh, arid t;old: 

His place of birth a soEcmn Angel iclk 

To simp|j5 shepherds, keeping ^^'atth by night- 

They gladly ihilhor hasie^ and by a quire 

0\ ■^quaLlroncd Angels hear hi^ c^irol iun^. 

A Virgin is his moiher, biic his sire 

The Power of the MosE High. He shall ascend 

The throne hcrtJitaryj and bound his refgn 

With Earth's wide bounds^ hc$ glory with the Heavens " 

He ceased, Ji&cerning Adam wiih such joy 
Surcharged as had^ like grief^ been dewed in learSj 
Wiihoui ihe vent of words; which ihese lie breathed; — 

"U prophet of ghd lidings, finisher 
Of uimosE hope! now clear I understand 
What oft my steadiest thougEits have searched in vain- 
Why Dur great Espectation should be called 
Tht; Seed of Woman^ Virgin Mother, haill 
Hijrh In the love of Heaven, yet from my loins 
Thou shak proceed^ and from thy womb the Son 
Oi God Most High; $o God with Man unites. 
Needs must ihe Serpent now his C3piial bruise 
Excepi With mortal pain. Say where and when 
Th^^E^ fijihi, whai stroke shall bruise ihe Victor's heel-" 

To whom Ehus Michael:— ''Dream not of their fight 
As of a duel^ or the local wounds 
Of head or heel. Not therelore joins ihc Son 
Manhood to Godhead^ tviih more strength la ioil 
Thy enemy- nor so is overcome 
Saturn, whose fall from Heaven, a deadLiet bjruisej 
Disabled not to give thee thy death's wound^ 
Which he who comes Ehy Saviour shall recure, 
Not by destroyinj; Satan^ but hSs works 
In thee and in thy leed. Nor can this be^ 
Bui by fulfilling ihai which ihou didst want^ 
Obedience to the law of God, imposed 

352 JOHX MILTON book xil 

On penalty of dt^aihj and suflcring dcach^ 

The penally to thy transgression du^i 

AnJ duc^ to ihoirs whkli out of ihine will grow; 

So only can high ^usiict: rtst appnid. 

The Law of God cxacE he shall fulfil 

Both by ohedi£]ncc and by lovt*, [hough [o\^ 

Alone fulfil [he Law; ihy punishment 

He shall endure, by coming in the flesh 

To a reproachful life and cursed death, 

Piotlalming hie to all who shall l>clicve 

In his redeniptiouT and that his obedience 

Imputed becomes theirs by faith— his niertEiE 

To save them, not their own, thouj;h legal, works^ 

For this he shall live hated, be blasphemed^ 

Seized on by force^ judged, and to death condemned 

A shameful and accursed^ nailed to the Cross 

By his own nation, slain for brinyinp hfc; 

Bui to the cross he nail:; thy enemies — 

The Law [hat is against [hee, and the sins 

Ot all mankind, wiih him [here crucilied. 

Never lo hurc ihem more who righily irust 

In this his satisfaeiionn So he dieSj 

Bui soon revives; Death over him no power 

Shall long usurp. Ere the third dawning light 

Reiurn, the srars of morn shall see him rise 

Out ol his grave, fresh as the dawning light. 

Thy ransom paid, which Man from Death redeems — 

His deaih for Man, as many as offered life 

Ncglecl: not, and the heitefit imbrace 

By faith not void of ^vorks- This godlike act 

Annuls ihy doom, the death thou shouldst have died. 

In sin for ever lost from life; this act 

Shall bruise the of Satan^ crush his strength^ 

Cheating Sin and Death, his two main arms. 

And fix far deeper in his head Eheir stings 

Than temporal death shj|1 bruise the Victor^s heel, 

Or iheifs VL-hom he redeems — a dcalh like sleep, 

A gentle wafting to immortal life. 

Nor after resurrection shall he stay 

Longer on Earth than certain times to appear 


To his disciples — men who in his life 

Still followed him; to tbcm sh^ll leave in charge 

To teach all nauoTis what of him they kaitied 

And his salvation, them who shall believe 

i3apu?ini" in the prolKicnt stream — [he sign 

Of washinji diem from guilt of sin to life 

Pure, and in mind prepared, if so befall, 

Por death like that which the Redeemer died. 

All nations they shall teach; for from that day 

Not only to the sons of Abraham's loins 

Salvation shall be preached, bui w the iotis 

Of Abraham's faith wherever through the world; 

So in his seed all nation? shall be blest. 

Then to the Heaven ol Heavens he shall ascend 

With victory, triumphing through the air 

Over his foe? and diine; iherc shall surprise 

The Scr|>ent, Prince ol Air* and dratj in chains 

Throuljh all his realm, and there coniouilded leave; 

Then enier into glory and resume 

His seat at God's right hand, e'^alted high 

Abo^e all names in Heaven; and thence shall come, 

When this World's dissolution shall be ripe, 

With glory and power, to judge both quick and 

dead — 
To judge the unfaithful dead, but to reward 
His faithful, and receive ihem into bliss. 
Whether in Heaven or Earth; for then the Earth 
Shall all be Paradise, far happier place 
Than this of Eden, and far happier days," 

So spake the Archangel Michael; then paused, 
As at the World's great period; and our Sire, 
RepEete with joy and wonder, thus replied:— 

"O Goodness infinite, Goodness immense. 
That all this good of evil shall produce, 
And evil turn to good — more wonderful 
Than that which by creaiinn first brought forth 
Light out of darknessf Full of doubt I stand, 
Whether I should repent me now of sin 
Bv me done and occasioned, or rejoice 
Much more that much more good thereof shall spring — 


To God more glory, more gond-^^ill to men 
From God — and over wrauth grace shall abound. 
But say^ if our Deliverer up lo Heaven 
Muse reascendj whai will l>eiide the iew. 
His faith£i]]j left among the untaithlul herd, 
The enemies of truth. Who then shall guide 
tiis i^eople, who defend? Will they noL de^il 
Worse with his followers than wiih him ihey dealt?" 
"Be sure they will^" said [he Angel; ''but from 
He to his own a Comforter will scndj 
The promise of the Father^ ^ho shall dwell* 
His Spirit, within them, and the law of faith 
Working through love upon their hearls shall write. 
To guide them in all trush, and al5o arm 
Wtth spiritual armour^ able to resist 
Saian's assaults, and quench his fiery darts — 
What man can do against them not afraid, 
Though to the death; against such cruelties 
Wtlh inward consolations rccompcnscdp 
And ofien supporlod so as shall amaze 
Their proudest persecutors. For the Spirit, 
Poured first on his Apostks^ whom he sends 
To evangelise the nations, then on all 
Baptized, shall them with wondroos gifts endue 
To speak all tongues, and do all miracles, 
A? did their Lord before them. Thus ihcy win 
Great numbers of each nation to receive 
With joy the tidings brought from Heaven: aL lengthy 
Their jTiinistrv performed, and race well run, 
Their doctrine and their siory wriiien left^ 
They die; but in their room, as they iorewarn, 
Wolves shall succeed for teachers^ grievous wolves. 
Who all the sacred mysteries of Heaven 
To their own vile advantages shall turn 
Of lucre and ambition^ and the truth 
With superstitions and traditions taints 
Left only in those written Records pure, 
Though not but by [he Spirit understood. 
Then 5hall they seek lo avati ihemselves of nan^tes^ 


^□□K XIJ 


Palaces, and titles, and with these lo join 
Secular power, thou^K feigning still to act 
By spiritual; to them^lve^ sppropriatinR 
The Spirit of God, promised alike and given 
To all believers; and, from ihat pretense. 
Spiritual laws by carnal power ihall force 
On every conscience — laws which none shall £nd 
Left them cnrowlcd, or what the Spirit within 
Shall on the heart engrave. What will ihey [hen 
But force ihe Spirit of Cirace itself, and bind 
His consort. Liberty? what but unbuild 
His living temples, built by Eailh to siand— 
Their own failh* iiol artother*s? for, on Earth, 
Who against faith and conscience can be heard 
Infallible? Yet many will presume: 
Whence heavy persecution shall arise 
On all wlio in ihe worship persevere 
Of Spirit and Truth; the rest, far greater part. 
Will deem in outward rites and specious forms 
Religion satisfied; Truth shall retire 
Bestuck ivi[h slanderous darts, and works of F^itH 
Rarely be found. So shall the World go on, 
To good inati^nant, to bad men benign, 
Under her own weight groaning, till the dav 
Appear of respiration lo the just 
And vengeance to the wicked, at ieturn 
Of Him so lately promised tn thy aid. 
The Woman's Seed — obscurely then foretold. 
Now amplier known thy Saviour and thy Lord; 
Last in the clouds from Heaven to be revealed 
In glory of the Father, to dissolve 
Saran widi his perverted World; then raise 
From the conflagrani mass, purged and refined. 
New Heavens, new Earth, Ages of endless date 
Founded in righteousness and peace and love, 
To bring forth fruits, joy and eternal bliss/' 
He ended; and thus Adam last replied: — 
"How soon hath thy prediction, Seer blest, 
Measured this transient World» the race of TimCj 
Till Time stand fixedl Beyond is all abyss — 





Elcrnitv, whose end no eye can reach. 

CrL'adv insiTuaod i h.h^[tuni:^ flWflri, 

Grcnty in peace of iKoLi^lu. and liavg myjl l 

O f knQw]ed^c. what this vc^set ^^n conta in; 

Btyond \^ hii:h was my folly io aspire. 

Henceforth f learn tliac to obey is best. 

And love with fear ihe only God, to walk 

As in his presence, ever to obaerve 

His providence, nnd on hiin sole depend, 

Merciful over all his work:*, wiUi good 

Slill overcoming evil, and by small 

Accomj^lishing greji things — by things deemed weak 

Subverting worldly-5lron^» and worldly-wise 

^ simply meek; t juL sufftring for Truili's s^ke 

Ji torii iuJe to h ighest victory , 

And to the laiihlul deaEn the gaLe of life — 

Taught this by his example wliom I now 

Acknowledge my Redeemer ever blesl.'* 

To whom thus also the Angel last replied: — 
*'This having knrned^ thou ha&t attained the sum 
Of wisdom; hope no hij^hcr, though all ihe sues 
Thou knew'st by namt, and all [he elhercal iX)werS, 
All secrets of the Deep, all Nature's worki, 
Or works of God in heaven, air, earih, or sea. 
And all ihe riches of this world enjoy' dst, 
And all the rule, one empire- Only add 
Deeds to ihy knowledge answerable; add faith^ 
Add virtue, patience, temperance; add love. 
By name to come called Charity, the soul 
Of all the rest: then wilt thou not be loth 
To leave this Paradise, but shall, possess 
A Paradise^witfiin ihee^IiapplLr far. 
Lei us descend now, therefore, from this top 
Of specubiion; for the hour precise 
Exacts our pariin;^ hence; and, see! the guarJSj 
By me encamped on yonder hill, expect 
Their motion, at whose from a flaming sword. 
In signal of remove, waves fiercely round. 
We may no longer stay. Go, waken Eve; 
Her also I with gentle dreams have calmed, 


Por(enJ[ng good, and all her spirits composed 
To meek submission: thou, at season iitp 
Let her with thee pariake what [hou hftsi heard — 
Chiefly what may concern her faith to know. 
The great deliverance by her seed to come 
(For by the Woman'i Seed) on all mankind — 
Thjt ye may Jive, which will be many days, 
Both in one taith unanimous; though sad 
With cause for eviU past, yet much more theered 
With meJiiadon on the happy end " 

He ended, and they both descend the hiJL 
Desccndedj Adam lo the bovver where Eve 
Lay sleeping ran before^ but (ound her waked; 
And thus with vvurd? not sad she hiin received:^ 

^'Whence ihou return' st and whither ueni'st I knowj 
For God is also in sleep, and drc^ims advise, 
M'hich he h^ih sent propilious, sonic great j^ood 
Presajjitigj since* w'liU sorrow and heart's distress 
Wearied, 1 lell asleep. But now lead on; 
In me is no delay" with thee lo go 
Is to Slay here; without ihee here to stay 
Is lo go hence unwilling; diou to me 
Arc aU [hmgs under HeavcHj all places thou^ 
Who for my wilful crime art banished hence. 
This further consolation yel secure 
I carry hence: though all by me i? lost* 
Such favour I unworthy am voulsafetl, 
By me the Promised Seed shall all restore " 

So spake our mother Eve; and Ad^m heard 
Well pleased, but answered not^ for now too nigh 
The Archangel stood, and from the other hill 
To their fixed staUcin, all in bright array, 
The Cherubim deM:endcd^ on the ground 
Gliding meteorous^ as evening mist 
Risen from a river o'er the marish glide?, 
And gathers ground fast at the labourer's heel 
Homeward returning. High in front ad^anced^ 
The brandished sword of Got! before them blazed, 
Fierce as a comet; which \vith torrid heat. 
And vapour at the Libyan air adust, 

358 JOHN MILTON book xii 

Bcgjjn to parch that temperate dime; whereat 

In tiiher hand the hastening Angel caught 

Our lingering Parents, and to the eascern yaie 

Led them direct^ and down the cliET as fast 

To the suhiecred plain — then disappeared. 

They, looking back, aU the eastern sijg beheld 

Of P3raJise ,_sQ late their happy seat. 

Waved over by ihat flaming brand; the gate 

With dreadful faces thronged and fiery arms. 

Some natural tears they dropped, but wiped them soon; 

The world was all before them, where to choose 

Their place of rest* and Providence their guide. 

They, hand in hand, with wandering steps and slow, 

Through Eden took their solitary way. 




IMTIO crewhilc the happy Giir^Ten sung 
By one man's disobedience loic, now %\ng 
J Kecovercd Paradise eo jf! mankind. 
By one man** Hrm obeJicucc fully tried 
Through all icmpration^ 3nd [he Temptor foiled 
In all his wiles, defeated and repulsed. 
And Eden raised in the wasie Wilderness. 

Tliou Spiritj who [ed*st this glorious Eremite 
Inio [he desert^ his vietorious fie^d 
Against th^ spiritual fye^ and brought'st U\m ihcnce 
By proot the unUouhtcd Son ot God, in^pirCp 
xAs t]"kOU art wont, mv projiipted song, else mutej 
And hear ihrou^h highth or dL^pih of Nature'^ bounds^ 
Wiih prosperou:? wtng fuU summtd^ to tell ot deeds 
Abo^e hcroLcj though in secret done, 
And ujirecorded Icfl through many an age; 
Worthy 10 hav^i not remained so long unsung* 

Now had [he great Proclaimer, with a voice 
More awful than the sound of trumpLt^ c:rted 
KepeniancCj and Heaven's kingdom mj;h ai hand 
To all baptised. To lus great baptism flocked 
With awe the regions rountl, and with them came 
From Nazareih ihe son of Joseph deemed 
To the iTood ford:m — came as ihen obsture, 
Unmarkedj unknown. But him the Bapiisi soon 
Descriedj divinely warned, and witness bore 
As to his worthierj and would have resigned 
To him his heavenly office* Nor was long 
Hia vviiness unconfirmed: on him bapiized 
Heaven opened, and in likeness of a Dove 
The Spirit descended^ while [he Father's voice 



From Heaven pronounc^^tl him his beloved Son, 
That heard the Adversaryj who, roving still 
About ihe worldj at ihat assembly famed 
Would noi be U$% andj wiih ihe voice divins 
Nigh ihundcr-siruck, the cxaUcd man to whom 
Such high attest was given a whife surveyed 
With wonder; then, with envy fraught and ragCj 
Flies to his place^ nor rests, but in mid air 
Tf> council summons all his mighty Peers, 
Within thick clouds and dark tenfold involved, 
A gloomy consistory; and them amcdsc^ 
With looks aghast and sad, he thus bcspake:— 

^'O ancient Powers of Air and this wide World 
{For much more willingly I mention Alr^ 
This our old conquest^ than remember Hellj 
Our haled habiraiion), well ye know 
How many ages, as the years of men, 
This Universe we have possessed, and ruled 
In manner at our will the aflairs of Earth, 
Since Adam and his facde consort Eve 
Lost Paradise, deceived by me, [hough since 
With dread attending when that fatal wound 
Shall l>e inflicted by the seed of Eve 
Upon my head. Long the decrees of Hea%'en 
Delay, for longest time to Him is short; 
And now, too soon lor us, the circling hours 
This dreaded time have compassed, wherein we 
Muse bitle the stroke of that long-threaiened uound 
(At leasij if so we can^ and by the head 
Broken be not intended all our power 
To be infringed^ our freedom and our being 
In this fair empire won of Earch and Air) — 
For this ill news f bring: The Woman's Seed, 
Desiined to ihis, is late of woman born. 
His birth to our jusi fear gave no sma[l cause; 
But his growth now to youth^s full power, displaying 
All viriuet grace and wisdom to achieve 
Things highest, greatest, muliipiies my fear. 
Before him a great Prophet, to proclaim 
His coming, is sent harbinger, who all 


LnviTes, and in the conwcr^ted sEream 
Pretends to wash off sin, ant] fit them so 
Purified 10 rec<?ivc htm pure, or rather 
To do him honour as [hctr King. All come, 
And he himself among ihem w,t^ b:ipii/t]d^ 
Not thence to he more pure, bni to receive 
The testimony oi Heaven^ ihat who he is 
Thenceforih [he n-fiions may noE JoubL 1 saw 
The Prophet do him reverence; on hinij rising 
Out of the waicr^ Heaven above ihe douJs 
Unfold her crysuf doors; ihence on hi? head 
A perfet Dove trescenJ (whaie er it meant); 
And OUT. of Heaven the sovrai^n voice I heard, 
This is my Son beloved,^ — in him am pleased/ 
His mother^ then, is morialp but his Sire 
He who obtains the monarchy of Heaven^ 
And what will He not do eo ndvjnce his Son? 
His (irsi-bcj^t wti know^ and $ore have telt^ 
When his fierec thunder drove us to ihe Deep; 
\Vho this is wc muse [earn, for Man h^ ieems 
In all his lint^amcms, diuu^jh in his face 
The i^hmpse^ of his Faihcr's gtory shine. 
Ye ste our danger on the utmost edge 
Of hazard^ which admits no long debate^ 
But must with sonieihliin; sudden be opposed 
(Noi force, bui wtiU-cooched Irand^ x^clU^'oven 

Ere in the head of nations he appear, 
Thtir king, their leader, and sujjreme on Ear^h. 
[, when no other dur5[, sole undertook 
The dismal expedition to find out 
And ruin Adam, and ihc exploiE performed 
Successfully: a cafmer voyage now 
Will waft me; and the way found prosperous once 
Induces best to hope of like success/* 

He ended, and his words impression left 
Of much amazement 10 the infernal erew^ 
Distracted and surprised wirh deep dismay 
At these sad tidings. But no time was then. 
For long indulgence to their fears or grief; 


Unanimous ihov all cammit the care 


And management of this m^in enterprise 
To him^ iheir grc^t Diciator, whose ainrmpi 
At first against mankind so well had thrived 
In Adams overthrow, and hd their ircartli 
From HelTs deepvaulttd den to dwell in ligh^ 
RcgcntSp and potentates^ and kings^ yea gods, 
Of many a pleasiint realm jrnd province wide- 
So to ihe coast of Jordan he directs 
His easy ^steps^ girded wi[h sEuiky wiles. 
Where he might likehest find this ncw-decEaredj 
This man of men, attested Son of God, 
Tempiacion and all guile on him to try — 
So to sub^'cri whom lie suspected raised 
To end his reign on Eard; so long enjoyed: 
Butt conirary, unweecing he fnllilkd 
The purposed counsel^ pro-ordjined and ftxeJ, 
Of the Mosc Highj who, in £uU frequence bright 
Of AogeU^ thus to Gabriel smiling spake:— 

^'Gabriel, this day, by proof, ihoQ shalt btholdj 
Thou and all Ant?;els conversant on EarLh 
M^ith Man or men's atTairSj how ! l^ghi 
To verify that solemn message late, 
On which I sent thee to the Virgin pure 
In Galilee^ that she shnuld bear a son. 
Great in renowiij and called the Son of God. 
Then toUlst her^ doubting how these things could be 
To her a virgin^ that on her should come 
The Holy Ghost, and tJit po^ver of the Hij^htst 
Ocriliadow her. This Man^ born and now upgrown, 
To shew him vvorthv of his birth divine 
And high prediction, henceforth I expose 
To Satan; let hirn tempt, and now assay 
His utmo^r subiktVj because he boasti 
And vaunts of his great cunning to the throng 
Of his Aposiasy^ He might have learnt 
Less overi^vecniiig, since he failed in job. 
Whose constant perseverance overcanie 
Whatever his cruel malice could inven[. 
He now shall know^ I can produce a n^an. 



Of female seed, far abler lo resist 

Al\ his solicitations^ and at knp.K 

Ail hU vast torcCj and tlrive him back to tlcll — 

Winning by concjuest what the first man lost 

Ry fall.icv surprised. But first I mejin 

To exerciAE? hirn in the Wilderness; 

There he shall firsr lay down the rudiments 

Of his great warfare, ere 1 send him fcrih 

To conquer Sin and Deaih, the two grand foes. 

By humiUation and itront; stifTerance 

His weakness shall overcome S^ianlc slren^lh. 

And all the worlds and mass of sinful Jlesh; 

That all the Angds gnd stthereal Powers — - 

They now, and men hereafit^r — may disctrn 

From what consummate virtue I have chose 

This perfet man, by merit called my Son^ 

To earn salvaiion for the aon^ of mtn," 

So spake the Eternal Faiher^ and all Heaven 
Admiring stood a space; ihen into hymns 
Bnrst forth, and in celesli-i] measures moved, 
Circling the throne and sinyini;^ while the hand 
Sung with ihc voicCj and this the argument: — 

"Victory and triumph ]o the Son of God, 
"Sow entering his ^rtai duel, not of arms 
But to vanquish by wisdom hellish wiles! 
The Father knows the Son; therefore secure 
Vtniurcs his filial virtue, Ehough untried^ 
Aj;ainst whatever may tempt, whatever seduce^ 
Allure, or terrify, or undermine, 
Be frustrate^ aU ye strataj^ems of Hell^ 
Andj deviUsh machinaiions, come lo noughtT 

So rhey in Heaven their odes and vigils tuned^ 
Meanwhile the Son of God, who yet some days 
Lodged in Bethabara, where John baptized, 
Musing and inui:h revolving in his breast 
How be^t the mighiy work he might begin 
Ot Savjour to mankind^ and which way first 
Publish his godlike office now maiurej 
One day forth walked alone, the Spirit leading 
And his deep thoughts, the better to converse 


With solitude, ill!, fur froiji tr.ick. of men, 
Tiiou^ht following ihougln, siid step by sttp loiT on. 
He entered no^^■ tho bordering Dtsert wiltl. 
And, wiih d-iik shyJes and rocks environed round, 
His holy mediuiions thus )?ursued; — 

"O vhac a multitude o[ thoughts :it once 
A«"flkened in me iwarm, while I consider 
What from wiihin I feel myself, and liL'ar 
Wbal from without comes often 10 iJiy eats, 
111 sorting wiih my present si:itc compared! 
When 1 was yet a child, no childish play 
To J^ie was pleasing; all my mind was set 
Serious to IcJrn ami knou", aEid thence to do. 
What might be puhlic good; myself T thought 
Born to that cnd^ born to promote all iruih. 
All rij^liEeous tliinj-s. Therefore, above my year:i, 
The Law of God I read, and found it swcei; 
Mjide it my whole deh^hT, and in it grew 
To such perfection that, ere yet my age 
Had measured twice si:^ years, at our great TcasC 
I went into the Temple, there to hear 
The teachers of our Law, iind to propose 
What might iinprove my knowletlge or iheii owa. 
And was admired by all. Yet this not all 
To which my spirit aspired. Victorious deeds 
Flained in my heart, heroic aciiJ — one while 
Yo rescue Israel from the RomaEi yoke; 
Then to subdue and quell, o'er all the earth, 
Brule violence and proud tyrannic poiver, 
Till Truth were freed, and equity restored: 
Yet held it more humane, more heavenly, Hrst 
By winning words to conquer willing hearts, 
And make persuasion tJu the uork of fear; 
At least to try, and teach the erring soul, 
Not wilfully misdoing, but unwarc 
Misled; the stubborn ouly to subdue. 
These growing thoughts niy mother 500li perceiving, 
By words at times cast forth, inly reioiced. 
And said to me apari^ 'High are thy thoughts, 
O Son[ but nourish them, and let them soar 


To whaE hifihfh sacred virtue and irue woitK 

Can rai^c ihcm, though above example high- 

By matchless deeds express ihy matchless Sire. 

For knoWj thou art no son of mortal jnan; 

Though men csreom ihte bw ol parcmagc, 

Thy ]"athcr is ihe iLtcrnal King who rules 

All Heaven and Earth, Angets and sons of men 

A n^esien^er (rom God foretold thy birEh 

Contrived in me a vligin; he foretold 

Thou shouldsi: be grcat^ and sit on David's ihrone, 

And of thv kingdom there should be no end* 

At ihy Nativiiy a jjlorious quire 

Of Angelij in the fields of Beihlehem, sung 

To shepherds, watching at their folds by nii^hts 

And told theni llie i\(t:sslah now was born, 

Where tliey might sec lum; and to thee they t:ami5, 

Directed to the manger where ihon jay'sc; 

For in the inn was loft no better room* 

A SlaTi not seen belore, in heaven .appearing, 

Guided the Wise Men thither from the EasE^ 

To honour thee with incense, msfrh, and gold; 

By who^e bright course led on tliey found the place, 

Affirming i[ thy siar^ new-graven in heaven, 

liy which they knew thee King of Israel born, 

Ju^t Simtion and prophetic Anny^ warned 

By vision p found thee in ihe TeErcpltjj and spake p 

Before the altar and the vested priest. 

Like things of thee to all that present stood.^ 

This having htard^ slryighi I again revolve;! 

The Law and Prophets, searching \vhal was writ 

Concerning the Messiah^ to our scribes 

Known prtly, and soon found of whom they spake 

I am — this chiefly, that my way must lie 

Through many a hard assay, even to the deaths 

Ere I the promised kingdom can attain, 

Or work redemption ior mankindp whose sins' 

Full weight must be transferred upon my head. 

Yet^ neither thus disheartened or dismayed, 

The lime prefixed I waited; when behold 

The Uaptisl (of whose birth I oft had heard^ 

366 * JOHN MILTON EooK 1 

Noi knew by sighi) now come, who was to come 

Before Messiah, and his way prepare! 

], as all others^ to his baptisjii came^ 

Which 1 believeJ was from above; but he 

Siraighl knew me, and with loudest voice proclaimed 

Mc him (for ii was shewn him so from Heaven) — 

Me him whoso harbinger he was; and first 

Refused on me baptism lo confer^ 

As much hi$ greater, and was hardly won- 

Billy as 1 rose out of the laving stream, 

Heaven opened her eEernal doors^ from whence 

The Spirit descended on me hke n Dove; 

And iasij the sum of all, my Father's voice^ 

Audibly heard from Heaven^ pronounced mc his^ 

Me his beloved So^y in whom alone 

He was well pleased: by which I knew the time 

Now full, that ] no more should hve obscure. 

But o|«nly begin, as best becomes 

The authority which I derived from Heaven- 

And now by some strong motion I am led 

Into this wilderness; to ivhat intent 

1 karn not yet- Perhaps I need not know; 

For what cotfcerns my knowledge God reveals/* 

So spake our Morning Star^ then in bU rise^ 
And, looking rounds on every side beheld 
A pathless desert, dusk with horrid shades- 
The way he came, not having marked return^ 
Was difficult, by human sieps untrod; 
And he still on was led, but with such thoughts 
Accompanied of ihings past and to come 
Lodged in his breasi as well might recommend 
Such solitude before choicest socieiyr 

Full forty days he passed — vi^heEher on hill 
Sometimes, anon in shady vale, each night 
Under the covert of some ancient oak 
Or cedar to defend him from the dcv/. 
Or harboured in on^ cave, is not revealed; 
Not tasted human food* nor hunger fell, 
Till those days ended; hungered Lheti al last 
Among vv-ild beasts- They at his sigbi grew mild, 



Nor sleeping him nor waking harmed; his walk 
The fiery serpcnn fled and noxious ivorm; 
The [ion and fierce tiger glared aloof. 
But now an aged man in rural weeds, 
Following, 35 seemed, the quest of some Airay ewe, 
Or withered sticks to gather, which mighi setve 
Against a winier's day. when winds blow keen. 
To warm him wet returned from field jii eve* 
He saw approach; who first with curious eve 
Perused him, ihen wiih words thus uttered spake: — 

*'Sir, what j!I chance hath brought thep to this place, 
So far from path or rond of men, M'ho p;iss 
In troop or caravan, for single none 
Durst ever, who returned, and dropt not here 
Hi? carcass, pmed with hunger and with droughth. 
1 ask the rather, and the more admire. 
For that to mo ihou sccm'st the man whom late 
Our new baptising Ptophet at the fortl 
Of Jordan honouted so, and called thee Son 
Of God. I saw and heard, for we somctimei^ 
Who dwell ihis wild, constrained by warn, come forth 
To town or village nigh (nighest is far), 
Where aught we hear* and curious are to hear, 
What happens new; fame also finds us out." 

To whom the Son of God: — "Who brought n\P 
Will bring me hence; no other guide I seek." 

''By miracle he may," replied the swain; 
*'Wiiat other way 1 see not; for we here 
Live on tough roots and stubs, to thirst inured 
More than the camel, and to drink go [at — 
Men to much misery and hardship born, 
Bur» it thou be the Son of God, command 
That out of these hard stones be made ihce bread; 
So shah thou save thyself, and us relieve 
With food, whercoF wo wretched seldom taste." 

He ended, and the Son of God replied: — 
"Think'st thou such force in bread? Is it not written 
(For T discern thee other than thou seem'st), 
Man liies not by bread only, but each word 


368 JOHN MILTON book 1 

Proceeding from ihe mourh of God, who £ed 
Our fathers here with manna? in the Mount 
Moses was forty days, nor cat nor drank; 
And forty days Eli^h without food 
Wandered this barren waste; the same I now. 
Why dost thou, then, suggest to nic distrust, 
Knowing who I am, as 1 know who thou art:" 
Whom thus answered ihe Arch-Fiend, now undis- 
guised; — 
" 'Tis true, I am that Spirit unfortunate 
Who, leagued with millions more in laah rovok, 
Kcpi not my happy station, but was driven 
With them from bliss to the bottomless Deep — 
Yet to [hat hideous place not so confined 
By rigour unconniving but that oil, 
Leaving my dolorous prison, I enjoy 
Large hberty to round this globe of Earthy 
Or range in the Air; nor frorn ihe Heaven of Heavens 
Hath he excluded my resort sometimes. 
I came, among the Sons of God» when he 
Gave up into my hands Uzzean Job, 
To prove him, and illustrate his high worth; 
And, when 10 ail his AngeU he proposed 
To draw the proud king Ahab into fraud, 
That he might fall in Ramoih, they demurring, 
\ undertook thai office, and the tongues 
Of all his flailering prophets glibbed with lies 
To his destruction, as I had in charge: 
For what he bids [ do. Though [ have lost 
Much lustre of my native brightness, ^ost 
To be beloved of God» I have not lost 
To love, at least contemplate and admire, 
Whaf I see excellent in good, or fair, 
Or virtuous; I should so have lost all sense. 
What can be then less in me than desire 
To sec thee and approach thee, whom I know 
Declared the Son of God, to hear aitent 
Thy wisdom, and behold ihy godlike deeds? 
Men generally think me much a foe 
To all mankind. Why should 1? they lo nie 


Never did wrong or violence- By them 
I losi not what 1 lost; rather by them 
I gained what ! have gained^ and with them dwell 
Copartner in tkt^e region? of the Worlds 
If not disposer — lend ihem oft my ajd^ 
Oft my advice by presages and signs. 
And answer^ orackss portent?, and dreams, 
Whereby they may direct their future life- 
Envy, they say^ excites me^ thus |o gain 
Companions of my misery and woe! 
At first ic may be; but, long since with woe 
Nearer acquainted, now I fetl by proof 
That fellowship in pain divjJes not smart, 
Nor lightens aught each man*s peculiar load; 
Smail consolation, then, were Man adjoined* 
This wounds me most (what can 11 less?) that Man, 
Man failen, shall be restored, I never more/* 

To whom our Saviour sternly thus replied; — 
'^Deservedly thou griev'st^ com|X3sed of ]ics 
From ihe beginning, and in lies wilt end, 
Who boast' St release from Hell, and leave to come 
Into the Heaven of Heavens. Thou com'st indeed^ 
As a poor miserable capcise thrail 
Comes io ihe place where he before had sat 
Among the prime in splendour^ now deposed, 
Ejected^ emptied, gazed, unpicled, shunned, 
A spectacfe of ruin^ ot of scorn, 
To all the host of Heaven. The happy place 
Imparts to thee no happiness, no joy — 
Rather inflames thy torment, representing 
Lost bliss, CO ihee no more communicable; 
So never more in Hell than when in Heaven. 
But thou art serviceable to Heaven's Kingf 
Wilt thou impute to obedience vvhat thy fear 
Ejitons, or pleasure to do ill excites? 
What bul thy malice moved thee to misdeem 
Of righteous Job^ then cruelly to afHict him 
With all inflictions^ but his patience won^ 
The other service was ihy chosen task. 
To be a liar in fout hundred mouths; 


For lying is Ehy sustenancet thy food. 

Yet thou prEiend'5[ lo truth! ^I] oracles 

By thee are Ki^'^"t ^tuI wU^i confessed more true 

Among (he naiLonsP That hath been thy crnfi. 

By mixing somewhat true lo vent more lies. 

Bat what hjtvc been thy answers? what but dark. 

AmbiguouSp ^nd wiih double sense deluding^ 

Which they who asked have seldom tindersioaj^ 

Andj not well understood^ as jjood not known: 

Who ever, by consulting at [hy shrine, 

Recurned the wiser, or the more instruct 

To fly or follow what concerned him most, 

And run not sooner to his fai:il sn^ire? 

For God haih jusdy given the nations up 

To thy delusion.'^; justly^ since they fell 

Idolatrous. But, when his purpose is 

Among thetn to dec^a^^5 his provide nce^ 

To thee noi known^ wht^nce hast thou then diy truih. 

But from him^ or his Angels president 

In every province, who^ themselves disdaining 

To approach thy temples, give thee in conmtand 

What, lo ihe smallest little, thou shak say 

To thy adorers? Thou, vviUi trembling fe^ir^ 

Or like :i fxTwning parasite, obey'st; 

Then to thyself ascrib'sE the truth foretold. 

But this thy glory shall be soon retrenched; 

No more shalt ihau by orjidlng abu^e 

The Gentiles; hencetorth oracles arc ceased. 

And Jhou no more with pomp and sacrifice 

Shik W enquired at Delphos or elsewhere — 

Ac least in vain^ for they shall iiiid thee muicn 

God haih now sent his living Oracle 

Into the world to teach his final will, 

And sends his Spirit of Truth henceforth [o dwell 

In pious hearcSj an inward oracle 

To aU iruth requisite for men to know " 

So Bpake our Saviour; but the subtle Fiend, 
Though inly stung with anger and disdain, 
Dissembled, and this answer smooth returned: — 

"Sharply thou hast insisted on rebuke. 


And urged me hard with doings which not wilT, 

Bui mjEcry^ lialh wrtisied from me- Where 

Easily c:insi thou Hnd one miserable. 

And not inforced oft-times to part from (ruih. 

If it may stand him more in stead to lie, 

Say and unwiy, feign, fbtter, or abjure? 

But ihou art placed above me; thou 3r[ Lord; 

From thee 1 ean^ and must, submiss, endure 

Check or reproof^ and glad to scape so quit^ 

Hard are the ways of iiuih^ and rough to walk^ 

Smooth on the tongue discoursed, pleasing to the ear^ 

And Eunabte as sylvan pipe or song; 

What wonder, then, if I delight to hear 

Her dictates from ihy mouth? most men admire 

Virtue who follow not lier [ore* Permit ine 

T<^ hear thee when 1 c&me (since no man coancs). 

And ia]k ai teasi, though I despair to anain* 

Thy Father^ who is holvt wise, and pure, 

SuiTers the hypocrite or aiheous priest 

To iread his sacred courts, and minUier 

About his altar, h:kndHng holy things, 

Praying or vowingp and vouEsafed his voice 

To Balaam reprobate, a proplict yet 

inspired: disdain not such access to me" 

To whom our Saviour^ with iinaUered brow; — 
*'Thy coming hither, though I know thy scoptj 
I bid not^ or forbid. Do as thou find'st 
PermissioEi from above; thou canst not more*" 

He added rtoi; and Satan, bowing low 
His gray dissimulation, disappeared^ 
Into thin air diffused: for now began 
Night with her suUen wing to double-shade 
The deserf; fowls in iheir clay nests were couched; 
And now wild beasts came forth Ehe woods to roam, 


Me^ntwhilp the new-haptized, who yei remained 
At Jordan with the Baptist, and had seen 
Him whom they heard so tate expressly called 
Jesus Messiah, Son of God, d^clared^ 


And on ih^I high ainhomy had believed, 

And with him lalktd, and with him lodged — I mean 

Andreiv and Simon, famous alE<?r known, 

With others, though in Holy Writ not named^ 

Now missing him, their joy so Jjfldy found, 

So biely found and so iibruptly gone. 

Began to doubt, and doubled many days. 

And, iis the days increased, increased [heir doubi. 

Sometimes they thought he mij-ht bt only ihewn, 

And for a time caught up to God, a% once 

Moaes was in the Mount and missing long, 

And the great Thisbite, who on Bery wheels 

Rode up to Ileaven* jet once aj-ain to come. 

Therefore, as those young prophets ihen with care 

Sought iost Eliah, so in cai:h place Lhe5t 

Nigh to Bethabara— in Jericho 

The city of Palms* /Knon» and Salem old, 

Mach^rus, and each town or city walled 

On [his side the broad lake Gene?-aieC, 

Or in Peisa — but returned in vain. 

Then on the bant of Jordan^ by a creek. 

Where winds ^vitfi reeds and osiers whispering play, 

Plain fishermen (no greater men them call), 

Close in a cottage low together got. 

Their unexpected loss and plaints outbreathed: — 

"Alas, £rom what high hope to what relapse 
Unlooked for are we fallen! Our eyes beheld 
Messiah certainly now come, so long 
Expected of our fathers; we ha<e heatd 
His words, his wisdom full of grace and truth, 
^Now* now, for zuxe. deliverance is at hand; 
The kingdom shall to Israel be restored:' 
Thus we rejoiced* but soon our joy is turned 
Into perplexity and new amaze. 
For whither is he gone? what accident 
Hath rapt him from us? will lie now retire 
After appearance^ and again prolong 
Our expectation? God of Israel, 
Send thy Messiah forth; the lime is come. 
Behold the kings of the earth, how they oppress 


Thy Chosen. :o vihat hjghdi their power unjust 
They have exallcd, and btlilntl nhem cast 
All fear of Thee; arise, and vindicaie 
Thy ^)ory; free thy people from iheir yoke! 
Bui let us wail; thus far He hath performed— 
Sent his Anointed, and to us revealed him 
By his great Prophet pointed at and shown 
In public, and «'ith him we have conversed. 
Let us he y!ad of this, and all our fears 
Lay on his providence; He wilt not fail» 
Nor will withdraw him now, nor will recall- 
Mock us with his h]es[ sight, then snatch him hence; 
Soon we shall see our hn|>Cj our joy, reinrn." 

Thus Lhey out of their plaints new hope resume 
To fint! \vhom at the first lhey found unsought. 
But to his mother Mary, when she saw 
0[h<?rs returned from baptism, not her Son, 
Nor left aL Jordan tidings of him none, 
Within her breast though calm, her breast ihough pure, 
Motherly cares and fears got head, and raised 
Some troubled ihoiiglus, which she in sighs thus dad:— 

"Oh, what avails me now that honour high. 
To have conceived of Cfltl, or ihat salute, 
^Hail, highly favoured, among women bleslP 
While 1 to sorrows am no less advanced, 
And fears as eminent above the lot 
Of other women, by the birth I bore: 
In such a season born> when scarce a shed 
Could be obtained to shelter him or me 
From the bleak airp A stable v/as our warmth, 
A manger his- yei soon enforced to fly 
Thence into Egypt, till the murderous kin;; 
Were dead, who sought his life, and, missmg, filled 
With infant blood the streets of Bethlehem. 
From Egypt home returned, in Nazareth 
Haih been our dwelling many year^; hii life 
Private, unactive, calm, contemplative, 
Little auspicious to any king. But now. 
Full grown to man. acknowledged, as l hear, 
IJy John the Baptist, and in public shewn. 

374 JOHN MTLTON book ii 

Son owned from Heaven by his Father^s voice, 

] looked for 5ome great change. To honour^ no; 

But (rouble, as old Simeon plnm foretold. 

That to the fall and rUing he should be 

Of many in Israel^ and to a sign 

Spoken agninst^that through my very :ionl 

A sword shall pierce. This is my favoured lot^ 

My e>:aUaiion lo anltclions highl 

Afflicted J may be, it seems, and blestf 

I will not argue that, nor wilE repine* 

But where deUys he now? Some great intenS 

Conceals him* When twelve years he scaice hat! se^rt, 

r lost him, but so found as well I s+ivv 

He could not lose himself^ but went aln^ut 

His Father's business- What he meant I mused — 

Since understand; much more his absence now 

Thus long to some great purpose he obscuri^i. 

Bui I to wait with patience ani inured; 

My heart haih been a siorehouse long of things 

And saying? laid up, portending strange events/' 

Thus MarVj pondering oft^ and ott lo mind 
Recalling what remarkably had passed 
Since first her Salutation heard, with thoughu 
Meekly composed awaited the fulfilling: 
The while her Son, tracing the desert wild, 
Sole^ but with holiest meditations fed. 
Into himsefcf descended^ and at once 
All his grtat work to come b*?fore him set — 
How to begin^ how to accomplish best 
His end of being on Earth, and mission htgh. 
For Satan, with sly preface to return, 
Had left him vacant, and with speed was gone 
Up to ^he middle region of thick aitp 
Where alt his Poteniates in council sale. 
There, without sign of boast, or iign of joy. 
Solicitous and blank, he thus began:^ 

"Princes, Heaven's ancient Sons, /Ethereal Thrones — 
Da^monian Spirits now^ from the element 
Each of his reign allotted^ rightlier calkd 
Powers of Fire, Air, Water, and Earth beneath 


(So msy we hold our plaw anJ thcw mild seats 

Withoui new iroublc!) — such an enemy 

Is ri^en to invade us, who no Ic&s 

Threaten^ iKari oui expulsion down id Hell. 

1^ as f undcrUiok, and ^^'l(h x\k vole 

ConscnEing in Itill frequence was impowered, 

Havt fomid him, viewed him, lasied him; but find 

Far oiher bbour to be underjjone 

Than when I dealt with Adam, fir^t oi mpri» 

Thouf^h Adam by his wife's allurcmcnl fell, 

However to ihfs Man inierior far — 

If he be Man by mother's side» at least 

Wi[h more than hum.ia gifts from Heaven adorned, 

Ptr(eclions absolutCf graces divine. 

And amplitude of mind to greatest deeds. 

Therefore l am roiurncd, lest confidence 

Of my success wldi Eve in Paradiiie 

Deceive ye to persuasion over-sure 

Of like succeeding here, I summon all 

Rather to Iw in readiness with hand 

Or counsel to assist^ iest 1, who erst 

Thoujiht none my etju-iU now be ovcimatched." 

So spoke the old Scipcni., doubting, and from all 
With cUmdur was assured their utmost aid 
At his command; when from amidst them rose 
Belial, ibc dissohiiesi Spirit chat fell. 
The sensuakst, and, after Asmodai, 
The lieshliesi Incubus, and thus advised:^ 
"Set women in his eye and in his walk, 
Among daughters of men the fairest found. 
Many are in each region passing fair 
As the noon sky, more like to goddesses 
Than mortal creatures, graceful and Efiscreef, 
E\pert in amorous arts, enchanting tongues 
Persuasive, virgin majesiy with mild 
Antl sweet allayed, yet terrible to approach. 
Skilled to retire, and in retiring draw 
Hearts after them tangled in amorous nets. 
Such object hath the power to soften and tame 
Severest temper, smooth the rugged'st brow. 


Encrve^ and with voluptuous hope dissolve^ 
Dr^w out wi^h credulous desire^ and lead 
At witi liie manliest^ resolutcst breast, 
A$ ihe magnetic hardest iron draws, 
Women^ when nothing else, beguiled ihe heaft 
OE wisest Solomon, and madj^ hini build. 
And made him bow, to the gods of hia wives^^ 

To whom quick answer Saian ihus telurned: — 
"Belial, in much uneven scale ihou welgh'sl 
AU others by thyself, Becau^ o£ old 
Thou ihysdf doal'st on womankind, admiring 
Tht?ir iha[>e, their colour, and s^riractivc grace. 
None are, thou ihink'st^ but taken with such toys. 
Before the Flood, thou^ with thy lustv crew. 
False titled Sons of God, roaming the Earthj 
Cast wanton eyes on the daughters of mctij 
And coupkd with them^ and begot a race. 
Have w£^ not aeen^ or by retaiion ht^arj. 
In courts and rtgal chambers how ihou lurk^&t. 
In wood or grove, by mossy tou ma in-side, 
In valley or grf^en fneaJow^ to waylay 
Some bcauiy rare, CalisiOp Clymene, 
Daphne, or Semele, Antiopa, 
Or Amymone, Syrinx^ many more 
Too long — then lay'st thy scapes on names adored j 
Apollo, Neptuncj Jupiter, or Pan, 
Saryr, or Faun, or Silvan? But these haunis 
De[]gh[ not all. Among the sons of men 
How many have with a smile made small account 
Of beauty and her lur^s, easily scorned 
All her assaults, on worthier things iment[ 
Remember that Pellean conqueror^ 
A youihj how all the beauties of the Ejst 
He slighily viewed, and slightly overpassed; 
How he surnamed of Africa dismissed. 
In his prime youih, the fair Iberian maid. 
For Solomon, he lived at ease^ and, full 
Of honoutp wealth, high fare, aimed not beyond 
Higher design than to enjoy his state; 
Thence to the bail of women lay exposed. 


But he whom we allempi is wiser far 

Than Solomon, of more exalted mind* 

M^jiife and set wholly on the accomplishment 

Of greascsi things* Whnt woman will you fmd^ 

Though of this age the wonder and the famCj 

On ^vl^om his leisure will voutsated an eye 

Of fond desire? Or shouM she, confident. 

As sitting queen adored on Beauty's throne, 

Descend with all her winning charms begirt 

To enamour, a^ the zone of Venus once 

Wrought that eKecl on Jove (so fabks tell), 

How would one look from his rnajestic brow^ 

SeateJ as on the top of Virtue's hi[l, 

Discountenance her despised, and put to rout 

All her arrayj her female pride deject. 

Or turn to reverent awe! For IJeauly stands 

In the admiration only of weak minds 

Led capiivc; ceiise to admire^ and all her plumes 

Fall flatj and shrink into a trivial toy, 

At every sudden slighting quite abashed. 

Therefore, with manlier oh^ecls we must try 

His constancy — wilh such as have more shew 

Of worthj of lionour, glorj', and popular praise 

(Rocks whereon greatest men have oftcsl wrecked); 

Or that which only seems to satisfy 

Lawful desires of nature, not beyond. 

And now 1 know he hungers, where no food 

Is to be found, in ibe wide Wilderness: 

The rest commit to me; I shall let pass 

No advantage, and his strength as oft assay." 

He ceased, and heard thetr grant in loud acclaim; 
Then forthwith to him takes a chosen band 
Of Spirits likest to himself in guile. 
To be at hand and at his beck appear, 
If cause were to unfold son:ie active scene 
Of various persons, each to know his part; 
Then to the desen takes with these his flight. 
Where still, from shade to shade, the? Son of God, 
Af[er forty days* fastings had remained, 


Now hungering firsts and lo himself thus &aid: — 
*'Where will this end? Four times len days J have 
Wandering this woody maze, and human food 
Nor ivisteJ, nor had appetite- That fast 
To virtue I impute no^ or count part 
Of what I suffer here, Tf nature net^d not^ 
Of God support nature without repast, 
riiouE^h needinj;^ what praise is it to endure? 
JJui now I feel I hunger; which declares 
Nature hath need of what she asks* Yet God 
Can satisfy ihat noed some olher way, 
Thoujjh hu"j;er still remain. So it remain 
Without ihis body's wasting, I content nie^ 
And from ihe sting of famine fear no harm; 
Nor mind ii^ fed with better thoughts^ that feed 
Me hungering more |o do my Father's will-" 

ft was the hour of nt^ht^ when thus the Son 
Communed in silent walk^ U^e^n Uid him down 
Under the hospitable covcti nigh 
or irees thick inLerwoven. There he slepl^ 
And dreamed^ as appetite is wont to dream, 
Of meats and drinks^ nature*s refreshment sweet. 
Him thought he by the brook of Chenth stood. 
And sa^v the ravens with their horny beaks 
Food to Elijah bringing even and morn— 
Though ra^enouSj [aughi 10 abstain from v^^hai (hey 

He saw the Prophet also, how he fled 
Into the deserl, and how there he slept 
Under a iuniper— then how^ awaked, 
He found his supper on the eoals prepared^ 
And by the Angel was bid rise and eat. 
And eat the second time after repo^e^ 
The strength whereof sufficed him forty days: 
Sometimes that w^ith Elijah he partook. 
Of as a guest with Daniel at his pulse. 
Thui wore out night; and now the harald Lark 
I-efi his ground-nesij high lowering to desery 
The Monies approach, and greet her with his song. 


As lightly from his grassy couch up rose 

Our SavjouTp and found all was but a dream; 

Fasting he wenc lo slecpj and fasEing waked. 

Up to a hill anon his sEep^ he tearetl. 

From whow high top to ken [he prospect rounds 

If cottage were in vieWj sheep-cote^ or herd; 

But cottage, herd, or sheep-cote^ none he saw — 

Only in a bouom saw a pfeasani grove, 

With chaunc of tuneful birds re^jundlng loud. 

Thither he bent his way^ determined there 

To rest at noon, and entered soon the shade 

High-foofed, and walks beneath^ and alleys brown, 

That opened in the midst a woody scene- 

Nature^s own work it seemed (Mature taught Art), 

And, to a superstitious eye, the haunt 

Of wood-gods and wood-nymphs. He viewed it round; 

When suddenly a man before him siood, 

Not rustic as before, but seemlier clad^ 

As one in cit^ or court or palace bred. 

And with fair speech these words to him addressed: — 

"With granted leave ofhcious I return^ 
But much more wonder that ilie Son of God 
In ihi5 wild solitude su long shouhi bide. 
Of all things destitute, andj well I know, 
NoE without hunger* Others of some note^ 
As story tells, have irod this wilderness: 
The fugitive Bond-woman, wiih her son^ 
Outcast Kebaioth^ yet found here relief 
By a providing Angel; all the race 
Of Israel here had famished, had not God 
Rained from heaven manna; and dial Prophet bold. 
Native of ThcbeK, wandt^ring here, was fed 
Twice by a voice inviting him to eat. 
Of diee these iony days none hath regard^ 
Forty and more deserted here indeed/* 

To ^vbom [hus Jesus: — ''WhaE conclud'st thou hente? 
They all had need; 1, as thou seest, have none/' 

'*How hast thou hunger then?" Satan replied. 
^^Tell me^ if food were now before thtt s^tp 
Wouldst thou not eat?" 'Thereafter as I like 


The givcr/^ answered Jesus. "Why should tliat 

Cause ihy refusal?'' said ihe bublU Fiend. 

''Hast thou not right to all created thing?? 

Ows not all creatures, by just righi, to thee 

Duty a/id service, nor lo stay till bid, 

Bui lender all their power? Nor mention I 

Meals by the taw unclean, or offered fir^t 

To idols^ihose young Daniel could refuse; 

Nor prolfercd by an enemy— though who 

Would scruple that, wiih want oppressed? Behold, 

Nature ashamed, or^ better to express, 

Troubled^ that thou sliouldst liungerp liadi jiurveyed 

FroiTi all the elements her choicest siorej 

To treat thee as bcsceniSj an^i as her Lord 

With honour* Only deign eo sit and eai/' 

He spake no dream; for^ as his words had end, 
Our Saviour, hfting up his eyos, beheldj 
In ^inpie space under the broadest shade, 
A table richfy spread in rogiil mode, 
With dSshes piled and meats of noblest sort: 
And savour-^beasts ot chase^ or fowl of game^ 
In pastry buili^ or from tbc spit^ or boiled, 
Grisan:tbcr-stcamcd; at! Iisb| from sea or shore. 
Freshet or purling brookj of shell or lin. 
And exquisitest name^ for which was drftined 
Pomus, and Lucrlne bay^ and Afric coast 
Alas! how simple, lo these caie^ compared, 
Was that crude Apple that diverted Eve! 
And at a stately sideboard^ by the wine, 
That fragrant smell diHuscd, in order stood 
Tall stripling youths rich-clad, of fairer hue 
Than Ganymed or Hylas; distant morpp 
Under the trees now tripped, now solemn stood, 
Nymphs of Diana's train, and Naiades 
Wiih fruits and {lowers from Amalthea's horn. 
And ladies of the Hesperides^ [hat seemed 
Fairer than feigned oi old, or fabled since 
Of faery damsels met in fore&l wide 
By knights of Logres, or of Lyones, 
Lancelot, or PellcaSj or Pellenorc- 



And all the while harmonious airs were heard 
Of chiming strings or charming pipes; arid winds 
Of genilcst gale Arabian odours (anrii^d 
From iheir soft winj^s^ iind Flora's earliest smells, 
Sui:]| was the spkndaur; and the Tempter now 
His invitfluon eflrnes [ly renewed: — 

"What doubts ihc Son of God \o sit and eai? 
These art not fruits forbidden; no [nierdlci 
Defends tbt: [ouchlnt; of Ehese vtands pure; 
Their [n^sie no knowledge works^ at leas^ oi evil, 
Hiii hfe preserves, destroys litems enemy. 
Hunger^ with swcei rtsioralive dchghr* 
All ihese are Spirits of air^ and woods, and springs^ 
Thy gtntle miriislcrSj who come to pay 
Tliec homage^ and acknowledge thee their Lord. 
What doubt' St thou^ Son of God? Sit down and cai/^ 

To whom ihas )*^sus lcm|ieraieTy replied: — 
*'Said'sl tbou not ihai to all things I had ri^^hl? 
And who withholds my power that figlu lo Uie? 
yhall 1 receive by gift what of my own^ 
When and where lik.ei nte best, I can command? 
! can at will, doubt tioi, a^ soon as thou, 
Command a table in this wilderness, 
And call swift flights of Angds minisiranti 
Arrayed in glorv> on my cup to attend: 
Why shouidsi thou, tbcn^ obcrudc this diligence 
In vain, where no acceptance it can find i* 
And with my hunger what bast thou to do? 
Thy pompous delicacies I contemn^ 
And count ihy specious gifts no gifts, but guiles/^ 

To whom [bus answered S^aian, malecontent: — 
"That I have also power 10 give thou secii; 
Tf of that power I bring thee voluntary 
What 1 might have bestowed on whom I pleased^ 
And rather opportunely in this place 
Chose [o imprr to thy apparent need. 
Why shouldst ihou not accept tt? Bui ] see 
What [ can do or offer is suspect. 
Of these ihings oihers quickly will dispose^ 
Whose pains have earned ihe Earfet spoiL"' With ihac 

382 7^^^"^' MILTON EootLic 

Both table and provision vanished qutre^ 
Wiih sound of harpies* wings and ulons henrd; 
Only the impor'tune Tempter ilill remamedt 
And with ihtsc words his temptation pursued: — 

*'By hunger^ [hai each othtr croacure tames. 
Thou art not to lie harmed, therefore noi moved: 
Thy temperance^ invincible besides, 
For no allurement yields to appetite; 
And .ill Ehy heart is set on high de^igns^ 
High actions- But whcrewiih 10 be achieved^ 
Greal acts require great means ol^ enterpri,-^; 
Thou tkti unknownj unfriended^ low of hirth. 
A carpenter ihv lather knnwn^ chyseit 
Bred ui> in poverty and straits at home^ 
Lost in a desert here and hungcr-biL 
Which way. or Train vvhiit hope, dost thou aspire 
To greatness? whence authortty dehv^&tr 
What followers, what retin\ie citnSL ihou gain^ 
Or at thy heel:^ ihe dt7?y multttude, I 

Lon'yci ih^n thou canst Iced thj_^m on ihv cost? ! 

Mofiey brini^.i honour, t'riead:?, i:onquesis nnti realms. 
What mf&ed Antipatcr the Edomjte, 
And lijs 5on Herod placed on ]uda's throne. 
Thy throne, but gold, that yot him puissant J^ricndi? 
Thi?refure» if at great things thou wouldst arrive, 
Get richer Hrst^ get wealth, and treasure heap — 
Not difficult, [f thou hearken to me. 
Riches are mine, fortune is in niy hand; 
They whom I favour thrive in wealth Linviin, 
While virtue^ valour, wisdom, sit in want, ' 

To wham thus Jesus patiently replied: — 
"Yet wealth without these three is impotent 
To gain dominion, or to keop it gained^ 
Witness tfioiit' andenE empires ot the earth. 
In highth oi all their flowing wealth dissolved; 
But men endued with the^e have oft attained, 
In lowest poverty* to highest deeds — - 
Gideon, and [ephtha, and the shepherd lad 
Whose offspiing on the throne of ^udu sat^ 
So many ages, and shall yet regain 



Thi^i seal, and reign in Israel without end- 
Among the Heaihcn (for ihroijghoui ihe world 
To me is noi unknown what h<i[K been done 
Worthy af m<^monal) cans: ihou not rc^niember 
Qujnitus, FnbriciuSj Curius^ Regulus? 
For I esteem ihose names of men so poor. 
Who couJd Jo mighty things, and could coniemn 
Riches^ [hough olTercd from ihe h^ind of kings 
And what in mt st^cms warning but ihat [ 
NTay also in rhis poveriv as soon 
Accomplish ^vhat they did, perhaps and more? 
Exiol not rj[:he5^ ihen^ the toil of fool-S 
The wise man'5 cumbrancc, if not snare; more apt 
To slacktn virtue and abate her edLje 
Than prompt her 10 do aught may merit praise. 
What if uiili }ikt aversion i reject 
Richo5 and realms! Yet not for that a crown. 
Golden in shew, is but a wreath of thorns, 
Bnngs dangers^ irouNci, cares, and sleepless nights, 
To him who wears the regal diadem, 
When on his shoulders each man's burden lies; 
For therein stands the ofHce of a kin^, 
His honour, virtue, meriE^ and chief praise, 
Thai for the pubhc all [his weight he bears. 
let he who reigns within himself^ and rules 
Passions, desires, and fears, is more a king — 
Which every wise and virtuous man atiains; 
And who attains noi, ill aspires to rule 
Ciiies of men, or headstrong mullitudes, 
Subject himself to anarchy wiihin. 
Or lawless passions in him, which he serves. 
Bui to ^uide nations in the way ot truth 
By 5a\ ing doctrine, and from erroi lead 
To know^ and, knowing, worship God aright, 
Is yet more kingly- This attracts the soul. 
Governs ihe inner man, the nobler part; 
TTi3! other o'er the body only reigns. 
And oft by force — which to a generous mind 
So reigning can he no sincere delight- 
Besides, to give a kingdom hath been ibought 

3f^4 T*^^^' MILTOV HOOK III 

Greater and nobler done, and to by down 
Far mort mifgnanimoui, ihan to assume. 
Riches arc needless* then, both for lliemidves, 
And for ihy rc;fson why they should be sout-liC — 
To gain a icepfre, oficst bciicr missed," 


So 5t*.\KE the Son o£ God; and Sman stood 

A while as mute, confounded what to say, 

What to reply, confuted and convinced 

Of his weak arguing and taltactous drift; 

At length, collecting all his serpent wiles, 

With soothing words rcnewcdp him thus acco^rs;— 

**1 see thou know'st what is ol U5c lo know. 
What besE to say canst say, to do canst do: 
Thy actions to thy words accord; tliy words 
To ihy large heart give uiierance due; thy hesirt 
Contains of good^ wise^ just^ the pertct shape. 
Should kings and nations from thy mouth con- 
Thy counsel would be as ihe oradc 
Urim and Thummim, ihose oraculous gems 
On Aaron's breast, or tongue of Seers old 
InlalUble; or, wert thou sought to deeds 
That might require the array ot war, thy skill 
Of conduct Avould l>e such that all the world 
Could not sustain thy pioweM? or subsist 
In baiile, though against thy i^w in urm^- 
These godlike virtues ^^^hcrefore dost thou hide? 
Affecting private Ufe^ or more obscure 
In savage wilderness, wherefore deprive 
All Earth her wonder at thy acts, thyself 
The fame and glory — glory, the reward 
That sole esciies to high attempts the flame 
Of most erected spiritSt mosE tempered pure 
/Ethereal, who all pleasured else despise^ 
All treasures and alE gain esteem a^ drosSj 
And dignities and powers, all but the highest? 
Thy years are ripe, and over-ripe. The son 



Ot Macedontan Philip had ere these 
Won Asia, <ifid rht? ihront ot Cyru^ held 
Ai his dispose; young Scipi" had hroupht down 
The Carthaginian pudc; young Pomp*?y quelled 
The Pontic l^ing, and in triumph^ had rode. 
Yei yearSt and to ripe years iudy;ment mamre, 
Quench t\ox ihc thirst of glory, but augment. 
CtclKE Julius, whom now all the world admireS| 
The more Eic j;rew in years, the more inflamed 
With glory, wept thai he h=^d lived so long 
Inglorious. But thou yet art not too bte " 

To whom our Saviour calmly thus ropli^dt^ 
"Thou netiher do5t persuade me to seek weatih 
For empire's sake, nor empire to affect 
For glory's sake, by all ihy argument* 
For what is glory but the blaze of tame, 
The people'^ praise^ if aEways praise unmixed? 
And what the people but a herd confused, 
A mtscellaneous rabble, who extol 
Things vul^jar^ and, well weighedj scarce worth the 

They praise and they admire they know noi what, 
And know noi whom^ but as one leads (he other; 
And what delight 10 b^ by such e>:tolled. 
To live upon [heir tongues, and bo fhelr talk? 
Of whom to be dispraised were no ^niull praise — 
Hes lol who dare? he slngulariy good. 
The intclHgenE among Them and the wise 
Are £eWj and glory scarce o[ few is raised^ 
Thi? U true glory and reno^^^n — ^vhcn God, 
Looking on ihe Eiirih^ with approbation marks 
The just man, and divulges him through Heaven 
To all his Angels, who with true applause 
Recount his praises- Thus he did to Job, 
When, to exfend his farne through Heaven and Earthj 
As thou to thy reproach may'st well remember. 
He asked thee, "Hast thou seen my servant JobP' 
Famous he was in Heaven; an Earth less known, 
Where glory is false glory, atirtbutetl 
To things nol gloriousj men not worthy of fame- 


They err who coum it glorious lo subdue 

By conqucsl far and wide, lo overrun 

Large counirics, and in Rdd greai baitles win, 

Cirtiit cities by ii^sault- Whsu do those worthies 

Gut rob and sjioi!, burn> slaughter^ and cnsbve 

Peaceable nacions^ neighbouring or remoie^ 

Made capii^e, yet cJcservjng Treedom more 

Than iho%^ ihelr conqueror?^ who le^ve behind 

Nothing bui ruin wheresoever they rove. 

And all the llourishiny works oC peace dcsirov; 

Th^n swdl u ith pride^ and mu^t 1^ tided Gods, 

Great Eienefaclors of manklndi Dehverers, 

Worshipped witb temple, priestj and sacrifice? 

One ii the son of Jove^ of Aiars the other: 

Till con<]ueror Death discover dicm scarce men^ 

Rowling in brutish vices, iind deformed^ 

Violent or shameful death their due reward, 

Bui, il there be in glory aueht ot good; 

h may by means far different be atuinedj 

Without ambition, ^var, or violence — 

By deeds of peace, by wisdom eminent^ 

By paiienccp temperance, 1 mention still 

Him whom ihy wrongs, with saintly patience borne, 

Made famous in a land and times obscure; 

Who names not now with honour patient Job? 

Poor Socrates, (who next more memorable:) 

By ^ir hai he taught and suffered for so doing, 

For truth's sake suJferinij death unjus^ Uvcs now 

Equal in fame to proudest con^juerors- 

Yetj if for fan:^e and glory aught be done, 

Aught suffered — if youn^ African for fame 

His wasted country fieed from Punic rage — 

The deed becomes unpraised, the man at leasts 

And loses, though but verbal, his reward. 

Shall I seek glory, then, as vain men seek, 

Oft not deserved? 1 seek not mine, but His 

Who senl me, and thereby witness whence f am*" 

To whom the Tempter, murmuring, thus rephedt 

"Think not so slight of glory, therein feast 

Besembiing thy great Father. He seeks glory, 

And for his glory all things made, all things 


Orders and governs; nor content in Heaven, 
By all his Angels glorilied, requires 
Glory from men, tram all men, good or badp 
Wise or unwise^ no djETerence, no exemption. 
Above :il! iicrifice, or haUowtd gift, 
Glory he requires, and glory he receives* 
Promiscuons from all nations, few, or Greeks 
Or Barbarous, nor excepiion h-iLh declared; 
From HS, bi$ foes pronounced, glory he cxticLS," 

To whom our Saviour fervently replied: 
"And reason; since his Word all things produced, 
Though chiefly noE for glory as prime end* 
But to shc^v forth his goodnesSp and imparl 
His good communicable to every sout 
Freely; of whom what could He less expect 
Than glory <ind benediction — that is, ihanks — 
Th^ shglucsi^ easiest, readiest recompense 
From them who could return him nothing cl^. 
And, not returning thai, would likeliest render 
Contempt instead, dishonour, obloquy? 
Hard recompense, unsuitable return 
For so much good, so much bcneficencel 
But why should man seek glorv* who of his own 
Hath nothings and to whom noihinLj belongs 
But condemnation^ ignominy^ and shame— 
Wfio, for 50 many benefits received. 
Turned recreant to God, ingrate and false, 
And 50 or all true good himself despoiled; 
Yet, sacrilegious, to himsoff would take 
That which to God alone of right belongs? 
Yet so much bounty is in God, such grace, 
Thac who advance his glory, not their own. 
Them he himself to glory will advance," 

So spake the Son of God; and here again 
Satan had not to answer, but stood struck 
With guilt of his own sin — for he himself, 
Insatiable o£ glory, had lost all; 
Yet of another plea bethought him soon: — ^ 

''Of glory, as thou wik," said he, ''so deem; 
Worth or not worth the seeking, lei it pass. 
But to a Kingdom thou an born— ordained 

388 JOHN MILTON tooK m 

To sic upon ihy fathi^r David's ihroiie^ 
By mother's side ihy faiher, chough ihy right 
Be now in powerful hand^, thai will not pari 
Easily from po&ses&lon won with arms, 
Judaa now and all the Promiaed Land» 
Reduced a province under Roman yoke. 
Obeys Tiberius^ nor is always ruled 
Wilh temperale sway: oft have they vioUlcd 
TW^ Temple^ oft the Law» wiih foul aflroni?, 
Abominations radicr, aa did once 
Aniiochus, And ibink'st ihou to regain 
Thy right by silling siill. or thus retiring? 
So did not Mjchabcus. He indeed 
Retired unii:i she De^ct» bui with arms; 
And o'er a mighty king so o£e prevailed 
Thai by strong hand his family obtained, 
Though priests, the crown, and David's throne usurped, 
Wilh Modin and her suburbs once content. 
If kingdom move ihce not, let move thee zeal 
And duty — zeal and duty are not slow, 
But on Occasion's forelock watchful xvait: 
They themselves rather are occasion best — 
Zeal oi thy Father's house, duty to free 
Thy country from her heathen servitude. 
So shalt thou best fullil, best verify, 
The Prophets old, who sung ihy endless reign— 
The happier reign the sooner it begins. 
Reign thcni wimt cansl ihou better do the while?^' 
To whom our Saviour answer thus rcturne<]: — 
"All things are best fulfilled in their due time; 
And time there is for a[l diin^s, Truih haih said. 
If of my reign Prophetic Writ hath told 
Thut it shall never end, so, when begin 
The Father in his purfiose hath decreed- — 
He in whose hand all times and seasons rowl. 
What if he hath decreed tiial 1 shall first 
Be tried in humble state, and things adverse. 
By tribulations, injuries, insults, 
Contempts, and scorns, and snares, and violence, 
Suffering, abstaining, quiedy expecting 



Without disirust or doubt^ ihat He may know 
What 1 can suffer, how obeyP Who best 
Can sulTer best c^n do^ best reign \vho first 
Well hath obt^yed^ust irial ere 1 merit 
My ex^haiion without change or en J. 
But what concerns it rhee when I begin 
My everlnstiug Kingdom? Why arr rhou 
Solicitous? What moves /^y jm)iii5i[ion? 
Know'sE thou not that my rising is thy fall, 
And my promotion will be thy desirucrion?" 

To whom the Tempter, inly r^cked^ replied: — 
*'Le[ that come when it comes. All hope is lost 
Of my reception into grace; what worse? 
For where no hope is left is [eft no fpar. 
If there be worse, the expectation mor(^ 
Of worse torments me than the feeling can- 
I would be at the worst; worst is my port. 
My harbourj and my tihimale repose^ 
The end I would atiam, my final good. 
My error was my error, and my crime 
My crime; whatever^ for itsclt condemned^ 
And will alike be punishetlj whether thou 
Reign or reifin not — though to that gentle brow 
Willingly 1 could flyj and hope thy reign, 
From ihat pUcid aspect and meek regard^ 
Rather than aggravate my evil stale, 
Would stand between me and thy Father's ire 
(Whose ire J dread more ihan ihe fire of Hell) 
A shelter andakindof shading cool 
Interposition, as a summer's cloud. 
If I, then^ to die worst ihat can be hasre, 
Why move thy feet so slow to what is best? 
Happiest^ both to thyself and all the ^vorld, 
Thai thouj who worthiest arl^ shouldsi be iheir King! 
Perhaps ihou lin^er'st m deep thoughis tieiained 
Of rhe enterprise so hazardous and high! 
No wonder; for, though in thee be united 
What of perfection can in Man be found* 
Or human nature can receive^ consider 
Thy life hath yet beeji private^ mosl part spent 


At home^ scarce viewed the Gatilcan towns, 

And once a year Jerusalem, few days' 

Short sojourn; and what thence couldsi ihou observe? 

The world ihou hast not seeUt much less her glory, 

Empires, and monarciis^ and iheir radiant courLs — 

Best school of best experience, ^^uickest in sight 

In all ihings ihat to greatest actions lead. 

The wisest* unexperiencedp will be ever 

Timorous, and loth, with novice modesty 

(As he whoj seeking asses, found a kingdom) 

Irresolute^ unhardy, unadvenlurous. 

Blit 1 will brin^ ihce whore thou soon shalt quit 

Thost Tudimei][s, and see before thine eyes 

The monarchies of the Earth, their pomp and state — 

Sufficient iniroduction to inform 

Thee, of thyself so apt, in regal arts, 

And rcgai mysiertes; thai thou rnay'si know 

How l>cs[ their opposition to withstand*" 

With ihat (such power was given him (hen), he 
The Son of God up to a mountain high. 
It v»as a mountain at whose verdant feci 
A spacious plain outsiretched in circuit wide 
Lay pleasant; from his side two rivers flowed. 
The one windings the other straight, and left between 
Fair champaign, with less rivers inter veined. 
Then meedng joined their tribuie lo ihe sea. 
Fertii of corn the glebe, of oiK and wine; 
With herds the pasture thronged, with flocks the hiHs; 
Huge cities and high-towered, that well might seem 
The seats of mijjhtiest monarchs; and so large 
The prospect was that ht^re and ihere was room 
For barren desert, fountainless and dry- 
To this high mountain-top the Tempter brought 
Our Saviour, and new train of words began: — 

*^Well have we speeded, and o'er hill and dale, 
Foresis and field, and flood, temples and towers. 
Cut shorter many a league- Here thou behold'st 
Assyria, and her empire's ancient bounds, 
Araxes and the Caspiari lake; thence on 


As far as Indus eait, Euphrates west, 

And oft beyond; to somh the Pei^bn bay. 

And, inaccGssiblp, the Arabian diouiht 

Here, Nineveh^ oi length wLthin her svjII 

Several Jays' journey, built by Ninus old, 

Of that first golden monarchy the seat, 

And seat of Salmanassar, whose success 

Israel in long captivity scill mourns; 

There Babylon, the wonder of all tongues, 

As ancient, but rebuilt by him who twice 

Judah and all thy father David's house 

Led captive, and Jerusalem laid waste, 

Tdl Cyrus set them free" Persepolis, 

His city, there thou secst, and Baccra there; 

Ecbatana her siriiclurc vast there shews, 

And Hecatompylos her hundred gates; 

There Susa by Cboaspes, amber streaEii, 

The drink of none but kings; oi later fame, 

Built by Eniathian or by Parthiafi hands, 

The great Seieufia, Nisibis^ and there 

Aria>:aia. Teredon. Cte siphon, 

Turning with easy eye, thou may'st behold. 

All these the Parthian (now some age^ past 

By groat Arsaces led, who founded first 

That empire) under his dominion holds, 

Ftom ihe luxurious kings of Antioch won. 

And just in time thou corn's: lo have a view 

Of his great power; for now the Parihian king 

In Ctesiphon hath gathered all his host 

Against the Scythian, whose incuisions wild 

Have wasted Sogdiana; to her aid 

He marches now in haste. See, though from far. 

His thousands, in what martial equii>age 

They issue forth» steel bows and shafts their aims. 

Of equal dread in flight or in pursuit — 

All horsemen, in which flight they must excel- 

See how jn warlike muster they appear, 

In rhombs^ and wedges, and half-moons, and wings," 

He looked, and saw what numbers numbeileis 
The city gates outpoured, light-arjued troops 

392 JOHN MILTON Book iil 

In coats of m*iil and military pride. 
In mail their horses clad, yci licet and strongs 
Prauticing ihdr riders bore^ the ilowcr and choice 
0[ many provinces from bound no bound— ^ 
From Arachosisj from Candaor ease, 
And Margiana^ to the Hy^callL^n diH^ 
Ot Caucasus^ and dark Iberian dales- 
From ArropaiJa, and the neighbouring pbms 
Of Adiabene, Mcdia^ and the south 
Of Susiana, to Balsara's haven. 
He snw ihcrn in their forms of battle ranged. 
How t]uick ihey wheeled, ami flying behind them shot 
Sharp hkei of arrowy showers again^i the Jace 
Of [heir pursuers, and overcame by llighi; 
The field all iron cast a gleaming brown. 
Nor wanted clouds of foot, nor^ on each horn, 
Cuirawters all in sLcd for standing flighr. 
Chariots, or ekphanis indorsttl wiih lowtrs 
Of archers; nor of labouring pioners 
A multitude, with spades and a:ccs armed. 
To lay hills plain, fell woods, or valleys fitlj 
Or where plain \y;is raise hill, or overlay 
With bridges rivers proud^ as with a yoke: 
Mules after these, camels acid Urornedarics, 
And waggons fraught with utensils ot war. 
Such forces met noC^ nor so wide a camp, 
When Agrican, wiih all his northern powers. 
Besieged Albracca, as romances Eell, 
The city of GallaphronCj from thence to win 
The fairest of her sex, Angelica, 
His daughter, sought by many prowest knights, 
Both Paynim and die peers of CharlemanCr 
Such and so numerous was their chivalry; 
At sight whereof the Fiend yet more presumed^ 
And to our Saviour thus his words renewed:^ 
"That thou may'st know I seek not lo engage 
Thy virtue, and not every way secure 
On no slight grounds thy safety, hear and mark 
To what end 1 have brought thee hither, and shew 
Alt this fair sight. Thy kingdom, though foretold 


By Prophtfi or by Angd, unless ihou 
HnJeavour, as rhy father David did. 
Thou never shall obtain: prediction siill 
In aEl ihingSj :ind all men, supposes means; 
Without means used, vvhal it predicts revokes* 
Bui say [hou wen possessed oi David's throne 
By free conseni of atl, none opposiiej 
Samariian or few; how couldst thou hope 
Long to enjoy ii quiet and secure 
Between two ^vich enclosing enemies, 
Roman and Parthian? Therefore one oE [hcsc 
Thou must make sure ihy own: the Parthian first. 
By my aiivice, as nearer, and of laTe 
Found able by mvasfcon to annoy 
Thy country, antl ciiptive lead away her kings, 
Aniigonus and old Hyrcanus, bound, 
Maugre the Roman. It shall be my task 
To render [hee ihe Parthian at dispose, 
Choose which thou wilt, by conquest or by league- 
By him [hou shale regain, wlihout him noi, 
Tha; whtch alone can truly reinstall thee 
In David 5 roval seai, his true successor— 
Dehvcrance of thy brethren, those Ten Tribes 
Whose olTspring in his territory yet serve 
Jn Habor, and among the Medcs dispersed; 
Ten sons of Jacob, rwo of Joseph, lost 
Thus long from Israel, serving, as of old 
Their fathers in ihe land of Egypt served, 
This offer sets before ihee lo deliver^ 
Tfeese if from servitude thou shalt restore 
To their inheritance, then^ nor titi ihen. 
Thou on ihe throne of David in full gloiy^ 
From Egypt lo Euphrates and beyond^ 
Shalt reign, and Home or Cssar not need fear^** 

To whom our Saviour answered ihu!, unmoved:^ 
"Much osieniaiion vam of fleshly arm 
And fragile arms, much instrument of war, 
Long in preparing* soon to noihing brought, 
Before mine eyes ihou hast set, and in my ear 
Vented much policy, and projects deep 


Of enemieSj of aidip bactEcs, and leagues, 

Plausible to itic worid^ Co me ^vorih nau^hl. 

Means I musL use, thou say'^i; prediclion else 

Will unpredktj and Eai! me of the throne! 

My Lime, 1 Lold Lhet (and [hat time for thee 

Were bctlcr farthest off), is noi yet come. 

When that comes^ think not ihou to find me slack 

On my pan auyht endeavouring^ or to need 

Thy pohtlc m^xims^ or that cumbersome 

Luggage of war there shewn me — argument 

Of human weakness rather than of strenj^ih. 

My breihren^ as thou calTst ihem, [hose Ten Tribes, 

I must deliver ii I mean to reign 

David's truo heir, and his full sct^pire sway 

To jusE extent overall Isra^ri sons! 

But whence to thi'^ this zeal? Where was it [hen 

For Israel^ or for David, or his throne, 

When thou stood*5t up his tempter to the pride 

Of numbering Israel — which cost the lives 

Of threescore and ten ihouj>and fsrac^fites 

By three days' pesEili?nceP Such was thy aeal 

To hrael ihen, ihe same that no\% to me* 

As tor those captive tribes, themselves ^^eL"e [hey 

Who wrough[ their own captivity, fell oil 

From God to worship calves, the deities 

Of Egvptj Baal next and Ashtaroth^ 

And ail ihe idolatries of heathen rounds 

Besides their o[her worsts rhan heaihenlsh crimen; 

Nor in th*^ land uf their caplivity 

Humbled themselves^ or penitent be5ouj;h[ 

The God of their forefathers, bui 50 died 

Impenitent, and left a race behind 

Like to themselves^ distinguishable scarce 

From GeniileSj but by circumcision vain. 

And Crod wlih idols in their worship joined. 

Should I of tl^ese the lUwrry regard. 

Who, freed, as to rheir ancient patrimony* 

Unhumbled, unref>emanij un reformed^ 

Headlong would follow^ and to chtir godi perhaps 

Of Be[hcl and of DanP No; let them serve 


Their enemies who serve idols wiih GoJ, 
Yct He at lengih, time to himself best known. 
Remembering, by 5omc wondrous call 
AJay bring ihem back, rt^pcntani and sincere. 
And at d^eir fMssing dcavc the Assyrian floods 
While to th^ir natk\c Und with joy ihey hssie, 
As the l^ed Se:^ and Jordao ooce he cleft. 
When to ihe Promised hand llicir fathers passcd, 
To his due time and providence I leave tbem," 
So spake Israei's imc King, and lo the Fiend 
Made answer niecu that made void al] his wlleS- 
So iaies it when with truth falsehood contends- 


PERPLEXtn and troubled at his bad success 
The TempltT stood, nor had what io reply. 
Discovered in his trand, thrown trom his hope 
So ott, ant] the |>ersuaiive rhetoric 
That skeked his ton^uct and won so much on Evijj 
So litde here, nay lost. But Eve was Eve; 
This far his over-maich, who, self-deceived 
And rashj beforehand had no better weighed 
The streri^lh he wnj; to cope whhj or his own- 
But — as a man who had been maichlcs? held 
In cunning, over-reached vvhere leasE he thought^ 
To salve his credii, and for very ipiiej 
Siill will be templing hiin who foils him still. 
And never cease^ though to his shame the morej 
Or aa a swarm of flies in vintagc^ime, 
About die wine-press where sweet rnust is pourcdj 
Beat oflj returns as oft with humming sound; 
Or surging wave? against a solid rock, 
Though all lo shivers dashed^ the assault renew, 
(Vain baitery!) and in Froth or bubbles end — 
So Satan, whom repulse upon repulse 
Met ever^ and to shameful silence broughi, 
Yel gives not o'er, though desperate of success^ 
And his vain importunity pursues- 
He brcjughi our Saviour to the western side 

39^ ' JOHN m:lto-\ bookev 

Of that high inouniaia, whence he mighl behold 

Another plain^ longj but in breadth not wide, 

Washed by the southern sea, and on the north 

To equal length backed wiih a ridge of Wiih 

Thai screened the frufrs of the ejirlh and teats of mer= 

From cold SepienErton blasts; thence in the midst 

Divided by a river, off who^e banks 

On cadi side an Imperial City stood, 

With towers and temptes proudly elevate 

On seven small hills, with palaces adorned. 

Porches and theatres^ baths^ aqueducts, 

S[atucs and trophies ^ and irinmphnl arc^t 

Gardens and proves, presented to \\h eyes 

Above the highth ot mountains initrpo^^d — 

By what strange parallax, OT optic skill 

Of viiion^ niukiplied through air, or glass 

Of telescope, were curious to enquire. 

And now the Tcmpcer thus his silence brolit : — 

*'The city which thau secst no other deem 
Tfian great and glorious Ro[]ie^ Queen of the Earth 
So far renowned, and wuh the sjHJils enriched 
Of nations- There ihe Capitol thou seeslp 
Above the rest lifting his stately head 
On the Tarpeian rock^ her citadel 
Impregnable; and there Mount Palatine, 
The imperial |>alace, compass huge, and high 
The structure, skill ot nobkn architects, 
With gilded batdements, conspicuous far, 
Turrets, and terraces, and gUtlering spires. 
Many a fair ediiice besides^ more like 
I louses of gods — so well I have dispo^d 
My aerie microscope — thou may*st beholdj 
Outside and inside both, pillars and roofs 
Carved work, the hand of famed artificers 
In cedar, marble^ fvory^ or gold. 
Thence to the gates cast round tlitne L-ye, and see 
What conflux issuing forth, or entering in: 
Prxtors, proconsuls to their provinces 
Hastings or on return^ in robes of stale; 
Lictors and fodSj the ensigns of their power; 



Legions and cohorEs, turms of horse and wins^; 

Or embassies from regions far rcinoie^ 

In various habits, on the Appian road, 

Or on the /Kmilian — some from farthest south. 

Syeno, and where the ^liadow both way falls, 

Meroe, Nilotic is3c, and, more to west,- 

The realm of Bocchus to the Blackinoor sea. 

From the Asian king? (and Parthian amon;; those), 

From Jnciia and die Golcien Chcrsoness^ 

And uimosi Indian isle Taprobane, 

Dusk fac:es wiih white silken turbants wreathed; 

From Gaiha, Cades, and the Uritish west; 

Germaii'i, and Scythians, and Sarmatians north 

Beyond Danubius to the Taiiric pooh 

All nations now to Home obcdii^nce pay — 

To ilomc's great Hmperor, whose wkh domain, 

In ample territory, wealth and power. 

Civility of nijjnners, arts and arms. 

And Jong renown, thou justly may'st prefer 

Before the Parthian. These two thrones except. 

Ttie rest are barbarous, and scarce worth the si^ht, 

Shareti among petty kings too far removed; 

The^e having shewn ihec, I have shewn thee aEI 

The kingdoms of the world, and .ill their glory. 

This Em|>i:ror hath no son, and now is old. 

Old and lascivious, and from Rome retired 

I'o Caprea:, an island small but strong 

On the Campanian shore, with fiur|)0$e there 

His horrid lusts in privaEe to enjoy; 

Committing to a ivickcd favourite 

All public cares, and yet of hfm suspicious; 

Haled of all, and haling. With what ease^ 

Endutjd with regal virtue? as thou art, 

Appearing, and beginning noble deeds, 

Might'si thou e.ipel this monster from his ihrone. 

Now made a sty, and, in his phce ascending, 

A victor-people free from servile yokeT 

And with my help thou may'st; to me the power 

Is given, and by that right I give it thee. 

Aim, therefore, at no leas than all Lhe world; 

398 JOHN MILTON book 1 

Aim at the highest; v^'iihoui ihe highest attained^ 

Will be for thcc no sitting, or not long, 

On David's ihronc, be prophesied what will." 

To whom ihc Son of God, unmoved) replied: — 
"Nor doth this grandeur and majestic shew 
Of Juxury, ihou^h ca\hd maeniflcence, 
More th:Ln of arms before, allure mine eye» 
Much less my mind; though thou 5hould'&t add to tell 
Their sumptuous gluttoniiiST and gorgeous leasts 
On citron tables or Atlantic stone 
(For I have al^o heard, perhaps have read)j 
Their wines of Sciis, C^les, and Falerne, 
Chios and Crete, and how they qualT in gold, 
Crystiil, and myrrhine cups, imbossed wiih gems 
And studs of pearl- — to me should' ^t tell, who Uiirst 
And hunger siill. Then embassies thou shew'^I 
From nations far and nigh) What honour that, 
But tedious waste of lime, to sit and hear 
So many hollow comphmenls and hes, 
Oudandish Ikitcries? Then proceed'sc to talk 
Of the Emperor, how easily subdued, 
How gloriously, 1 shall, thou say^st, e>!pel 
A brutish monster; what if I wiihal 
Expel a Devil who first made him such? 
Let his tormentor, ConscrcncCj find him oulj 
For him I was not sent, nor yet to free 
That jieople, victor once, now vile and base. 
Deservedly made vassal — who, once )ust. 
Frugal and mild, and temperate, concjuered well. 
But govern ill the nations under yoke^ 
peeling their provinceSj exhausted all 
By lusi and rapine; first amhirious growQ 
Of triumph, that insulting vanity; 
Then cruel, by their sports to blood inured 
Of fighting beasts, and men to beasts exposed; 
Luxurious by their wealth, and greedier still. 
And from the daily Scene effeminate. 
What wise and valiant man would seek to free 
These, thus degenerate, by themselves enslaved, 
Or coidd of inwaid slaves make outward freep 


Know, thereforCj when my season comes to sit 
On David's throne^ ii shall be iikc a irce 
SpreLitling ajuf overshadowing all the earthy 
Or as a sionc ihai shnll to pieces dash 
All inonarchies besides throughout the world; 
And of my Ktngdom iherc shall be no t^nd. 
Means there shall be lo this; but what the means 
Is not for thee to know^ nor nic lo tell." 

To whom the Tempter^ impudent, replied: — 
"I see all o^Io^s made by me how slijjht 
Thou value^C^ because ofiered, and teject'st- 
Noihing will please the difficult and nice^ 
Or nothing more than sill I to contradict- 
On the other side know also thou that I 
On what I offer set as high esteem, 
Nor what f pari with mean to give for naught- 
All ihese, which in a moment thou behold'st, 
The kingdoms of the worlds to thee I give 
(For^ given to me, I give to whom I please)^ 
No iriHc; yet with this reserve^ not else — » 
On ihis condtdon^ if thou wilt fall dowHj 
And worship me aa ihy super inr Lord 
(Easily done), and hold them iill of me; 
For ^hat can less so great a gift descfVeP" 

Whom thus our Saviour answered with disdain: — ^ 
"I never liked thy talk^ thy offers less; 
Now both abhofj since thou hasi dared lo uller 
The abominable termsj impious condition- 
But 1 endure the lime^ till which expired 
TI)OU hast permission on me* It is written^ 
The first ot all commandments^ *Thou shall worship 
The Lord thy God^ and only Him shalt serve;' 
And dar'st ihou to the Son of God propound 
To worship thee, accursed^ now more accursed 
For this attempt, bolder than that on Eve, 
And more blasphemous; which expect to rue. 
The kingdoms of the world to thee were given! 
Permitted radier^ and by thee usurped; 
Other donarion none ihou cansE produce- 
If given, by whom but by the King of kings^ 

400 JOHN MILTON book i% 

God over all supreme? If given to thee, 

By [ht:c how fairly U the Giver now 

Repaid! But gratitude in thee is lost 

Long sinte. Wert thou so void of fear or shame 

As offer them to me, the Son of Ood^ 

To me my own^ oei such abhorred p^ci^ 

Thai I fall down and warship ihce 35 GoJ? 

Get ihcc behind me! Pl^iin thou now appear'st 

That Evil One, Satan for ever damned/* 

To whom the Ficnd^ with fear abashed, replied: — ■ 
"Be not SQ sore offended. Son of God- 
Though Sons at God both Anjjels are and Men^ 
Jf J, lo try whciher in higher son 
Than ihc^e thou bear'^t that tide, have proposed 
What both from Men and Angels I receive^ 
Tetrart^hs of FirCj Air^ Flood, and on the Earih 
Nations besides from nil the quariered winds- 
God of ihis WoHd invok-edj and World beneaih- 
Who then [hou art, whose coming is foretold 
To me mosi faial^ me it most concerns- 
The [rial hath indamaged ihce no ^vay, 
Rather more honour left and more esteem; 
Me naught advaniagcdj missing what I airaed- 
Therefore let pass, as they are transitory, 
The kingdoms of this world; I shall no more 
Advise [hee; gain them as Thou canst, or not. 
And ihou thyself seem'st otherwise inclined 
7'han to a worldly crown, addicted more 
To contemplation and profound dispute; 
As by th;it early action may be judged, 
When, slipping from thy mother's eye, thou went*sl 
Alone into the Temple, there wast found 
Among ihe gravest Rabbies, disputant 
On points and questions fitting Moses' chair, 
Teaching, not taught. The childhood shews the man, 
As morning shews the day. Be famous, then. 
By wisdom; as thy empire must extend^ 
So lei extend thy mind o'er all the world 
In knowledge; all things in it comprehend. 
All knowledge is not couched in Moses' !awj 


The Petilaleuchp or what the Prophets wrote; 

The Gentiles also know^ and write, and teach 

To ad mi rat ion, led by Naturc^s UghE; 

And with the Gendles much Ehou must converse. 

Ruling ihE^m by ptisuasion^ as thou mean 'it. 

Wiihoui iheir learning, how wilt thou with ihem. 

Or they wiih thecj hold conversation meet? 

How wiit [hou reason with them, how refute 

Their idohsmSj traditions^ paradoxes? 

Error by his own arms is best evinced. 

Look once moret ere we leave this specular mount, 

Westward^ niuch nearer by south-west; hehold 

Where on ihe ^ligean shore a ciiv stands. 

Built noblyj pure the air and light ihc soil — 

AthenSf [he eye of Greece, moiher of arts 

And eloquence, native ^o famous wits 

Or hospitablej in her sweet recess, 

City or suhurb^Hj studious walks and shades. 

See there the ohve-grove of Academe^ 

PJalo^s retirement, where the Attic bird 

Trilk her ihick-warblcd notes the summer long; 

There, Howery hill, HymctTUij wi[h (he sound 

Of bees^ industrious n:iurmuf. oft invites 

To studious musing; ihertj [lissus rowls 

His whispering strtram, Wiihin ihe walls iheo view 

1 he schools 0! ancient sages — his who bred 

Great Alexander to subdue ihe world, 

Lyceum there; and painted Stoa next* 

There thou shah hear and ]earn the secret power 

Of harmony, in tones and numbers hit 

By voice or hand, and various-measured verse, 

■Colian charms and Dorian lyric odes, 

And his who j^ave ihem breach, bur higher sung, 

Blind Melesigenes, ihence Homer calied, 

Whose poem Phcebus challenged for his own* 

Thence what (he lofty grave Tragedians taught 

In chorus or iambic^ teachers best 

Of moral prudence, with delight received 

[n brief sententious precepts, while they treat 

Of fate, and chance, and change in human life, 


High tenons and high passions best describing. 
Thence to the famous Orators repair, 
Those ancient whose resistless eloquence 
Wielded ac will ihaE fierce deinotraty. 
Shook the Arsenal, and fulmined over Greece 
To M^ctdun and Artaxerxes' throne. 
To sage Philosophy ncxE lend thine ear, 
From heaven descended to the low-roofed house 
Of Socrates — see there his tenement — 
Whonij well inspired, the Oracle pronounced 
Wisest of men; fiom whose mouih issued forth 
MelUflnous streams^ that watered all the schools 
Of Academics old and new, with those 
Surnamcd Peripatetics^ and the sect 
Epicurean^ and the SFoic severe^ 
These here revolve, or, as thou likest, at home^ 
Till lime mature ihee to a kingdom's weight; 
These rules will render thee a king complete 
Within thyself, much more with empire joined." 

To whom our Saviour sagely thus replied: — 
'Think not but ihat f know these things; ofj think 
I know them not^ not therefore am I short 
Of knowing what 1 ought. He who receives 
Light from above^ from the Fountain of Light, 
No other doctrine needs, though granted true; 
But these are false, or Uttle else but dreams^ 
Conjectures, fancies, butit on nothing firm. 
The firsf and wisest of thctn all professed 
To know this only, that he nothing knew; 
The next to fabling fell and smooth conceits; 
A third sort doubled all things, ihough plain sense; 
Others in virtue placed felicityj 
But viriue )oined with riches and long life; 
Jn corporal pleasure he, and careless ease; 
The Stoic last in philosophic pride, 
By him called virtue, and his virtuous raan^ 
Wise, perfect in himself^ and all possessing, 
Equal to God^ oft shames not to prefer. 
As fearing God nor man, contemning all 1 

Wealthy pleasure, pain or tormentj death aad life — I 


Which, when he hsts» he leaves, or br>Gist£ he can; 
For ;7l| his redious laik is but vsin boast, 
Or sublle shifts conviction to evade. 
Alas! whai can they teach» and not mislead^ 
Ignorant o£ themselves, of God much mote» 
And how the World began, and how Man fell, 
Degraded by himself, on grace depending? 
Much of tlie Soul they ta!k.» but all awry; 
And in themselve? seek virtuo; and to LhemJelves 
Ail glory arrogate, to God give none; 
Ral her accuse him under usual names» 
Fortune and Fate, as one regardless quite 
Of mortal things. Who, therefore, sueks in these 
True wisdom finds her not, or by delusion 
Far v^rorse, her false resemblance only meets, 
An empiy doud. However, many books, 
Wjse men have said, are wearisome; who reads 
lnc:essantly, and to his reading brings not 
A spirit and judgment equal or superior, 
(And what he brings what needs he elsewhere seek?) 
Uncertain and unsettled still remains, 
Deep-versed in books and shallow in himself. 
Crude or inioxicate, collecting toys 
And trifles for cfiaice maUers, worth a iponge. 
As children gathering pebbles on the shore. 
Or, it' I would delight my private hours 
With music or with poem, where so soon 
As in our native language can I find 
That solace? All our Law and Story strewed 
With hymns, our Psafms with artful terms inscribed, 
Our Hebrew songs and harps, in Babylon 
That pleased so well our victor's ear, declare 
That rather Greece from us these arts derived- 
Ill imitated while they loudest sing 
The vices of their deities, and their own, 
In fable, hymn, or song, so personating 
Their gods ridicuEous, and themselves past shame. 
Remove their swelling cpiihetes, thick-laid 
As varnish on a harlot's cheek, the rest 
Thm-sown with aught of profit or delight, 





Will far be found unwoiihy lo compare 

Wilh Sion's $ongs, to all true la&tes cxceUing^ 

Where God is praised aright and goJhke men, 

The Holiest of Hohes and his Sainii 

(Such are Irom God inspired, not such from ihee); 

Unless where moral virtue is expEcssod 

By tight of Nature, not in all quite lost. 

Their orators thou then e^toU'sl as those 

The top of eloquence— statists indeed, 

And lovers of their country, as may seem; 

Bui herein to our Prophets far beneath. 

As men divinely taught, and belter teaching 

The solid rules of civil government^ 

In their majestic, unaffected style, 

Than alt the oratory of Greece and Rome. 

In them is plainest taught, and easiest learnt, 

Whal makes a nation happy, and keeps it so, 

Whal ruins kiriKdoms, and lays cities flat; 

These only, with our La^v, best form 3 king." 

So spake the Son of God; but Satan, now 
Quite at a loss (for ail his darts were spent), 
Thus to our Saviour, with stern brow, replied: — 

"Since neither wealth nor honour, arms nor arts, 
Kingdom nor i^mpicc, pleases thee, nor aught 
By me proposed in life couiempUtive 
Or active, tended on by glory or fame, 
What dost thou in this world? The Wilderness 
For thee is fittest place: I found thee there, 
And thither will return ihee. Yet rcEuember 
What I Eoretell thee; soon thou shall have cause 
To wish thoo never hadst reiected, thus 
Nicely or cautiously, my offered aid, 
Which would have set thee in short time wilh ease 
On David's throne, or throne of alt the world, 
Now at full age, fulness of time, thy season, 
When prophecies of tiiee are best fulfilled. 
Now, contrary — if I read aught in heaven, 
Or heaven wriie aught of fate — by what the stars 
Voluminous* or single characters 
In their conjunction met, give me to spell, 



Sorrows and labours, opposiiioiij liate. 

Attend thee; scorns, reproaches^ injiiriesj 

Violence and stripes, and^ jsistly, cruel dcaih- 

A kinj^dom ihey portend Uic^e^ bul whai kingdom, 

Real or allegoric, I discern not; 

Nor when: etcrn^il sure — as without cnd^ 

Without beginning; for no date prefixed 

Directs me in the starry rubric iet " 

So sayingj he took (for still he knew hia pt>wer 
Not yet expired), and to the Wilderness 
Brought back^ the Son of God, '^nd left him iherc, 
Feigning to disappear. Darkness now rose^ 
As daylight iunk, and brought [n louring Nighty 
Her shadowy ollspring^ unsubsisntial boih, 
Privation mere of light and absent day. 
Our Saviour, meek, and wiih umroubled mind 
After his aerie jaunip though hiirried sore^ 
Hungry and coldj betook htm to his rest^ 
Wherever^ under some concourse of shades. 
Whose branching arms thick intertwined mighi shield 
From dew!4 and damps of night his sheltered head; 
Butj ihekered^ slept in v.iin; for at his head 
The Tempter watched^ and soon with ugly dreacns 
Disturbed his sleep- And euher tropic now 
'Gan thunder, and both ends of heaven; the cjouds 
From many a horrid rift abortive poured 
Fierce rain with lightning n^ixed, waier with tire 
Id. ruin reconciled; nor slepf the winds 
Within thetr stony caves^ but rushed abroad 
From [he four hinges of the world, and fell 
On the vexed wilderness, whose talkst pines, 
Though rooted deep as high, and sturdiest oaks, 
Bowed their stif! necks, loaden with stormy blasts. 
Or torn up sheer. Ill was thou shrouded tiien, 
O paiicnt Son of God, yet only stood'at 
Unshaken! Nor yet sta[d the terror there: 
Infernal ghosts and hellish furies round 
Environed thee; some howled^ some ydledj some 

Some bent at thee th^ Jiery darts^ while thou 

4^6 JOHN MrLTON book iv 

Sat'st unappaUcd in calm and sinless peace. 
Thus passed tlxe night so foul, till Morning fair 
Came forth with piigrim steps^ in amice grey. 
Who wiEh her radiant finger stilled the loar 
Of chunder, chased the clouds, and laid the winds, 
And griesly spectres, which the Fiend had raised 
To tempi the Sun of Cod with terrors dire. 
And now ihe sun with more effectual beams 
Had cheered the f^ice of earth, and dried the wet 
From drooping plant, or dropping tree; the birds, 
Who all things now behold mure fresh and green. 
After a nighc of slorm 50 ruinous. 
Cleared up their choicest notes in bush and sptay. 
To gratuliite the sweet return of morn. 
Nor yet, amidst this joy and brightest morn, 
Was absent, after all his mischief done. 
The Prince of Darkness^ glad would also seem 
Of this fair change, and to out Saviour came; 
Yel with no new device (they all were spent), 
Rather by this his last affront resolved, 
Desperate of belter course, to vent his lage 
And mad despite to be so oft repelled. 
Him walking on a sunny hill he found, 
Backed on the north and west by a thick wood; 
Out of the wood he siarts in wonted shape. 
And in a careless mood thus to him said:— 

"Fair morning yet betides thee, Son of God, 
After a dismal night. I heard the wrack, 
As earth and sky would niinglc; but myself 
Was distant; and these flaws, though mortals fear 

As dangerous to the pillared frame of Heaven, 
Of to the Earth's dark basis underneath. 
Are to the main as inconsiderable 
And harmless, if not wholesome, as a sneeze 
To man's less universe, and soon are gone. 
Yet, as being ofttimes noxious where they light 
On man, beast, plant, wasteful and turbulent. 
Like lurbulencics in the affairs of men, 
Over whose heads they roar, and seem to point. 


They ofi fore-signify a/id threaien ilL 

This icmpe^i ai this descri most was bent; 

Of mtn at nhecj for onty thou here dwctr&C. 

Did I not idl thee, if thou didst reject 

Ttic perfect season offered ^ith ray aid 

To wsn ihy destined seai^ bui wilt prolong 

Ail to the push oi fatGj pursue thy w3y 

Of gaining David's Uirone no man knows when 

(For bo[h the when and how is nowhere Eold)^ 

Thou shalt be what thou art nrdained^ no doubt; 

For AngeJs have proclaimed it, but concerting 

The time and means? Each act is righdiest done 

Kot when it munCi but when it may be best. 

If thou observer not this^ be sure [o find 

Wiiat J foretold thee — many a hard assay 

Of dangers, and adversities^ and pains^ 

Ere [hou of Israel's sceptre get fast hold; 

Whereof this ominous night that dascd ihce rounds 

So many terrors, voices, prodigies. 

May warn thee^ as a sure foregoing sign." 

So talked he, while ihe Son of God went on, 
And staid not, but in brief him answered thus: — 

"Me worst than wet thou lind^st not; other harm 
Those [errors which thou speak'st of did nke none 
1 never feared they could, though noising loud 
And threatening nigh: what ihey can do as signs 
Betokening or ill-boding I contemn 
As false porienis, not sent from God, but thee; 
WhOj knowing I shall reign past thv prevendng^ 
Obtrud'sl thy otTered aid, that I^ accepting, 
At least migh[ seem to hold all power of ihee^ 
Ambitious Spirit! and would'st be thought my God; 
And storm'st^ refused^ thinking lo terrify 
Me [o thy v/ill! Desist (thou art discerned. 
And toiTsc in vain), nor me in vain molest" 

To whom the Fiend, now swoln wiih rage, replied: — 
"Then hear, O Son of Davids vir^in-bornl 
For Son of God to me is yet in doubt. 
Of the Messiah I have heard foreiold 
By all the Prophets; of chy birth , at length 



Annoutice^i by Gabriel, with [tie first I knew. 

And of I he angelic song in Beihlehem field, 

On thy birth-nighr, thai sunj* ihei? Saviour burn. 

From ihat lime seldom have 1 ceased to eye 

Thy infancy, thy childhood, and thy youth, 

Thy manhood last, ihoui^h yoi in private bred; 

Till, at the ford ot Jordan, whither all 

Flocked to the Baptist, I amiing tile rest 

(Though not 10 be baptized)^ by voice Erom Heaven 

Heard ihee pronounced the Son of God beloved. 

Thenceforth I Lhu\ighc thee ^vorih my nearer view 

And narro\s"er scrutiny, that I niisjht leatii 

In what degree or meaning thou art called 

The Son p/ CinI, which bears no single sense. 

The Sun oi God I aho am, or was; 

And, i^ I was, I am; relation standi' 

AH men are Sons of God; yet thee T thought 

/li some respect far higher 50 declarcdr 

Therefore, I watched thy foouieps froni that hour. 

And followed thee still on co [[lis waste wild, 

Where, by ail best conjecture?, I coi]ci:c 

Thou art to be my fatal enemy. 

Good reasoii, then, if [ beforehand seek 

To understand my adversary, who 

And what he i^; his wisdom, power. Intent; 

By parje or coniposiiion, truce or league. 

To win him, or win from him what I can. 

And opportunity I here have had 

To try ihee, sift ihee, and confess have found thee 

Proof against all lemiMaiion, as a rock 

Of adamant and ai a centrej firm 

To the utmost of mere man both wise and good, 

Not more; for honours, riches, kingdoms, glory. 

Have been before contemned, and may again. 

Therefore, to know what more ihou art than man. 

Worth naming Son of God by voice from Heaven, 

Anodser method I must now begin." 

So wying, he caught him up, and, without wing 
Of hippogrif, bore through the air sublime. 
Over the wilderness and o'er the plain, 


Till underneath them lair Jcru^alcrrij 
The Holy City, iittcd high her towers^ 
And higher yet ihe glorious Temple reared 
Her pile, far oiT appearing like a mouni 
Of alablastcr, topt with golden spires: 
There^ on the highest pinnacle^ he set 
Tht Son of God^ and added thus in scorn:^ 

''There $iaAd, if thou wtic stand; to stand upright 
WitI 35k ihce skilL I 10 thy Father'5 house 
Have brought thee, and highest placed: highest is best- 
Now shew thy progeny; if not to standi 
Cast ihyseU" do^vu. Safely, if Son of God; 
For it is ivriiten, 'He will give command 
Concerning thee to his AngeU; in their hands 
They shall uplift thee, [est at any time 
Thou chance to dash thy foot against a stone/ '' 

To whom ihus Jesus: "Also it is ivritten. 
Tempt not ihe Lord ihy G<id/ " He said^ and alyodn 
But SaMn^ sn^itEen with amazement, fell. 
As when Earth's son^ Anisus (to compare 
Small things with greatest), in Tras^a strove 
With Jove'? AlcideSj mid, oU foiled, ssill rose. 
Receiving from his mosher Earth new strength, 
Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple |oined, 
ThrotUed ai [enjjih in the air expired and fell^ 
So, after many a foilj ihe Tempier proud, 
Renewing fresh a^^ault^^ amidst h[s pride 
Fell whence he stood to sec his victor fall; 
Andj as that Theban monster ihat proposed 
Her riddleT and him who sohed ii not devoured, 
That once found out and solved, for grief and spite 
Cast herself headJong from the Tsmenian ^teep. 
So, sirook with dread and an^juish, fell [he Ficnd^ 
And to his crew, that sac consulting, brought 
Joyless triumphals of his hoped success^ 
Ruin, and de^pcralion, and dismay. 
Who durst so proudly tempt the Son oE God. 
So Satan fell" and siraighl a iiery globe 
Of Angels on full sail of wing flew nigh^ 
Who on their plumy vans received Him soft 

410 JOHN MILTON book iv 

From his uneasy siaiion, and tiphore. 
As on a floating couchj through the blithe air; 
Therij in s floweTy valley^ ^et him down 
On a green bank, and set before him spread 
A table of celosiial food^ divine 
Ambrosial fruits fetched from the Tree of Life^ 
And from the Fount o£ Life ambrosial drinks 
That soon refreshed him wearied, and repaired 
What hunger, if aught hunger, had impaired. 
Or thirsi; and, as he fed, Angelic quires 
Sung heavenly anthems of his victory 
Over [^mpiation and the Tempter proud: — ^ 

"True Image of the Father, whether throned 
In the bosom of hhss, and Eight of light 
Conceiving, or, remote from Heaven, enshrined 
In fleshly tabernacle and human form. 
Wandering the wilderness-^whaievor place, 
Habit, or stare, or motion^ still expressing 
The Son of God^ with Gotllike force endued 
Against the at[empter of thy Faiher^s throne 
And thief of Paradise? Him long of old 
Thou didst debd, and down from Heaven cast 
With all his army; now thou hast avenged 
Supplanted Adam^ and, by vanquishing 
Tempiation^ hast regained lost Paradise, 
And frustrated ihe con<]uc5t fraudulent. 
He never more henceforth will dare set foot 
In Paradise lo tempt; his snares are broke, 
Por^ though (hat scat of earthly bliss be failed, 
A fairer Paradise is founded now 
For Adam and his chosen sons, whom thou, 
A Saviour, art come down to reinstall; 
Where ihey shall dwell secure, when time shall be, 
Of tempter and temptaiion without fear- 
But ihoUj Infernal Serpenif sbaU not long 
Rule in ihe clouds. Like an autumnal star, 
Or lightnings ihou shalt fall from Heaven, trod down 
Under his feet. For proof, ere this thou feel'sl 
Thy wound (yet not thy last and deadliest wound) 
By this repulse received^ and hold'st in Hell 


No triumph; in dl her g^tes Abaddon rues 
Thy bold attetnpr* Hereafter learn with awe 
To dread the Son of God. He^ all unarmed^ 
Shall chase thee, wuh the terror of his voice. 
From thy demoni^ic hotds^ possessjon foul— 
Thee and thy legiors; yelling they shall fly, 
And beg to hide ihem in a herd of 5wine, 
Lesi he command iheni down into the Deep, 
Bound, and to torment; sent before their limen 
Hail, Son of the Most High. heW of both Worlds, 
Queller of Satan! On thy glorious work 
Now enter, and begin to save Mankind " 

Thus they the Son of God^ our Saviour meek, 
Sung victorj and, from heavenly feast refreshed. 
Brought on his way with joy. He, unobserved, 
Home to his inoihcr's house private returned. 



Arfffot. Po^, cap. fi. TpoTft^ta ui^^^t^ irp^fftjr jT^fttii^j &.<!. — TragiMin csJ Imilatto 
acti<>flif> scftff, f(C*i ptr mi^cricorJiiim et in^tuoi perricicm l:i]iiim :ilt«:tuuin lusXi^- 


TnAG£Dv, as it wa? ancienily comj>o$ed, hath been ever held the 
gravest, morales!, and most proJitable of all oilier Poema; therefore said 
by Aristotle to be of power^ by raising pity and fear^ or terror, to purge 
the mind of those and suchlike passions— thai t£, Co temper and reduce 
them to juit measure with a kind of delight* stirred up by reading or 
seeing those pa^sionA well imitated. Nor is Nature wanting in her own 
effects to make good his SA^ertion; lor so, [i\ Physic, things of melancholic 
hue and quality are used agam^t melancholy, sour against sour, salt to 
remove salt humours. Hence philosophers and other gravest writers, as 
Cicero, Pluiardi, and oihtrs, frequently cite out ol tragic poei^, both to 
adorn and illustrate their discourse. The Aposde Paul himself thought it 
not unworthy to insert a verse of Euripides into the te>:i of Holy Scrip- 
ture, I Cor, XV. ^y, and Para:us, commenting on the Reedation. divides 
the whole Book, as a Tra^jedy, into acts, distinguished each by a Chorus 
oi Heavenly Harpings and Song between. Heretofore men in highest 
dignity have laboured not a liiile to be thought able to compose a tragedy. 
Of that honour Dionysius the elder was no less ambitious than before of 
his attaining to the tyranny. Augustus Cxsar also had begun his Ajax. 
but, unable to please his oxvn judgment with what he had begun, left it 
unfinished, Seneca, the philosopher^ is by some thought the author of 
those tragedies fal least the best of ihcm) that go under that name. 
Gregory Na-'Janzen. a Father of the Church, thought It not unbeseeming 
[he sanctity of his person to write a tragedy, which he entitled Chria 
Suffsring. This is mentioned to vindicate Tragedy from the small esteem, 
or rather infamy, which in the account of many it undergoes at this daVs 
with other common Interludes; happening through the poet's error oi 
JriiermiNing comic stufl with tragic sadness and gravity, or introducing 
trivial and vulgar persons; which by all judicious hath been counted 
absurd, and brought in without discretion, corruptly to gratify the people. , 
And, though ancient Tragedy use no Prologue, yel using sometimes, in 



case of ielt-defcnce or e^plan^-iLion, thai wEiich Mariial csll* an Epiitle, in 
behalf of ihis tragedy^ coming lonh after iKe ancien: mannerj much 
differeni from uhaE among E15 passes for bcs^, thus m\]ch beforehand 
may be epi^f/cd — -ihat Chorus Is here introduced after the Greek manner, 
not anciijnt only^ bul modernj and sti]l in use among ihe Italians. !n the 
modelling therefore of this poem, with goud reason, ihe Ancients and 
Italians arc rather loJlowedj as of much more authority and fame- The 
measure of verse used in the Chorus is of all sorts, called by the Greek? 
Mo^o^fi'op/tic, or rather ^po/dym^fnon^ widiout regard had to Strophe^ 
Antlsirophej or £]>ode, — which were a kind ci stanzas framed only for 
the musicj then used with the Chorus that sung; not essential to the 
poem, and therefore not material: or^ being divided into stanzas or 
pauses, they maj' be called Aila^onrop/ta. Division into act and scene^ 
referring chiefiy to the stage (to which this work never was intended)^ is 
here omitted. 

It suffices if the whole drarrsa be found not produced beyond the fifth 
act- Of the style and unilormiiy, and that commonly called the plot, 
whether intricate or e,\plTcit — which is nothing indeed but such eeconomy, 
or disposition of the f:iblep as may stjnd best with verisimilitude and 
decorum — they only will best judge who are not unacquainted with 
^schyiuSp Sophocles, and Euripides, the three tragic poets unequaHed yet 
by any^ and the best rule to all who endeavour to write Tragedy* The 
circumscription of time^ vvliercin the whole drania begins and ends^ '^^ 
according lo ancient rule and best example^ within [he space ot twenty^ 
four hours. 


1667- 167 I 

Tkz Augument.^ — Samsdv, mads captive, blind^ and now in the prison ac Caza^ 
thcrd to labf>Lir &b in a common ^vnrkhauiCn on a fustivs! da^n in the general ces^itlon 
from bbourn comei forth into the npcn air. to a place ni>ih, jomcwhac retircdi then? 
to fit awhiie and bfin[>an his k:ondi[Lr>i^. Where he haF^;>^ru ai tent'ch to be ^^IsiLed 
by certain fritnj? nn-J e^iuals oJ hc& tribe, wlijth make the Chorus^ who set-k Co comfnri 
him ivhnt thc^' can; then by his old fathern Manoa> who cndeavouri the Tike, ^nd 
withal tclli flint hK purpoj^e to p^cxure his kbcrty by nn^^it^i l^jtlj^ that \hh fea^t 
wai proclatrriE^ by tbi.- Plnliiiinei as a day ol thanksgivin}: for their de1iv£:r^ncc Jfom 
the liands oi Sinison — whith yet more troubles hjm. Manoa ilien departs to prosecute 
has cndcavotjr with the Pliilisii^in lurds ior Samson's fed^JmptjoIl: who^ in the mean- 
whilej 15 visiicd by other persons^ and, lastly, by J public oHicizf to require his 
corrimji to the feast belore thtj Inrdfi and |>copl^, to play or thew his strenj^th in thetr 
presenile. He ^i first refa^es, dismissinjj the public of5i:er with ;|]^o]utc denial To cc>mti 
at lenK^h. persuaded inwardly that this was fmm Cod, he yields to po alons with hinifc 
who uime now ihc; ^eccind time with yreat threateninirs to fet^ls him. I'he Chorus 
yet remjininy lan the place, Manoa return^ full of joyful hope to procure ere tong 
his sons deliverartce; in the jnld^t nf wlueh dii^eourse an Ebrew comes in haste* 
eonfusedly at firbt, jin<l aftcrwurds more distinctly, relaliny the catastrophe — whjf 
Sam$on bad done to the Philisiines, and by accident to hit^se)f; wherewith thfl 
Tragedy ends. 

Dalilaj his wife. 
Chorus o£ Danites. 



S^^fso?^. Manoa, the fs^ther of SamsojL 

HARAt^HA of Gath. Public Ofli^tr. \idSRenger, 

The Scene^ before t)ie Prison in Uaaan 

h^A^SON. A little onward lend thy guiding hand 
To these dark $i:eps, a little further on; 
For yonder bank haih choice of tun or ^hade. 
There i atn wont 10 sit, when any chance 
Relieves me from my lask of servile toilp 
Daily in the common prison dse enjoiaed me, 
Where 1, a prisonei chained ^ scarce freely diaw 
The air^ imprisoned also, close and damp, 
Unwholesome draught. But here I feci amends — 
The breath of Heaven fresh blowing, pure and sweeCi 
With day-spring born; here leave me to respire- 
This day a sofcmn feast the people hold 
To Dagon^ [heir sea-idoI, and forbid 
Laborious works, Utiwillingly this rest 


Their bupcr$Eitian yields mc; hence, with leave 

ReCEring from the popular nois^p I seek 

This unfrequented place to lind some case — 

Ease to ih& body some, none to the mind 

From re SI I ess thou^htSj that, hke a deadly swarm 

Of horneTi armed, no sooner found aEonc 

Bui rush upon nic throngingj and preseni 

Times past, what once I was^ and what am now. 

Oh, wherefore was my birih from. Heaven foretold 

Twice by an Angela who at la^l^ in sight 

0£ boih my partnl5> all in fl;imes ascended 

From DiT rhe aUar where an offering burned> 

As in a fiery column charioEJng 

His godlike presence, and from some great act 

Or benefit revealed to Abraham's race^ 

Why was my breeding ordered and prescribed 

As of a person separaie to Godj 

Designed for great explous, if I must die 

Eetrayedj caprivedp and both my eyes put out, 

Made of my enemies the scorn and gazc^ 

To j^rind in brazen fetters under lask. 

With this heaven-gifted strength? O glorious strength, 

PuE Eo the labour of a beast, debased 

Lower than btind-slave! Promise was that I 

Should lirael from Philistian yoke deliver! 

Ask for this great Deliverer now, and find him 

Eyeleis in Gaza^ at the miU with slaves. 

Himself in bonds under Phi[ii[ian yoke. 

Yet slay; let me not rashly call in doubt 

Divine predidiion. What If all foretold 

Had been fulfilled but through mine own default? 

Whom have I to complain of but myself. 

Who this high gift of sirengih committed to me^ 

In what part lodged, how easily bereft me. 

Under the seal of silence could not keep, 

But weakly to a woman must reveal it, 

O'ercomii with importunity and tears? 

O impotence of mind in body strong! 

But whai i? strength without a double share 

Of wisdom? Vast, unwieldy^ burdensome, 



Proudly secure^ yci liable to fall 
By weakest subdeues; not made lo rule* 
But to subserve where wisdom bears command. 
Godj when he pave me «renj;[b, lo $Kew wiihai 
How alight the ^Itt was, hung il in my hair* 
Bui peace! I musl noi tjuarrcl wkh ihe will 
Of highest dispcns^iLon^ which herein 
Haply had ends above my reach to know. 
Suffices that to me strength is my banCp 
And proves the source fif all my miseries — 
So many, and so huge^ thai each apart 
Would ask a life to walk But* chief oi alij 
O loss of sight, of thee I nit^st complain! 
BEind among encmicsl O worse than cha:n5. 
Dungeon^ or beggary^ or decrepit age! 
Light, the prime work o£ God, to me is extinct^ 
And all her various objects of delight 
Annulled, which miglu in part my grief have eased* 
Inferior to the vilest now become 
Of man or worm* the vilest here excel me: 
They creep, vet sec; I, dark in Itght^ exposed 
To daily fraud, contempt^ abuse, and wrongs 
Within doors* or without, still as a fool, 
in power of others^ never in my own — 
Scarce half I seem to live, dead more than half- 
O dark, dark^ dark, amid the bla^e of noon. 
Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse 
Without all hope of day! 
O firsE<reatod Bcam^ and thou great Word, 
*'Let there be lights and hght was over all," 
Why am I thus bereaved thy prime decree? 
The Sun to me ts dark 
And silent as the Moon^ 
When she deserts the night, 
Hid in her vacant interlunar cave- 
Since hght so necessary is to Mfe, 
And almost life itself, if it Ik true 
That light is in the soul^ 
She all in every part^ why was the sight 
To such a tender ball as the eye confined, 


So obviou? and so ea^y 10 be quendii^J, 
AnJ not, as fedmg, through -a\\ parts dilTust- J^ 
That she mighl look at will ihrougK every jujre? 
Then had [ not been thus exiled from light, 
As in the land of darkness, yet in li^^hr. 
To live 3 hEc half dead, a living death. 
And buried; but, O ycc more miserable! 
Myself my sepu[chrc, a moving grave; 
Buried, yet not exempt, 
By priviltj-e of death and burial, 
From wor^L of other evils, pains, a[id wrongs; 
But made hereby obnoxious more 
To all the miseries of lifcj 
Life in captivity 
Among inhuman foes. 

But who are these? for with joint pace 1 hear 
The tread of many feet steering ifiis wa^ ; 
Perhaps my enemies j who come to stare 
At my afljicEJon, and pi^rhaps to insult^ 
Their daily prac[ii:e Co afflict me more. 
Cfior. This, this is he; softly a whily; 
Let u^ not break in upon him. 
O change beyond report, thought, or hclief[ 
Sec how he lies at random, carelessly diffused, 
Wish languished head unpropi. 
As one pu'it hope, abandoned. 
And by himself given over. 
In slavish habit, ill-fitted weeds 
O'er- worn and soiled. 

Or do my eyes misrepresent? Can this be he, 
That heroic, thai renowned, 
Trresisiible Samson? whom, unarmed. 
No strength of man, or fiercest wild beast, could with- 
Who lore the lion as the lion tears the kid; 
Ran on embattled armies clad In iron, 
And, weaponless himself, 
Made arms ridiculous, useless the forgery 
Of brazen shield and spear, the hammere*! aiirass 
Chalybcan-tempeied steel, and frock of mail 


Adamancean proof: 

But safest he who stood aloof. 

When insupporiably his fool ^dv^nr:edT 

In scorn of iheir proud arms and warlike tools. 

Spurned them lo death by troops. The bold Ascaloniie 

Fled from his lion ramp; old warriors turned 

Their plated back$ under his heel. 

Or grovelling soiled their crested helmets in the dust. 

Then with what trivial weapon came to hand. 

The jaw of a dead s^i, his aword oE bone. 

A thousand foreskins fell, the fiower of Palestine, 

In Ramaih-lechj, famous to this day: 

Then by m;ijn force pulled op. and on his shoulders bore. 

The gates of Azza, post and massy bar. 

Up to the hill by Hebron, seat of giants old — 

No journey of a sabbath-d&y. and loaded so — 

Like whom the Gentiles feign to bear up Heaven. 

Which shall I first bewail— 

Thy bondage or lost sight, 

Prison within prison 

Inseparably dark? 

Thou ifrt become (O worst imprisonment!) 

The dungeon of thyself; thy soul 

(Which men enjoying sight ofi wuiioul cause complain) 

Imprisoned now indeed. 

In real darkness of the body dwells, 

ShuC up from outward light 

To incorporate with gloomy night; 

For inward light, alasT 

Puts forih no visual beam. 

O mirror of our Jicklc state. 

Since man on earih, unparalleled. 

The rarer thy example stands. 

By how much from the top of wondrous K^ory, 

Strongest of mortal men. 

To lowest pitch of abject fortune thou art fallen. 

For him I reckon not in high estate 

Whom long descent of birth, 

Or the sphere of fortune, raises; 

But thee» whose strength, while virtue was her mate, 



Mifiht have subdued ihe Earth, 
Universally crowned with highest praises. 

Sams. I hear the sound of words; their sense the air 
Dissolves unjointcd ere it reach my ear. 

Chur. He spe.iks: let us draw nigh. Matchless Tn 
The glory late of Israel, now the griefl 
We come, thy friends and neighbours not unknov/n. 
From Eshtaol and Zora's fruitful vale, 
To visit or bewail thee; or, if better, 
Counsel or consolation we may bring. 
Salve to thy sores: apt word^ have power to swage 
The lumours of a troubled mind, 
And are as balm to tesierod wounds. 

Surni. Your coming, friends, revives me; for 1 learn 
Now of my own experience) not by talk» 
How counterfeit a coin they are who "friends" 
Bear in their superscription (of the most 
I would be understood). In prosperous days 
They swarm, but in adverse withdraw their head, 
Not to be found, though sought. Ye see, O friends, 
How many evils have enclosed me round; 
Yci that which was the worst now least afflicts nie» 
Blindness; for, had T sight, confused with shame, 
How could I once look up, or heave the head, 
Who, like a foolish pilot, have shipwracked 
My Vessel trusted to mo from above, 
Gloriously rigged, and for a word, a tear. 
Fool! have divulged the secret gift of God 
To a deceitful woman? Tell me, friends. 
Am I not sung and provetbed for a fool 
In every street? Do they not say, ''How well 
Are come upon him his desens'7 Yet why? 
Immeasurable strength they might behold 
In me; of wisdom nothinj; more than mean. 
This with the other should at least have paired; 
These two, proportioned ill, drove me transverse. 

C/ior. Tax not divine disposal. Wisest men 
Have erred, and by bad women been deceived; 
And shall again, pretend they ne'er so wise. 



Deject noil then, so overmucli thyself, 

WJko li:tst of sorrow thy full load besides. 

Yet, irulh lo sav» I ott have heard men wonder 

Why thou should'st vfo} Philisiian women rather 

Than oE thine own tribe fairer, or as fair. 

At least of thy own nation^ and as noble. 

Sams. The first I ?iavv 3t 'I'lmna, and she pleased 
^fe, not my parents, that 1 sought to wed 
The (laughter of sn Infidel. They knew not 
That what E niotioned was of God; I knew 
From intimate impulse, and therefore urged 
The marriage on^ that, by occasion hence, 
I might begin Israel's deliverance — 
The work to whicli I was divinely called. 
She proving false, the next I took to wife 
(O that I never had! fond wish too latel) 
Was in the vale of Sorec, Datila, 
That specfoiis monster, my accomplished snare, 
I ihou^ht ft lawful from my fornier act, 
And the same end, still watchmg to oppress 
Israel's oppressors. Ot what now I suffer 
She was not the prime cause, but I myself. 
Who, \anquishcd with a peal of words, (O weakness!) 
Ga^■c up my fort of silence lo a woman. 

Chor, In seeking )ust occasion to provoke 
The Philistine, thy country's enemy, 
Thou never wasi remiss, I bear thee witness; 
Yet Israel still serves with all his sons. 

Sums. That fault I take not on nie, but transfer 
On Israeli governors and heads of tribes, 
Who, seeing those great acts which God had dooe 
Singly by me against their conquerors, 
Acknowledged not, or not at all considered^ 
Deliverance oUered. I, on the other side, 
Used no ambition to commend my deeds; 
Tlte deeds ihcEnsclves, though mute, spoke loud the^ 

But they persisted deaf, and woultl not seem 
To count them things worth notice^ till at length 
Their lord^, the Philistines, with yathtred powers. 


Entered Jutlca, seeking mp^ who ihen 
Sate to the rock of Eilmm wm retired — 
Not ftyini;, fniC forcciisting in what place 
To si^c upoE] thcin^ whjt Jilvamaged best. 
Mc.nn^viiik the mtii ni hidah, to prevent 
Tht harass of their land, bciL'l me round; 
I willingly on some conditions came 
InEo their hands, and they as gladly yield me 
To tlic Uncircunicised a wijlconie prcv, 
Bound wit}i two cords. But cords lo me were threads 
Touched with the llamc: on Uieir whole host I flew 
Unarmed, and with a trivial weapon fclk-d 
Their choicest youth; they only lived who lied. 
Had Judah that day joined, or one whole tribe. 
They had by this possessed the Towers of Gath, 
And lorded over them whom now thev serve- 
But what more o[[, in nations grown corcu|>t, 
And bv their vtecs brought to servitude, 
Than to love bondage more than liberty— 
Bondage with ease than strenuous liberty — 
And to despise, or envy, or suspect, 

Whom God hath of his special tavour raiscJ 
As their deliverer: \i he aught begin, 
How frequent to desert him and at last 
To heap ingratitude on worthiest deeds! 

Chor. Thy words to my remembrance bring 
How Succoth and the fort of Penuel 
Their great deliverer contemned, 
The matchless Gideon, in pursuit 
Of Madian, and her vanquished kings; 
And how ingratefxil Ephraim 
Had dealt with Jcphtha, who by argument. 
Not worse than by his shield and spear. 
Defended Israel from the Ammonite, 
Had not his prowess quelled their pride 
In that sore battle when so many died 
Without reprieve, adjudged to death 
For want of wcU pronouncing Shibboleth. 

Sams. Of such examples add me to the roll. 
Me easily indeed mine may neglect, 


Bui God's proposed deiiverance not so- 

Cftor. Just arc the ways o£ God^ 
And justifiable to men^ 
Unless there be who chink not God ai alL 
If any bcj chey wi!k obscure; 
For of such docirme never was there school j 
But the heart of ihc Fool^ 
And no man therein doctor bui himself, 

Yec more there be who doubt his ways not juslj 
As to his own edic[5 found contradicting; 
Then give the reins io wandering thought^ 
Regardless of his glory's dimlnutioOj 
Tillj by their own perplexities involved^ 
They r=ivel more, still less resolved, 
But never find self-satisfying solution. 

As if they would confine the Interminable, 
And tie him to his own prescript^ 
Who made our laws to bind us, not himself, 
And hath full right to exempt 
Whom so it pleases him by choice 
From national obstriclion, without taint 
Of sin, or legal debt; 
For with his own laws he can best dispense. 

He would not else, who never wanted means, 
Nor in respect of the enemy just cause j 
To set his people free. 
Have prompted this heroic NaKarite^ 
Againsi his vow of sirictesl purity. 
To seek in marriage that fallacious bridci 
Unclean, unchaste, 

Down, Reason, then; at leasts vain reasonings down; 
Though Reason here aver 
That moral verdit quits her of unclean: 
Uriciiaste W3$ subsequent; her stain, not his. 

But see! here comt^s ihy reverend sire, 
With careful step, locks white as down, 
Old Manoa: advise 
Forthwith how thou ought'st to receive him* 

Sams^ Ay me! another inward griefs awaked 
With mention of that name^ renews the assault. 


Man, Brethren and men of Dan (for such ye seem 
Though in this uncouLli place), if old re^pecc^ 
As I suppose^ towards your once gloried trieaJ, 
My son» no^v cypiive, hither hath intormed 
Your younger feet, while mine, cast back with a^e. 
Came lagging aficr, say if he be here. 

C/ior. As signal now in low dejected state 
As erst in highest, behold him where he lies. 

Mart, O miserable change! h this the man, 
That invincible Samson, far renowned^ 
The dread of Israel's foes* vvho with a sctcngth 
Equivalent to Angcis' walked their streets, 
None offering fjght; who, single combatant, 
Duelled iheir armies ranked in proud array, 
Himself an Army— now unequal match 
To save himself against a coward armed 
Ac one spears length? O ever-failing trust 
Tn moriaf sirengihf and* oh, what not in man 
Deceivable and vain? Nay, what ihing good 
Prayed for, bui often proves our woe, our bane? 
I prayed for children, and thought barrenness 
In wedlock a reproach; I gained a son. 
And such a son as all men hailed me happy: 
Who would be now a father in my steadp 
Oh» wherefore did God grant me my request. 
And as a blessing with such pomp adorned? 
Why are his gift^ desirable, to tempt 
Our earnest prayers, ihen» given ^vith solemn hand 
As graces, draw a scorpion's tail behind? 
For this did the Angel twice descendP for this 
Ordained ihy nurture holy, as of a plant 
Select and sacred? glorious for a while. 
The miracle of men; then in an hour 
Ensnared, assaulted, overcome, led bound, 
Thy foes' deiision, captive, poor and blind. 
Into a dungeon thrust, to work with slaves! 
Alas! methinks whom God hath chosen once 
To worthiest deeds, if he through frailty err, 
He should not so o'erwhelm, and as a thrall 
Subject hira to so foul indignities, 



Be ii but for honour's s^ke oE former deeds* 

Sam^. Appoint noc heavenly disposition^ father 
Nolhing of aU ihese ^vA$ haih befallen me 
But jusdy; I myself have brought them on; 
Sole auihor I, sole cause. If auyht syem vile^ 
As vile hj^ih been my folly, who have profaned 
The mystery of God, given me under pledge 
Of voWj and have beCraj^d it to a woman, 
A Canaanite, my failhless enemy. 
This ^vell [ knew, nor was at all surprised, 
Bu[ warned by oft experience. Did not she 
Of Timna Eir$L bt^uay me^ and reveal 
The secret wreiied from me in her hi^hth. 
Of nuptial love professed^ carrying it straight 
To [hem who had corrupted her, my spies 
And rivals? In [his other was ihere found 
More faidi, who, ^Iso in her prime of love, 
Spousal embraces, viiiaied wiih ^o!d, 
Though offered only^ by the scent conceived 
Her spurious lirst-born, Treason against me? 
Thrice she assayed^ with flattering prayers and sighs^ 
And amorous reproachcSp to win from me 
My capital secrei^ in what part my strcnjjih 
Lay 5lored, in ivhat pari summed, tliat she mi^ht 

Thrice I deluded her, and lurned 10 ipori 
Her importunity, each time perceiving 
How openly and with what impudence 
She purposed to betray mc^ and (^vhich was ^^'orse 
TTian undisstmbled hiite) with wha[ con[empt 
She sought To make mt^ traitor to myself. 
Yet^ rhe four[h time, when, mustering all her wiles. 
With blandished parleys, feminine assaults, 
Tonguc-battcries, she surceased not day nor night 
To storm me, over-watched and wearied out, 
Ai rimes when men seek most repose and resl, 
J yielded, and unlocked her all my heart, 
Who, wiih a grain of manhood well resolvedj 
Might easily have shook oK all her snares; 
But foul eHeminacy held me yoked 


Her hond-s!ave. O indignity, O blot 
To Honour and Keiigion] servile mind 
Rcv'^rdcd well wilh servik punishment! 
The base dcjjrpe to ivhich I now am fallen, 
These rags, [his grinding, is not. yd su base 
As was my former servitude, ignoble, 
Unrnanly^ ignominious, infamous, 
True slavery; and th:ic blindness worse than this, saw not iiow degenerately I served. 

Man. I cannnt praise thy marriage<holces, son — 
Rather ap(^]■o^cd ihcni not; but thou didst plead 
Divine impulsion prompting how diou might'st 
Find some occasion to infest our foes. 
I stale not that; [his [ am sure^ — our foes 
Found soon occasion thereby to make rhee 
Their captive, and thdr iriumph; thou ihc sooner 
Temptation found'st, or over-poteni charms. 
To violate ihe sacred trust of ■iilence 
DtiposiEed wiihin thee — which 10 have kept 
'J'acit was in thy power. True; and thou bear'sC 
Enough, and more, the burden of that laulc, 
Biilerly hast thou paid, and still art paying; 
That rigid score, A worse thing yet remains: 
This day iht; Philisunc? a popular feasC 
Here celebrate in Ga^.a, and proclaim 
Cjrcat pomp, and sacrifice, arid praises loud, 
To Dagon, as therr god who hath delivered 
Thee, Samson, bound and blind, into their hands— 
Them out of thine, who $lew'5L them many a slain. 
So Hagon shall be magnified, and God. 
Besides whom i? no god, compared with idols, 
Disglorified. bfasphemed, and had in sconi 
By the idolatrous rout amidsi their wine; 
Which to have come to pass by means of thee, 
Samson, of all thy sufferings think the heaviest, 
Of all reproach the most with shame that ever 
Could have befallen thee and thy father's house. 

Sams. Father, 1 do acknowledge and confess 
That I this honour, I this pomp, have brought 
To Dagon, and advanced his praises high. 


Among the Heaihen round — 'to God have brought 
Dishonour^ obioquy, and opE?d ihe mouths 
Of idoitsis and atheists; have brought scandal 
To Israelj diffidence of God, and doubt 
In feeble hearts, prepense enough before 
To waver, or fafi off and join with idah: 
Which is my chief affliction^ shdme :md sorrow, 
The anguish of my soul, that sulfers not 
Mine eye [o harbour sleep, or ihouj^hls Fo rest. 
This only hope reheves me, thai the strife 
Whh me hath end* All the contest is now 
'Twixt God and Dagon, Dagon hath presumed. 
Me overthrown, to enLer lists w^ith God, 
Hts deity com pari njj and preferring 
Before ihe God of Abrahamn He, be sure^ 
Will [loi connive^ or linger^ thus provoked, 
But wil( arise, and his great name asserl. 
Dagon mnst stoop, and shall ere long receive 
Such 3 discomhi as shall quite despoil him 
Of all these boasted trophies won on me^ 
And with conlusioa blank his Worshipers. 

A/fljj- With cause (his hope reheves ihee; and these 
I as a prophecy receive; for God 
(Nothing more certain) will not lojig deter 
To vindicate the glory of his name 
Against all competJEion, nor will long 
Endurt; it doubtful whether God be Lord 
Or Dagon. Bui for thee what shall he done? 
Thou must not in the meanwhile^ here torgot, 
Lie in Ehis miserable loathsome phght 
Neglected* 1 already have rnade way 
To some Philisiian lords, with whom to treat 
About thy ransom, WcU ihey may by lliis 
Have ^atisjied their utmost of revenge, 
Hy pains and slaveries, worse than death, inflicted 
On thecj who now no more canst do them harm. 

Sams, Spare that prthposal, father; spare the trouble 
Of that soiicitaiion- Let me here, 
As J deserve, pay on my punishment^ 



And expiate, \i posiibkj my crime, 

Shameful garrulity. To have rcveated 

Spcreis of men, the secrets oi a friend, 

How heinous had the fact been, how deserving 

Contempt and scorn of all— to be excluded 

All friendship, and avoided a? a blab, 

The mark of fool set on his front! 

But I God's counsel have not kept, his holy secret 

Presumptuously have published, impiously, 

Weakly at least and shamefully — a sin 

That Gentiles in their parabEes condemn 

To [heir Abyss and horrid pain? confined^ 

Mart. Be penitent, and for ihy fault contrite; 
Bui act not in thy own affliction^ son. 
Repent rhe sin; but, if the punishment 
Thou canst avoid, self-preservaiicin bids; 
Or the cxccuiion leave lo high disposal. 
And let anoiher hand, not thine, exact 
Thy penal forfeit from thyself. Perhaps 
God will relent, and quit thee all hii debt; 
Who ever more approves and more accepts 
{Best pleased wi;h humble and filial submission) 
Him who, imploring mercy, sues for life, 
Than who, self-rigorous, chooses death as due; 
Which argues over-just, and self -displeased 
For self-ofience more than for God offended. 
Reject noi, then, what offered means who knows 
But God hath set before us fa return thee 
Home to thy country and his sacred house. 
Where thou may'st bring thy offerings, to avert 
His further ire, with prayers and vows renewed. 

Sami- iiis pardon I implore; but, as for life. 
To what end should J seek it? When in strength 
All mortals ] excelled, and great in hopes, 
With youihful courage, and magnanimous thoughts 
Of birth from Heaven foretold and high exploits. 
Full of divine instinct, after some proof 
Of acts indeed heroic, far beyond 
The sons of Anak, famous now and blazed, 
Feariess of danger, like a petty god 


I walked abotii^ admired of all, and dreaded 
On hostile ground^ none daring iny ailront — 
ThcHj swollen wiih pfid^?^ into the snare I fell 
Of fair taUacious tuoks, venereal tiains. 
Softened with pleasure and voluptuom lite 
At length to lay my head and hallowed pledge 
Of d! my strength in the lascivious l^ip 
Ot a Jeceittul Concubine^ who shore me, 
Like a lame weilier^ all m/ predous fleece. 
Then turned me out ridiculous, despoiled, 
Shaven, and disarmed among my enemies. 

C/^or. Desire ot wine and all delicious drinks, 
Which many a famous wairior overturnSj 
Thou couUl'st repress; nor did th*; dancing ruby, 
Sparkling out'|>oured, the flavour or the ^mell^ 
Or list^t that cheers the heurt of gods antl men^ 
Allure thee ffom the cool crystnriin stream, 

5ffmj. Wherever fountain or Ire:ih current flowed 
Against the eastern ray, iranslucenii pure 
With touch arihereal of Heaven's fiery rod, 
I drank, from the clear milky ]uice allaying 
Thirst, and refreshed; nof envied ihem the grape 
Whose heads that turbulent liquor hlls with fumei* 

Chor, O madciessi to think use ot strongest wines 
And strongest drinks our chi^l support of health. 
When God with these forbidden made choice to rear 
His rnighiy Champion, strong above compare^ 
Whose drink was only from the liquid brook! 

Sums, Bui what availed this ten^perance^ not complete 
Against another object more enticing? 
W^iat boois it at one gate to make defence^ 
And at another to let in the foe. 
Effeminately vanquished? by which means. 
Now blind, disheartened, shamed, dishonoured, quelled^ 
To what can ! be usefulP wherein serve 
My nation, and the work from Heaven imposed? 
But to sit idle on the household hcarthp 
A burdcnou? drone; to visitants a gaze^ 
Or pitied object; these redundant locks^ 
Robustious to no purpose, clustering down, 



V^in monumem of strength; lill lengih of years 

And scdcnLiry numbness craze my limbs 

To a coniempcibU old age obscure. 

Here raiher lei me diudge, and earn my bread. 

Till vermirii or ihe dralT of servile food, 

Consume nie^ and oft-invocaied death 

Hasicji the welcome end of all my pains, 

A/dfl, Wilt Jiou iken iervc the Philistines wiih that 

Which was expressly given ihoe to annoy ihem? 

Belter at home lie bed-rid, not only idle, 

Inglorious, unimployed, with age outworn. 

Bui God, who caused a founCain ai thy prayer 

From ihe dry ground to spring, ihy thirst lo allay 

After the brunt o£ battel, can as ea:iy 

Cause ll^ht again within thy eyes to spring, 

Wherewith to serve him better than thou hast. 

And I persuade me so. Why else this stiength 

Miraculous yet remaining in ihose locks? 

His might continues in thee not for naught, 

Nor shall his wondrous gifts be frustrate thus. 

Semi, All otherwise to me my thought? portend — 
That these dark orbs no more shall treat with light, 
Nor the other light of life continue long. 
But yield lo double darkness nigh at hand; 
So much I feel my genial spirits droop, 
My hopes all flat: Nature wi^Eiin me seems 
In all her functions weary of herself; 
My race of glory run, and race of shame, 
And I shall shordy be with them that rest. 

Man, Believe not these sugj-e^ions, which proceed 
From anguish of the mind, and humours black 
That mingle with thy fancy. 1, however. 
Must not omil a father's timely care 
To prosecute the means of thy deliverance 
By ransom or how else: meanwhile be calm, 
And healing words from these thy friends admit. 

Sums. Oh, that torment should not bo confined 
To the body's wounds and sores. 
With maladies innumerable 


In (leart, head* biea^t. and reins, 

Bui must secret passage find 

To the inmost mind, 

There exercise all hts fierce accidents. 

And on her purest spirits prey» 

As on entrails^ joints, and timbs. 

With answerable pains, but more intense, 

Though void of corporal sense! 

My griefs not only pain me 
As 3 lingering disease, 
Bui, finding no redress, ferment and rage; 
Nor less than wounds immedicable 
Rankle^ and fester, and gangrene, 
To black mortification. 

Thoughts, my tormentors, armed with deadly stings, 
Mangle my apprehensive tenderest pans. 
Exasperate, exulceraie. ctnd raise 
Dire irLflammationi which no cooling herb 
Or medicinal Jiquor can as&uage, 
Nor breath of vernal air from snowy Alp. 
Sleep hath forsook and given me o'er 
To death^s benumbing opium as my only cure; 
Thence faintings, swoonings of despair, 
And sense of Heaven's desertion, 

[ was his nursling once and choice dehght, 
His destined from the womb^ 
Promised by heavenly message twice descending. 
Under his special eye 
Abstemious I grew up and thrived ainain; 
He Jed me on to mightiest deeds, 
Above the nerve of mortal arm, 
Against the Uncircumcised. our enemies: 
But now hath cast me off as never known. 
And to those cruel enemies. 
Whom I by his appointment had provoked, 
Left me all helpless, with the irreparable loss 
Of sight, reserved alive to be repeated 
The subject of their cruelty or scorn. 
Nor am I in the list of them that hope; 
Hopeless are all my evils, ail jcmediless. 


This one prayer yet rcmaLns* might l be KeH^rd, 

No long petition— speedy deaih^ 

The dose of all my miseries and the balm, 

C/tor, Many aTe [he sayings oi Uie wise^ 
In ancieni and in mcxiern books enrolled^ 
Extolling patience as iht truest fortitude^ 
And to the be^iring well of all ealaniiE.ies, 
All chances incident to man'^ fiail liie% 
Con sot a lories \vni 

Wilh studied argument, and much persuasion souglil, 
Lenient of grief and anxious [houghl. 
Bui with ihe afflicted in his pangs their sound 
LitlJe prevails, or rather seems a tunc 
Harsh) and of dissonant mood from his complaint. 
Unless he feel within 
Some source of consoUtfoti from above, 
Secret refreshings that repair his strength 
And fainting spirits uphold. 

God of our fathers! what is Man* 
That thou towards him wiih hand so various — 
Or mighc i say contiarious? — 
Temper'st thy providence through his short course: 
Not evenly, as thou rul'st 

The angelic orders, and inferior creatures mute. 
Irrational and brute? 

Nor do I name of men the common rout^ 
That, wandering loose about. 
Grow up and perish as the summer fly, 
Heads without name, no more remembered; 
But such as thou hast solemnly elected* 
With gifts and graces eminenlly adornei 
To some great work, thy glory, 
And people's safety, which in part they effect. 
Yet toward these, thus dij^nilied, thou oft. 
Amidst their highEh of noon, 

Changest ihy countenance and thy hand, with no regard 
Of highest favours past 
From thee on them, or them to thee of service. 

Nor only dost degrade them, or remit 
To life obscured, which were a fair dismission, 


But throw*st them lower than ihou didsc exalt them 

Unseemly falls in human eye, 
Too grievous for the liespass or omission; 
Oft leav's: them to the hostile sword 
Of heathen and profane, their carcasses 
To dogs and fowls a piey, or else captived. 
Or to ihe unjust tribunals, under change of limes^ 
And condemnation of the ungrateful multitude. 
If these they sf ape, perhaps in poverty 
With sickness and disease thou bow's! them down, 
painful diseases and deformed. 
In crude old age; 

Though not disordinate, yet causeless suffering 
The punishment of dissolute days. In line, 
Just or unjust alike seem miserable* 
For oft alike both come To evil end^ 

So deal not with this once thy glorious Champion, 
The image of thy strength* and mighty minister- 
Whal do I beg? how hast thou dealt already! 
Behold him in this state calamitous, and turn 
His labours* for thou canst* to peaceful end. 

But who is this? what thing ofsea or land — 
Female of sex it seems — 
That, so bedecked, ornate, and gay. 
Comes this way sailing, 
Like a stately ship 
Of Tarsus* bound for the isles 
Of Javan or Gad ire, 

With all her bravery on, and tackle trim, 
Sails filled, and streamers waving, 
Courted by ail the winds that hold them playj 
An amber scent of odorous perfume 
Her hatbinger, a damsel train behind? 
Some rich Philistian matron she may seem; 
And now, at nearer view, no other certain 
Than Dalila thy vuife, 

Sams. My wife! my traitress! let her not come nearme* 

CAor, Yet on slie moves; now stands and eyes thee 


Aboul: lo Kavp spoke; but now, with head decUned^ 
Like a fair flower surcharged with dew, sh& weeps. 
And words addressed seem into tears dissolvedj 
WeiUfig the borders of her silken veil- 
Euc now ag^in she makes address to spc^^k, 

DaL With doubtful feet and wavering resoluiton 
I came, still dre^iding thy displeasure^ Samson; 
Which to have merited, without excusej 
I cannot but acknowledge. Yet, if tears 
May expfate (though the fact more evil drew 
In [he perverse event than I foresaw), 
My penance hath not slackened^ though my pardon 
No way assured. But conjugal affection^ 
Prevailing over fear and timorous doubt, 
Hath led me on, desirous to behold 
Once more thy face, and know of thy esiare, 
If aught in my abihty may serve 
To lighten what thou sufe'sC, and appease 
Thy mind with what amends is in my power — ► 
Though late, yet in some part lo recompense 
My rash but more unfortunate misdeed* 

Sams, Out, ouE^ Hymenal These are thy wonted arts, 
And arts of every woman false like ihee — 
To break all faiih, all vows, deceive, betray; 
Then, as repentant, to submit, beseech, 
And reconcilement move with feigned remorse, 
Confess, and promise wonders in her change — 
Not truly penitent, but chief to Ery 
Her husbandp how far urged his patience bears, 
His virtue or weakness which way Lo assail: 
Then, with more cautious and instructed skill, 
Again transgresses, and again submits; 
Thai wisest and best men^ full oft beguiled^ 
With goodness principled noc to reject 
The penitent] but ever to forgive. 
Are drawn to wear out miserable days^ 
Entangled with a poisonous bosom-snake, 
If not by c^uick destruction soon cut off, 
As I by thee, to ages an example. 

DsL Yet hear me, Samson; not that I endeavour 



To lessen or exienuaie my offence, 
Bui ibat, on the other side, if it be weighed 
By jtseif, with aggravations not surcharged, 
Or else with just allowance counlcrpoised, 
I may, if possible, thy pardon find 
The easier towards me, or ihy haired less. 
First granting, as Z do, it was a weakness 
In me, but incident to all our sex, 
Ciirio^jtyj inquisitive, importune' 
Of secrets, then with like infirmity 
To publish them — both common female faults — 
Was it not weakness also to make known 
For importunity, chat is for naught. 
Wherein consisted all thy strength and safety? 
To what I did thou shew*dst me first the way. 
But I to enemies revealed, and should not! 
Nor should'si thou have trusted that to woman's frailtyj 
Ere I to thee, thou to thyself wast cruel. 
Let weakness, then, with weakness come to parle. 
So near related, or the same of kind; 
Thine forgive mine, that men may censure thine 
The gentler, if severely thou exact not 
More strength from me than in thyseff was found. 
And what if love, which thou interpret'st hate. 
The jealousy of love, powerful of sway 
In human hearts, nor less in mine towards thee. 
Caused what I did? I saw thee mutable 
Of fancy- feared lest one day thou would' &t leave me 
As her at Timna; sought by all means, therefore. 
How to endear, and hold ihee to me firmest: 
No better way I saw than by importuning 
To learn thy secrets, get into my power 
Thy key of strength and safety. Thou wilt say, 
"Why, then, revealed?" I was assured by those 
Who tempted me that notfiing was designed 
Against thee but safe custody and hold- 
That made for me; I knew that liberty 
Would draw thee forth to perilous enterprises, 
While I at home sat full of cares and fears, 
Waiting thy absence in my widowed bed; 


Here r should 5[iU enjoy thce^ day and night, 

Mine and lovers prisoner^ noi the Philistines'j 

Whak to mystltj unhaz^rded abroad^ 

Fearless at home of partners in my love. 

These reasons in Lovers law have parsed tor good, 

Though fond and reasonless to some perhaps; 

And love hath oft, well meanings wrought much woe^ 

Yet always pity or pardon hath obtained- 

Bc not unlike all others, not a stere 

As thou art strongj inflexible as siceL 

It [hou in strength all morials dost exceed, 

In uncompassionaie anger do not so. 

Sami. How cunningly the Sorceress displays 
Her own transgressions, to upbraid me mine! 
That n^alice^ not reiJen^ance^ brought thee hither 
By ihis ap|>ears* I gave, ihou say'sc, the example, 
1 led the way — bitter reproach^ but iruej 
I to myself was false ere ihou to me, 
Such pardon, ibereforej as I give my folly 
Take to thy wicked deed; which when thou seest 
Impartial, self-severe^ inexorable, 
Thou wtlt renounce thy seeking, and much rather 
Confess it feigned. Weakness is thy excuse^ 
And I believe it — weakness to resist 
Philiiifan gold- If weakness may excuse, 
What murihercr, what iraiiorj parricide. 
Incestuous^ sacrilegious, but may plead it? 
All wickedness h weakness- that, plea, ihereforcj 
With God or Man will gaifi thee no remission- 
But love constrained theef Call it furious rage 
To satisfy thy lust. Love seeks to have love; 
My love how could'st thou hope, who look*5t the way 
To raise in me inexpiable hate^ 
Knowing, as needs I must, by thee betrayed? 
In vain thou striv^st to cover shame widi shame. 
Or by evasions thy crime uncover'st more* 

Dal. Since thou determin'st weakness for no plea 
In man or wort^an, though (o thy own conden^ning. 
Hear what assaults I had, what snares besides, 
What sieges girt me round, ere I consented; 


Which might have awed the bcst-resoIved of men, 

The con^tanlcsl, to have yielded wilhoul blame. 

It was not gold, as to my charge Ehou lay'aE, 

That wrought with me. Thou know'ai ihe Magistrates 

And Princes of my country came in person. 

Solicited, commanded, threaiened, urged, 

Adjured by all the bond^ of civil duty 

And of religion — pressed how just iE was, 

How honourable, how gloriou?, to entrap 

A common enemy, who had destroyed 

Such numbers of our nation: and the Priest 

Was not behind, but ever at my car, 

Preaching how meritorious with the gods 

It would be to ensnare an irreligious 

DishoLiourer of Dagon, What had 1 

To oppose against such poweiful arguments? 

Only my love of ihec held long debate, 

And combated in silence all these reawns 

With hard contest. At length, that grounded maxim, 

So rite and celebrated in eIic mouths 

Of wisest men, ihat to the public good 

Private respects must yield, with grave authority 

Took full possession of me, and prevailed; 

Virtue, as 1 thought, truth, duty, so enjoining. 

Sums. I thought where all thy circling iviles would 
end — 
In feigned religion, smooth hypocrisy! 
But, had thy love, still odiously pretended, 
Been, as it ought* sincere, it would have taught thee 
Far other reasoning?, brought forth other deeds. 
J, before all the daughters of my tribe 
And of my nation, chose thee from among 
My enemies, |oi"ed thee, as too well thou knew'si; 
Too 'Well; unbosomed all my secrets to thee. 
Not out of levity, but Dver|>owered 
By thy request, who could deny thee nothing; 
Yet now am judged an enemy. Why, then. 
Didst thou at first receive me foi thy husband— 
Thenf as since then, [hy country's foe professed? 
Being once a wife, for me thou wast to leave 



Parents and counrry^ nor was 1 iheir subject. 

Nor under their procection, but my own; 

Thou mine, not iheirs. l£ aught against my life 

Thy country sought of ihoe. it sought un^iistlyT 

Against the law of nature, law of nations; 

No more ihy country* but an impious crew 

Qi men conspffing to uphold their stale 

By worse than hostik deeds» violating the ends 

For which our country is a name so dear; 

Not therefore to be obeyed. But zeal moved thee; 

To please thy gods thou didst itl Gods unable 

To acquit themselves and prosecute their foes 

But by ungodly deeds, the conlradiclion 

Of [heir own deity, Gods cannot be— 

Less iherelore ro be pleased, obeyed, or Itared, 

These false pretexts and varnished colours failings 

Bare in thy ^ih, how foul must thou appear! 

D/jL In argument with men a woman ever 
Goes by the worse, whatever be her cause. 

Sams. For want of words, no doubt, or lack of breathl 
Witness when I was worried with thy peals. 

Dal. I was a fool, too rash, and quite mistaken 
In what I thought would have succeeded best. 
Lei me obtain forgiveness, of thee Samson; 
AHord me place lo shew what recompense 
Towards thee I intend for what I have misdone, 
Misguided, Only what remains past cure 
Bear not too sensibly, nor still insiat 
To aiHic! thyself in vain. Though si^iht be lost, 
Life yet hath many solaces, enjoyed 
Where other senses want not their delights — 
At home, in leisure and domestic case. 
Exempt from many a care and chance to which 
Eyesight exposes, daily, men abroad. 
i to the Lords will intercede, not doohting 
Their favourable ear, that I may fetch ihee 
From forth this loathsome prison-house, to abide 
With me, where my redoubled love and care, 
With nursing diligence, to me glad oSicc> 
May ever tend about thee to old age, 



With a]] [hings grateful chetred, and 50 supplied 
That what by me ihou hast lost thou lea^i shall miss. 

S^ms. Noj no; of my conditLon take no care; 
It fits Jio[; thuu and I long since are twain; 
Nor thtnk me so unwary or accursed 
To bring my feel again into the snare 
Where once 1 have been caught. I know thy trains^ 
Though dearly to my cost^ thy gins, and toils. 
Thy fair enchanted cup, and warbhng charms. 
No more on me have power; their force is nulled; 
So much of adder's wisdom I have learned, 
To fence my ear against thy sorceries- 
If in my flower of youth and strengthj when all men 
Loved, honoured^ fi^sred me^ thou alone could hate me^ 
Thy husband, slight me, sell me^ and forgo me, 
How would' 5t thou use me now^ blind, and thereby 
Deceivabie^ in. most things as a child 
Helpless^ thence easily contemned and scorned, 
And last ne^jleciedl How would'st ihou insult, 
When 1 must live uxorious to thy will 
In perfet thraldom! liow again betray mej 
Bearing my words and doings to the lurds 
To gloss upon^ and, censuringp frown or smile! 
This gaol I count the house ci Liherly 
To (hme, whose doors my feet shall never enter, 

DaL Let me approach at Icast^ and touch thy hand. 

5flrtJ-f* Not for thy life^ lest fierce remembrance wake 
My sudden rage to teat thee joint by joint. 
At dissance J forgive thee; go wiih that; 
Be\^'ail thy falsehood^ and the pious works 
7t haih brought fonh to make thee memorable 
Amotitj illustrious women, faiihful wives; 
Cherish ihy hastened widowhood with ihe gdd 
Of matrimonial treason: so (arewell. 

Di^L I see thou art implacable^ more deaf 
To prayers than winds and seas. Yet winds to fcas 
Are reconciled ai length, and sea to shore; 
Thy anger, unappeasable^ still rages, 
Esernal tempest never to be calmed^ 
Why do I humble thus myself^ and, suing 



For peaccj reap EOthing but repulse and hate, 
Bid go with evil omen, and the brand 
0£ infamy upon my name denounced? 
To mix wicK thy concernments I desist 
Henceforth^ nor loo much disapprove my own- 
Fame, if not double-faced, is double-moulhed, 
And with contrary blast proclaims most deeds; 
On boEh his wings, one blacky the other white. 
Boars greatest names in his wild aerie flight. 
My name, perhaps, among the Circumcised 
fn Dan, in Jud^h^ and the bordering Tribes, 
To all posterity may stand defamed. 
With malediction mentioncdj and the blot 
Of falsehood most unconjuga! tr^iduced^ 
Rut in my cauntryj where I most desire, 
Jn Ecron, Ga^a, Asdod, and in Gath, 
I shall be named among the f amousest 
Of ^vomen^ sung at solemn fesEiViils, 
Livmg and dead recorded, who, to sa\e 
Her country from a fierce deiiroyer, chose 
Above the faith of wedlock bands; my tomb 
With odours visited and annual flowers; 
Not less renowned than in Mount Ephra[m 
laelj who, with inhospitable yuile. 
Smote Sisera sleeping, through the temples nailed. 
Nor shall 1 count it hemous to enjoy 
The public marks of honour and reward 
Conferred upon me for the piety 
Which to my couniry I was judged to have shewn. 
At this whoever envies or repines, 
I leave him his loij and like my own. 

C/tor^ She^s gone — a manifest Serpent by her scing 
Discovered in the end, till now concealed. 

Sams, So let her go* God sent her to debase me. 
And aggravate my folly, who committed 
To such a viper his most sacred trust 
Of secrecy, my safety, and my life. 

Chor, Yet beauty, though injurious, hath strange 
After offence returning, to regain 


Love once possessed^ nor can be easily 
Rcpulsedj without much inward passion feltj 
And secret sting o( amorous remorse, 

Sam/. Love-quarrels oh in pleasing concord end; 
Not wedlock-ireachery endangering life* 

Chor. It 15 noE viriue, wisdom^ valour, wit, 
Strength p comeiiness ot shape, or amplest meric^ 
Thac woman's love can win, or long inherit; 
But what it is, hard is to say, 
Harder to hit^ 

Which way soever men refer it^ 
(Much like thy riddle, Samson) in one day 
Or seven though one should muring sit. 

If any of rliese, or all, the Timnian bride 
Had not so soon preferred 
l^hy Paranymph, worthless to ihee compared^ 
Successor in thy bed, 
Nor both so loosely disailied 
Their nuptials, nor ihis last so treacherously 
Had shorn the fatal harvest of ihy head. 
Is it far that such ouiward ornament 
Was lavished on their sex^ that inward gifts 
Were left for basic unfinished, judgment scant, 
Capacity not raised to apprehend 
Or value what is best, 
!n choicGj but oIte$t to affect the wrong? 
Or was too much of self-love mixed, 
Of constancy no root infixed^ 
That either they love noihingj or not long? 

Whatever it be^ to wisest men and best, 
Seeming a[ first all lieavenly under virgm veil, 
Softj modestj meek, demure. 
Once joined, the contrary she proves— a thorn 
Intestine, far within defensive arms 
A cleaving mischief^ in his way to virtue 
Adverse and turbulent; or by her charms 
Draws him awry, enslaved 
Wiih dotage, and his sense depraved 
To foUy and shameful deeds, which ruin ends. 
What pilot io expert but needs must wreck* 


Embarked with such a steers-mate at the helm? 
Favoured of Heaven who finds 

One virtuouSj rarely founds 

That in domestic good combines! 

Happy that house! his way to peace Is smooth: 

But virtue which, breaks through a!l opposiiion^ 

And ^11 lemptaiion can remove, 

Most shines and most is acceptiible above- 
Therefore Gobi's universal law 

Ga^e to the man despotic power 

Over his female in due awe. 

Nor from that right to part an hour. 

Smile she or lour: 

So shnill he leasE confusion draw 

On his whole Ufe, not swayed 

By female usurpation^ nor dismayed- 
But had we best retire? J see a siorm. 
SiiT}}f. F:iir days have oft contracted wind and rain. 
Cftor, But this another kind of tempesi brings. 
Sutnj^ Be less abstruse; my riddling days are past^ 
Chor, Look now tor no inchantin^ voice, nor fear 

The bait of honeyed words; a rougher tongue 

Draws hitherward; 1 know him by his stride^ 

The giant Harapha of Gaih, his look 

Haughty, as is his pile high-built and proud^ 

Comes he in peaceP What wind haih blown him hither 

I less con}ecture rhan when first I saw 

The sumptuous DaUla floating this way: 

His habit carries peace, his brow defiance. 
5fl?Mj", Or peace or not, alike to me he comes* 
Chor, His fraught we soon shall know; he now arrives, 
Har, 1 come not, Samson^ to condole thy chance, 
As these perhaps^ yet wish it had not bcen^ 

Though for no friendly intent. 1 am of Gath; 
Men call me Harapha, of stock renowned 
As Og, or Anak^ and the Emims o]d 
That KiriathaJm heldn Thou know^st me now. 
If ihou at all art known. Much I have heard 
Of thy prodigious might and feats performed^ 
Incredible to me^ in this displeased, 


Thai I was never present on the place 
Of choae encounters, where we might have tried 
E3ch other's force in camp or listed Held; 
And now am come to see ot whom such noise 
Hath walked alKiij[* and each limb to survey, 
If thy appearance answer loud report. 

Sarnf. The way to know were not to see, but taste. 

Hat: Dost thou already single me^ I thought 
Gyves and the milt had tamed ihee, O chat fortune 
Had brought me to the field where thou art famed 
To have wrought 5uch wonders with an ass's jaw! 
I should have forced thee soon with other arms, 
Or Jelt ihy carcass where the ass lay thrown; 
So had the glory of prowess been recovered 
To Palestine, won by a Philistine 
From the unforeskinned race^ of whom iSiou bear'sE 
The highest name for valiant acts. Thai honour, 
Certain to have won by mortal duel from thee, 
I lose, prevented by thy eyes put out. 

Sums. Boasc not of what thou would'st ha^'c done, 
but do 
What then thou would'st; thou seeat it in thy hand. 

Har. To combat with a blind man I disdain, 
And thou haac need much washing to be touched. 

Sams. Such usage as your honourable Lords 
Afford me, assassinated and betrayed; 
Who durst not with their whole united powers 
In fight withstand me single and unarmed, 
Not in the house with chamber-ambushes 
Close-banded durst attack me, no, not sleeping, 
Till they had hired a woman with their gold. 
Breaking her marriage-faith, to circumvent me- 
Therefore, without feign'd ihifis, let be assigned 
Some narrow place enclosed, where sight may give thee. 
Or rather flight, no great advantage on me; 
Then put on all thy gorgeous arms, thy helmet 
And brigandine of brass, thy broad habergeon, 
Vanl-brass and greaves and gauntlet; add thy spear, 
A weaver*s beam, and seven-times-folded shield: 
I only with an oaken staft will meet thee. 



And raise such outi:rfes on ihy clattered iron. 
Which long shall not withhold me from thy head, 
That in a little time, while breath remains ihtt, 
Thou oft ihjit wish thyself at Gath. to boast 
Agam in satiety what thou would'sE have done 
To Samson, but shalt never sec Ga[h more, 

Har. Thou durst not thus disparage glorious arms 
Which greatest heroes have in battel worn. 
Their ornament and safety, had not spelU 
And black, inchanrments, some magician's art. 
Armed thee or charmed thee strong, whitli thou from 

Feign'dst ai thy birth was given thee in thy hair. 
Where strength can least abide, though all thy hairs 
Were bristles ranged like those that ridge the baok. 
Of chafed wild boars or rufi7ed porcupines. 

SamS' I know no spells, use no forbidden arts; 
My trust i$ in the Living God, who gave me^ 
Af my nativity, this strength, diffused 
No less through all my sinews, jomts, and bones. 
Than thine, while I preserved these locks unshorn, 
The pledge of my unviolated vow. 
For proof hereof^ if Dagon be thy god. 
Go to his temple, invocate his aid 
With solemnest devotion, spread before hinx 
How highly it concerns his glory now 
To frustrate and dissolve the^e magic ipells. 
Which I to be the power of Israel's God 
Avow, and challenge Dagon to the tesr, 
O/Tering to combat thee, his Champion bold, 
With the utmost of his godhead seconded; 
Then ihou shalt see, or rather la thy sorrow 
Soon feel* whose God is sfiongesi, thine or mine. 

Mar\ Presume not on thy God, Whate'er he be, 
Thee he regards not, owns not, hath cut off 
Quite from his people, and delivered up 
Into thy enemies^ hand; permitted them 
To pui out both thine eyes, and fettered send thee 
Into the common prison, there to grind 
Among [he slaves and asses, thy comrades. 


As good for noihing else, no belter service 

With ihose thy boisterous locks; no worihy maich 

For valour to assal], nor by the sword 

Of noble warrior, so to stain his honour, 

But by the briber's razor best subdued. 

Sams^ All these indignitieSj for such they are 
jFrom thijiej these evils I deserve and more^ 
Acknowledge ihem from God inflicted on me 
Jusily, yen despair not of his final pardon^ 
Whosfl ear is ever opcn^ and his eye 
Gracious to re-admit the suppliant; 
In confidence whereof I once again 
Defy thee to the trial of mortal fight. 
By combat to decide whose god is God, 
Thine, or whom I with l$raers sons adore- 

llar. Fair honour that thou dost thy God^ in trusiing 
He will accept thee to defend his cause, 
A muftherer, a revolter, and a robber! 

Sams, Tongue-doughty giant, how dost thou prove 
me these? 

Harn Is not ihy nation subject lo our Lords? 
Th^]ir magistrates confessed it when they took ihee 
As a league-breaker^ and delivered bound 
Into our hands; for hadst thou not coraniitted 
Notorious muider on those thirty men 
At Ascalon, who never did thee harm^ 
Then, like a robber, siripp'dsi them of their robes? 
The Philistines^ when thou hadst broke ihe league. 
Went up with armed powers ihec only seeking, 
To others did no violence nor spoiL . ._ [ 

Sami* Among [he daughters of the Philisrines 
r chose a wife^ which argued me no foe^ 
And in your cily held my nuptial feast- l 

But your ill-meaning politician lords. 
Under pretence of bridal friends and guests^ 
Appointed to await me thirty spies^ 
Whoj threatening cruel dcath^ constrained ihe bride 
To wring from me, and tell to them^ my secret^ 
That solved the riddle which I had proposed. 
When I perceived all set on enmity. 






As on my enemiesj wherever chanced, 

I used lio&uliiy* and took iheir spoil, 

To pay my underminers in their coin^ 

My nation was sub}<^cied Co your lords! 

It was the force of conquest; force wiih force 

Is uel! ejected when the conquered z^n. 

Bui It a private person^ whom my country 

As 3 kaguc-brcaker gave up bound, presumed 

Single rcibelljDn, and did ho-Siile uctal 

1 was no privaie^ but a person raised, 

Wiih strength sufficient, and conin:^and from Heavenj 

To free my country. If thetr servile minds 

Mch their Deliverer sent, would nol receive^ 

But to their masters gave mc up for nought^ 

The unworthicr ihcy; whence to this day they serve- 

1 was to do my pare from Heaven assigned^ 

Ai^d had perlormed it if my known offence 

Had not di&abkd me, not all your force- 

These shifts refuiedp answer thy appellant, 

Though by his bhndncsa maimed ior high attempts, 

Who now defies thee thrice to single fight, 

As a petty enterprise of smaJl enforce. 

Harn Wiih rhte, a man condemned, a slave enrolled. 
Due bv the law to capital punishment? 
To fight with ihee no man of arms will deign. 

^tfjHfn Cam'st ihoTj for this, vain boaster, to survey 
To descant on my strength^ and pive thv verdict? 
Come nearer; part not hence so shght informed; 
liut take good heed my hand survey not thec- 

Ha^, O Baal'7-ebub! can my ears unused 
Hear these dishonours^ and not render death? 

Sams. No man withholds thee; nothing from thy 
Fear I incurable; bring up thy van; 
My heels are fettered, but my fist is free, 

HtJf'. This insolence other kind of answer fits- 

Sami, Go, baflJed coward^ lest I run upon ihee, 
Though in these chains, bulk without spirit vasty 
And with one butlet lay thy structure low. 


Or swing thee rn the air, iKen dash thee down. 
To the hazard of thy brains and shattered sides. 

Htii\ By Astaroth, ere long thou shalt lenient 
These braveries^ in irons loaden on rhee. 

Choi: His Gianiship is gone somewhat crest-falleu, 
Stalking with less unconscionable strides, 
And lower looks, but in a sultry chafe. 

Sams. I dread him not, nor all his giani hrocKJ^ 
Thoui^h fame divulge him father of five sons, 
All ot gigantic size» Gohah chief, 

Chor. He will directly to the lords* I fear. 
And with malicious counsel stir them up 
Some way or other yet further to afflict ihee. 

Sams. He must allege some cause> and otTered iight 
Will not dare mention, lest a question rise 
Whether he durst accept the offer or not; 
And that he durst not plain enough appeared. 
Much morj? ai^lrciion ihan already felt 
They cannot well Impose, nor I sustain, 
\i they iiiiend advantage of my labours^ 
The work of many hand^, which earns my keeping, 
With no small profit daily to my owners. 
Bui come what will; my deadliest foe will prove 
My speediest friend, by death to rid me hence; 
The worst that he can give to me ihe best. 
Yet SQ it may fall qui> because their end 
Is hale, not help to me, it may with mine 
Draw their own ruin who attempt the deed. 

Ckay. O, how comely jt is, and how reviving 
To the spirits of jusi men long oppreasedj 
When Cod into the hands of their deliverer 
Puts invincible might, 

To quell tfie mighty oE the earth, the oppressor. 
The brute and boisterous force of violent men. 
Hardy and industrious to support 
Tyrannic power, but raging to pursue 
The righteous, and all such as honour truths 
He all their ammunition 
And feats of war defeats. 
With plain heroic magnitude of mind 


And celestial vigour armeJ; 

Their armouries nnd magazins cnniemns, 

Renders ihcm useless, while 

With winged cypeiiition 

Swift as the hghtning glance he executes 

His errand on the wicked * who, surprised, 

Lose their defence, distracted and ariiared. 
But patience is more oft the exercise 

Of saints, thi^ trial of their lortilude, 

Makitij; them each his own ddiverer. 

And victor over all 

Thj! tyranny or fortune can inflict- 
Either of these is in thy lot, 

Samson* with might endued 

Above the sons of men; but sight bereaved 

May chance to number thee with those 

Whom Patience fmallv must crown. 

. This Idol's day hnth been to thee no day oi rest. 

Labouring thy mind 

More than ihe working day thy hand^. 

And yet, perhaps, more trouble is behind; 

Foe [ descry this way 

Some other tending; in his hand 

A sceptre or quaint sialf he bears, 

Comes on amain, speed m his !ook. 

By his habit I discern him now 

A public officer, and now at haiid- 

His message will be short and voluble. 

Off. Ebrews, the prisoner Samson here I seek, 
C^or. His manacles remark him; there he aits. 
Off. Samson, to thee our Lords thus bid me say; 

This day to Dagon is a solemn teait, 

With sacrifices, triumph, pomp, and games: 

Tby stren^'th they know surpassing human rate, 

And now some public proof thereof require 

To honour this great feast, and great assembly. 

Rise, therefore, with all speed, and come along. 

Where I will see thee heartened and fresh clad. 

To appear as fits before the illustrious Lords. them] 

Sami. Thou know'sc 1 am an Ebrew; therefore teLl 


Our law forbids at their religious liics 
My presence; £or that cause J cannot come. 

0§. This answer, bt assured, will not content them. 

Sams. Have they not sword-players, ami every sort 
Of gymnic artists, wrestlers, riders, runners, 
jugglers and dancers, antics, mummers, mimics, 
But ihey must pick me out, wiiti shackles tired, 
And over-laboured at their public mill, 
To make them sport wiih blind activity? 
Do they not seek occasion of new quarrels, 
On my refusal, to distress me more, 
Or make a game of my calanaities? 
Return the way ihou cim'st; I will nor come. 

Of?. Regard thyself; this will offend tiiem hijshly. 

Saws. Myself! my consciL?nce, and internal pence. 
Can they think me so broken, so debased 
With corporal servitude, that my min<l ever 
Will condescend to such absurd commands? 
Although their drudge, to he iheir fool or jester, 
And, in my midst of sorrow and heail-griet. 
To shew ihem feats, and play before their god — 
The worst of all indignities, yet on me 
Joined with extreme contempt! I will not come. 

Off. My message was imposed on me with speed, 
Brooks no delay; is this thy resolution? 

Sams. So take it with what speed ihy message needs. 

0^. [ am sorry what this stoutness will produce. 

Sams. Perhaps thou shaU have cause to sorrow indeed- 

Choi: Consider, Samwn; mailers now are strained 
Up to the highth. whether to hold or break. 
He's gone and who knows how he may report 
Thy words by adding fuel to the flame? 
E It peel another message, more imperious, 
^lore lordly thundering than thou well wilt bear. 

Sams. Shall I abuse this consecrated gift 
Of strength, again returning wiih my fiair 
After my great transgression — so requite 
Favour renewed, and add a greater sin 
By prostituting holy things lo idols, 
A Nazarite^ in place abominable. 


\'auntrng my strenglh in honour to iheir Djgon? 
Besides hoiv vije, conicmpiible^ ridiculous, 
\Vha[ aci more execrably unclean, profani?? 

Choi, Yet wiih ill is siicngth iliou 5crv*si ihe 
Tdolyirou^, uncircumdscd^ unclean. 

i'ffwjj. Nol in their idol- worship, but by Ubour 
Honest and lawful to deserve my food 
Of tliGsu who have mc in their civil power. 

Chor. Where tlic heart joins not» ouiw:ird acts 
, defile not, 

Sams. Where outward force constr^iins, the scnttjiici: 

Rut who con^trji'ns ine to the temple of Dagon, 

Not drag;;ing? The Philistian Lords command: 

Commands are no constrainis. If 1 obev them, 

I do it freely, veniurinj- to displease 

Cod for the ftiar of Mai], and Man pri?ri^r, 

Set CioJ behind; which, in his jenlousy. 

Shall never, utirepenled, find fori^ivcness. 

Yet that he may dispens<? with nic, or thee» 

Presoni in temples at adolatrous rites 

For some imporiant cause, thou neeii'st not douht- 

Chor. How thou will here come off surmounts my 

Sum), Be of good courage; I begin 10 feel 
Some rousing motions in me, which dispose 
To someibing extraordinary in my thoughts, 
I uiih this messenger will go alonq; — - 
Nothing to do, be sure, that may dishonour 
Our La\r» or stain my vow of Nazarite. 
\i there be aught of presage in the mind, 
Thi:^ day will be remarksblc in my life 
By some great act, or of my days the last. 

Ch^y, In time thou hasi resolved: the man returns. 

0§. Samson, this second message from our Lords 
To thee I am bid say: Art thou our slave. 
Our captive* A\ the public mill our drudge. 
And dar'st thou, at our senJing and command^ 
Dispute [hy coming? Gome without delay; 


Or we 5h.iU find such engines to a$sail 

And hamper ihec, as thou shah come of force, 

Though thou were fiimlicr fastened than a rock. 

^ams. I could he well concent to try their an, 
Which 10 no tew at them would prove pernicious; 
Yet, knowing their advantages loo many, 
Because they shall not trail me through their streets 
Lfke a wild beaai, I am content to go. 
Mailers* commands come with a power resistless 
To such as owe them absolute sub^cctio^■ 
And for a ]ife who will not change his purpose? 
(So muiable are all the ways of men!) 
Yet this be sure, in nothing lo comply 
Scandalous or forbidden in our Law. 

00. I praise thy resolution. Dof? ihcsc links: 
By ihis compliance thou wilt win the Lords 
To favour, and perhaps to set thee free. 

Sams^ Brelhrenj farewell. Your compny along 
J will not wish, lest it perhaps oRend them 
To see me girt with friends; and ho^v the sight 
Of me, as of a common enemy, 
So dreaded once, may now exasperate them 
1 know not. Lords are lordliest in their wine; 
And the well-feasted prksE then scwnest fired 
With zeal, if aught religion seem concerned; 
No less the people* on their holy days, 
Jmpetuaui, insolent, im quench able. 
Happen what may^ of me expect to hear 
Nothing dishonourable, impure, unworiby 
Our God, our Law* my nation, or myself^ 
The last of me or no I cannot warrant. 

Chor. Go, and the Holy One 
Of Jsrac] be thy guide 

To what may serve his glory best, and spread his name 
Great among the Heathen round- 
Send thee the Angel of thy birth, to stand 
Fast by thy side, who from thy father's field 
Rode up in flames after his message told 
Of rby conception, and be now a shield 
Of fire; that Spirit thai first rushed on thee 


In the camp of Dan, 
Be efficacious in thee now at need! 
For never was from Heaven imparted 
Measure of sireni^lh so great to mortal seed, 
As in ihy wondrous actions hath befn si^en. 
Bui ^^'hereforc comes old Manoa in such haste 
With youthful steps? Much Hveher ihan erewhile 
He seems: supposing here to find his son, 
Or of him bringing to us some glad newsP 

Aiai7. Peace with you, biethrcnl My inducement 
Was not at present here to find my son, 
By order of the Lords new parted hence 
To come and play before them at their feast. 
I heard all as 1 came; the city rings, 
And numbers thither flock: I had no will. 
Lest I should see him forced to things unseemly. 
But that which moved my coming now was chiefly 
To j-ive ye pan wiih me what hope I have 
Wilh good success to work his liberty. 

Chor^ That hope would much rejoice us to partake 
With thee- Say. reverend sire; we ibirst to hear. 

MflR, 1 have attempted, one by one, the Lords, 
Either at home» or through the high street passing, 
Wilh suppticiiiion prone and father's Eears, 
To accep[ of ransom for my son. their prisoner. 
Some much averse I founds and wondrous harsh, 
Contemptuous, proud, set on revenge and spite; 
That part most reverencetT Dagon and his priesis; 
Others more moderate seeming, bui their aim 
Pri^aie reward, for i^'hich both God and State 
They easily would set to sale: a third 
More generous far and civil, who confessed 
They had enough revenged, having reduced 
Their foe to misery beneath their fearsj 
The rest was magnanimity to remit, 
If some convenient ransom were proposed. 
What noise or shoai was that? It tore the sky. 

Chor, Doubdess the people shouting to behold 
Their once great dread, captive and blind before them, 



Or at some proof of strength before them shown, 

Man. His ransom^ if my whole mheritance 
May compass it, shaU wilhngly be paid 
And numbered down* Much rather I shall choose 
To live the poorest in my Iribe^ than richest 
And he in that calamitous prtson left* 
No, I am fixed not to part hence without him* 
For his redemption all my patrimony, 
li need be, I am ready to forgo 
And quit- Not wanting him, 1 shall want nothing, 
CAor, Fathers are woni to lay up for their sons; 
Thou for thy son art bent la lay out all; 
Sons wont to nurse their parents in old age; 
Thou in old age car'st how to nurse thy 5on^ 
Made oWer than thy age through eye-sight lost- 
Man, it shall be my delight to tend his eycs^ 
And view him sitting in his house^ ennobled 
With all those high exploits bv him achievedi 
And on his shoulders waving down those locks 
That of a nation armed the strength contained. 
And I persuade me God haih not permitted 
His strength again to grow up with his hair 
Garrisoned round about him like a camp 
Of faithful soldiery^ were not his pur|">ose 
To use hirn further yel in some great service — ^ 
Not CO sir idle with so great a gift 
Useless^ and thence ridiculous, about him. 
And^ since his strength with eye-sight was not IqsI> 
God will restore him eye-sight to his strength* 

C/toi. Thy hopes are not ill founded^ nor seem vain, 
Of his delivery, and thy joy thereon 
Conceived, agreeable to a father's love; 
In both which we, as neici^ participate, 
Mtfff. I know your friendly minds, and , , , O^ what 
Mercy of Heaven! what hidpous noise was that? 
Horribly loud^ unlike the f&rmer shout- 

Chor, Noise call you it, or universal groan, 
As if the whole inhabitation perished P 
Blood, death, and deathful deedsj are in that nois^j 


Rum, desiruciion at the ulmosl point. 

Man. Of ruin indeed mcihought I heard the noise. 
OhI It continues; ihey have slain my son^ 

Cfior- Thy son is rather slaying them: that outcry 
From slaughicr of one foe could not ascend. 

Man. Some dismal accident it needs must he. 
Whai siifll! we do — stay here, or run and see? 

Char- Best keep together hefe^ le&r, running; thither, 
We unawares^ run info danger^s mouth. 
This evil on the Philistines is fallen: 
From whom could else a general cry be heard? 
Tile sufferers, then, will scarce molest us here; 
From oihcr hands we need not much to fear. 
What if^ his eye-sight (for to Israel's God 
Nothing \s hard) by miracle restored. 
He now be dealing dole among his foes, 
And over heaps of slaughtered walk his way? 

Mai- That were a joy piesumptuous 10 be thought. 

Choi- Yet God hath wrought things as incredible 
For his people of old; what hinders now? 

Man- He can, I know, bui doubt lo think he will; 
Vet hope would fain subscribe, and tempts belief, 
A little stay will bring some notice hither. 

Choy. Of good or bad so great, of bad ihe sooner; 
For evil news rides post, while good news baits. 
And to our wish I see one hither speedmg — 
An Ebrcw, as I gue«, and of our tribe. 

Messenger. O, whither shall I run. or which way fly 
The sight of this so horrid spectacle. 
Which erst my eyes beheld, and yet behold? 
For dire imagination still pursues me. 
Sut providence or instinct' of nature seems. 
Or reason, though disturbed and scarce consulted. 
To have guided me aright, I know noi how, 
To thee first, reverend Manoa, and to these 
My countrymen, whom here I knew remaining^ 
As at some distance from the place of horror, 
So in eHc sad event too much concerned. 

Man. The accident was loud, and here before ihee 
With rueful cry; yet ivhat ii was we hear not. 


No preface needs; ihou seest we long to know^ 

MeiS* h would burst forfh; but I recover breathj 
And sense disiract, to know well wh&c I utter. 

Man, Tell u5 the sum- the circuniEtauce defer. 

Mess^ Gaza yet stands; but al! her sans are fallen, 
All in a moment overwhelmed and fallen, 

A/cff. Sadf but thou know'st to Israelites not saddest 
The desola[jon of a hostile city, 

Mai. Feed oo that first; there may in grief be surfeit, 

iWflff, Relate by whom* 

A/«j, By Samson- 

Man, That still lessens 

The itirroWj and converts it nigh to joy, 

Mess, Ah! Manoa, I retrain too suddenly 
To usicr whai will come at last too soon. 
Lest evil tidings^ with too rude irruption 
Hitiifig thy aged ear, should pierce too deep. 

A/jw. Suspense in news is torture; speak them out. 

A/fjin Then lake the worst in brief: Samson is dead. 

A/<jn. The w^jrsi indeed! O^ al! my iiope's defeated 
To free him hence! but Death, who sets all free. 
Hath paid his ransom now and full discharge, 
Whac windy joy this day had I conceived, 
Hopeful of his delivery, which now proves 
Abortive as the hrst-born bloom of spring 
Nipt with the layging rear of winter's frost^ 
Yet^ ere I give the reins to griefp liay first 
How died he; death to life is crown or shame- 
All by him fell, thou say'st; by whom fell heP 
What glorious hand gave Samson his deaUi's wound? 

Mess- Unwounded of his enemies he fell. 

Man, Wearied with slaughter^ then, or how.^ explain. 

Mess, Ky his own hands- 

M^n. Self-violence! What cause 

Brought him so soon at variance with himself 
Among hii foes? 

Mess. Inevitable cause — 

At once both to destroy and be destroyed^ 
The edifice, whore all were met to see him, 
Upon iheir heads and on his own he puUed- 


Mar^. O Listly over-sirong against thysd£I 
A dreadful way thou took'sE lo ihy revenge. 
More than enough we know; bui, while things yei 
Are in con^TJsioris j;]Ve us, if thou canst^ 
Eyt'Wttness of what (irsi or UaI was done^ 
Relation more j^rticular and <Ii3tincr. 

M^ss. Occasions drew mc early to this ciiy; 
Andj as the gales I entered wich sun-fisej 
The morning trumpets tesiival piocUiimeci 
Through each high street. Little I had dispatched^ 
When all abroad was rumoured that this day 
Samson should be brotitihi forih, to $h[^w tht pt-ople 
Proof of his iniphiy ^Tren^th in fcais and gamcii, 
i borroueJ at his captive state, but minded 
Noi lo l>e absent at that spectacle- 
The building was a spacious theatre ^ 
Half round on two main pillars vaulted high, 
Wiih seats where alL the Lords^ and each degree 
Of sort, might sit in order to behold; 
The other side was opertj where ihe chrang 
On banks and scaffolds under sky might siand: 
I among these aloof obscurely stood. 
The feasi and noon grew hijjh, and sacrifice 
Had filled iheir hciirts wiih mirth, high cheer, and wine, 
When Eo their sports ihey turned. In^mediatelv 
Was Samson as a public servant broughip 
in their state Uverv cUd: before him pipes 
And limbreU; on each side went armed guards; 
Boih horse and foot before hin^ and behind, 
Archers and slingers^ caEaphracE-'>t and spears. 
At sight of him ihe people wich a shouL 
Rifred ihe air, clamouring (heir god with praise, 
Who had made their drcadfu] enemy^ their ihrc^fk 
He patient, but undaunied, where ihey led him. 
Came to xhe place; and what was set before htm^ 
Which without help of eye might be assayed^ 
To heave, pull, draw, or break, he still performed 
All with incredible, slupendious force. 
None diifing to appear aniagonist. 
A[ length, for iniermission sake^ they led him 



Between the pillars; he his guide requested 

(For so from such as nearer stcod we heard), 

As over-tired, to let him lean a while 

With both his arms on those two massy pillars^ 

That to the archM roof gave main suppoft. 

He unsuspicious led him; which when Samson 

Fdt in his arms, with head a while enclined, 

And eyes tiisl fixed, he stood, as one who prayed. 

Or some great mailer in his mind revolved: 

A: lasE, wiEh hesd erect, thus cried aloud: — - 

'^Hitherto, Lords, what your commands imposed 

I have performed, as reason was, obeying. 

Not wuhoul wonder or dehghi beheld; 

Now, of my own accord, such other trial 

I mean to shew you of my strength yet greater 

As with ^imaze shall strike all who behold/' 

This uttered, straining all his nerves, he bowed; 

As with the force of winds and waters pent 

When mountains tremble, those two massy pillars 

Wuh horrible convulsion to and fro 

He tugged, he shook, till down they came, and drew 

The whole roof after them with burst of thunder 

Upon the heads of all who sai beneath, 

Lords, ladies, captains, counsellors, or priests. 

Their choice nobility and flower, not only 

Of this, but each Philistian city round, 

Met from all |Jar[s to solemnize this (east. 

Samson, with these immixed, inevitably 

Pulled down the same destruction on himself; 

The vulgar only scaped, who stood wiihaut- 

Chor. O dearly bought revenge, yet glorious! 
Living or dying thou hjs fulfilled 
The work for which thou wast foretold 
To Israel, and now licst victorious 
Among thy slain self-kiiled; 
Not willingly* buE tangled in the fold 
Of dire Necessity, whose law in death conjoined 
Thee with thy slaughtered foes, in number more 
Than all thy lite had slain before. 

Semichor. While their hearts were jocund and 


Drunk with idolatry^ drunk with wine 

And fat regorged ot bulU and goats^ 

Chaunting ihdr idol^ and preferring 

Before our Living Dreads who dwelJs 

In SilOj his brighi sanctuary. 

Among ihem ht a spirit of phrenzy senij 

Who hurt their minds. 

And urged ihcm on with mad desire 

To caU in haste for their desiroyer- 

They, only set on sport and play, 

Unweetingly importuned 

Their own destruction [o come speedy upon them- 

So fond are morial men, 

Fallen into wraih divine, 

As iheiT own ruin on themselves to invite^ 

In^nsate kft^ or to sense rtprobatCs 

And with blindness internal struck. 

Senficho^, Bui he, though blind of iightj 
Despisedj and [bought extinjiuished qo'it^^ 
Wiih inward eyes illuminalcdj 
His iiery virtue roused 
From under ashes into sudden flamc^ 
And as an tvening Dragon camej 
Assailant on ihe percb^ roosis 
And nesis in order ranged 
Of tame villatic fowl, but as an Eagle 
His cloudless thunder bolted on their heads* 
So Virtue, given for lost, 
Depressed and overthrown^ as seemed^ 
Like that self-begotten bird 
In the Arabian woods cmbost, 
That no second knows nor third, 
And lay erewhile a holocaust. 
From out her ashy womb now teemed, 
Revives, reHourisheSj then vigorous most 
When most unactive deemed^ 
And^ though her body die, her fame survives. 
A secular bird, ages of lives. 

A/ffW. Comej come; no time for lamentation now. 
Nor much more cause. Samson hath quit himself 
Like Samson ^ and heroicly huth finithed 


A life heroic, on his enemies 

Fully revenged — hath left them years of mournings 
And bmentaiion ia the sons of Caphlor 
Through all Philiitian bounds; lo Israel 
Honour hath left and frecdotrtp let bul fhem 
Find courage to Uy hold on this occastoii; 
To himself and father's house eternal fame; 
Andj whkh is best and happiest yer^ all this 
Witli God not parted from him, as was feared, 
But favouring aud assisting to the end- 
Nothing is here for tears, nothing to wail 
Or knock the breast; no wcakncsSj no contempt^ 
Dispraise, or blame; nothing but well and faiij 
And what may quiet us in a death so noble. 
LeE us go find the body where it lies 
Soaked m his enemies^ bloody and from the stream 
With lavers pure, and cleansing herbs, wash oil 
The dotted gore. I, with what speed ih^ while 
(Gaza is not in ph^ht to say us nav). 
Will send for all my kindrud^ all my friends^ 
To fetch him hencCp and solemnly attend, 
Wi[h silent obsequy and funeral train^ 
Home to his father'--^ house, Thece will I build him 
A monument, and planr it round with shade 
Of laurel ever green and branching palnif 
With all his trophies hung^ and acta enrolled 
In copious legend^ or sweet lyric ^ni^* 
Thither shall all the valiant youth resort, 
And from his memory inflame their breaiats 
To matchless valaur and adventures high; 
The virgins also shall, on feasiful days^ 
Visit his tomb with flowers, only bewailing 
His lot unfortunate in nuptial choice. 
From whence captivity and loss of eyes. 
Chor. Ail is best, though we oft doubt 
What the unsearchable dispost? 
Of Highest Wisdom brings about^ 
And ever best found in the close* 
Oft He seems lo hide his face, 
But unexpectedly returns, 


And ro hi? faichful Champion hath in place 

Bore witness gloriously; whence Gaza mouros, 

And all ihat band them to resist 

His uncontrollablf intent. 

His servants He, with new acquis! 

Of true experience from this great event. 

With peace and consolation !iath dismissed, 

And catm of mind, ;ill passion sptnu 

901 lai 


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